Site icon Random Scottish History

David II. (1331-1370), King of Scotland, Updated, pp.104-124.


The 8th day of December, 1331, David, about the 8th year of his age, is solemnly crowned and anointed at Scone, by James Bane: [Arch]bishop of St. Andrews, having received order to do so, by a bull of Pope John XXII. This day, the young King, amongst others, knighted John Stewart, Earl of Angus, and Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray’s, son Earl Thomas, the worthy Governor.

In the beginning of this same year, after the death of the Governor, the Earl of Moray, Domhnall, Earl of Mar, was chosen to be Governor of Scotland.



The battle of Dupplin [Moor], fought this year, [August,] 1332, between the Governor, Domhnall, Earl of Mar, and Edward Balliol, David Comyn, Earl of Atholl, Henry de Beaumont, with their Scottish and English adherents, wherein the Governor was killed, his army routed, and with him Thomas Randolph, the young Earl of Moray, Muireadhach, Earl of Menteith, Robert Bruce, the bastard son of King Robert I., and Sir Alexander Fraser [of Cowie]; Donnchadh, Earl of Fife, was at this battle taken prisoner.

Immediately after [the] Dupplin [Moor] battle, Edward Balliol, with his adherents and army, where he caused himself to be crowned by his two prisoners, Donnchadh, Earl of Fife, and William Sinclair, the stout Bishop of Dunkeld, at Scone, this same year.

This same year, after that unhappy battle at Dupplin, King David, now aged 9, not able to remain in Scotland, from the machinations of his enemies; still one trick or [an]other was in hand to put him off [his] way, since [by] his years [he] was not fit for government; therefore, by the advice of his best friends, Sir Andrew Murray is established Governor, and the young King, with his trusty friend Sir Malcolm Fleming [Earl of Wigton], captain of the castle of Dumbarton, Rankine Moor, and the Queen, take ships [on the] Clyde, and sails directly to France, where [they were] kindly welcomed by the French King[, Philip VI].



This year, 1333, the estates fearing the malice and fraud of King Edward III. of England, committed the custody of Berwick Castle to Patrick [de Dunbar], Earl of March, and the town to Sir Alexander [de] Seton. This same year, in Annandale [Battle of Dornock], was William Douglas [Flower of Chivalry], Lord of Liddesdale, taken by the English, who kept him prisoner [for] 2 years, and then set him at liberty.

The 14th day of August, this year, was fought the unfortunate battle at Halidon Hill, wherein many Scots perished, and Andrew [Murray], the Governor, was taken prisoner.



This year, [Sir] Archibald [Douglas], [who’s son was 1st] Earl of Douglas, made Governor.

Edward Balliol, this year, 1334, gave David [de Strathbogie], Earl of Atholl, an infeftment of all the lands belonging to the Great Steward of Scotland, at Renfrew; he made, likewise, Sir Alan Lyle, Sheriff of [Cowal] and Bute, and Chamberlain of Scotland.



This year, 1335, Edward III. of England, and Edward Balliol, entered Scotland, this year, as far as Glasgow, and made David, Earl of Atholl, Governor of Scotland for them.

This year was the battle of the Boroughmuir, fought between John [Randolph], Earl of Murray, the Governor, and the Duke of Gelders [Guy, Count of Namur], general of the English army, wherein the Duke was taken, and in effect all his army either killed or taken prisoner.



In this turbulent time, Sir Alexander Ramsay, Sir Laurence [de] Preston, Sir John Herring, and Sir John Haliburton, knights, stood firmly for the maintenance of King David’s right, and followed John [Randolph], Earl of Moray, the Governor.

This year, John, Earl of Moray, the Governor, and [the Good Sir] James Douglas, brother to the Lord Liddesdale are taken prisoner by the English, and Sir Andrew Murray again made Governor.

This year was the battle of Culblean fought between Sir Andrew Murray, the Governor and David [de Strathbogie], Earl of Atholl,* wherein David was killed, with Sir Robert Bradie, and Sir Walter Comyn; and Sir Thomas Comyn being taken, his head was presently chopped off, and 3000 of his army lay dead on the place.



After the unfortunate battle of Halidon Hill, as I formerly said, the English get many of the chief holds and strengths of Scotland in their hands, except Dumbarton, kept by Sir Malcolm Fleming [Earl of Wigton]; Lochleven, kept by Sir Alan [de] Vipont; Kildrummy, kept by Christina Bruce; Urquhart, by Sir Thomas Lundin [Earl of Huntly]; [Loch Doon], or the Poeile, in East Lothian, kept by John Townes.

This year the tenants of the Stewart’s lands [rise up] in arms, and spoils all the lands belonging to any of the name of Comyn or their allies.



This year, 1338, [Sir] Andrew Murray, the Governor, after the siege of Edinburgh Castle, being infirm and sickly, departed to his north country lands, and departed this life at his castle of [Avoch], and was interred at Rosemarkie [later interred with Bruce at Dunfermline]; he was Governor [for] 2 years and 6 months. After whose death, Robert Stewart [future King Robert II], the King’s nephew, was made Governor till King David’s return.



The Governor, Robert Stewart, Uilleam, Earl of Ross, Patrick [de Dunbar], Earl of March, and Maurice de Moravia, Lord of Clydesdale, and William Keith of Galston, takes the town of Perth from the English, and shortly loses it again, in 1339.



In the year 1341, John, Earl of Moray, the Governor, returns home to Scotland from the English captivity, being exchanged by the French King [Philip VI] with William Montagu, Earl of Salisbury, taken in France but lately before. And this same year, in June, King David and his Queen, arrive safely from France, at Inverbervie [south of Aberdeen].

This year, 1341, James and Simon Fraser, with Robert Keith, and their followers, took the town of Perth, and in it Donnchadh, Earl of Fife, Governor of the same for Edward Balliol, with his countess and son; in it was taken Andrew Murray of Tullibardine, and their condemned as a false traitor to his prince, King David, and his native country, as [the] Dupplin [Moor] battle could witness; they levelled the walls with the ground. This year, also, King David and his Queen, from France, 2nd of June, returned.



The 17th day of [December, 1332], John Randolph, Earl of Moray, [Sir] Archibald Douglas, brother to noble Sir James, and Simon Fraser, with 1000 men, overthrew Edward Balliol and his whole army, in a battle near the town of Irvine. In it he liberated Alexander Bruce [died at Halidon Hill], Earl of Carrick and Galloway, whom Edward had constrained to follow him at Annan. In this conflict, Edward Balliol himself escaped by flight; yet he left dead on the place 1500 common soldiers, with Sir John Mowbray, Sir Walter [& Thomas] Comyn, and Sir Richard Kirby, knights, in 1342.

This year, also, [Sir William] Bullock, who first was chaplain to Edward Balliol, and by him made his chamberlain, and thereafter became counsellor to King David II. by whom he was advanced to be Great [Lord High] Chamberlain of Scotland, was, after the said King’s return, accused of treason, for that, in the King’s absence in France, he had twist [lacuna]



In the year 1343, the 14th day of May, King David convened the whole estates of his kingdom at Inchmurdoch, of whom he exacted a particular oath of homage and fidelity, under a certain form set down in writing; and [as an] example to all others his subjects, he made his own nephew, Robert Stewart, Earl of Strathearn, first of all take the said oath on the holy Evangelicals, which is by Fordun set down word by word.



About the end of February, 1344, died John [de Pilmuir], Bishop of Moray; in whose place was elected Mr Alexander Bur, doctor of the canon law, and a canon of the cathedral church of Elgin.



In the year 1345, Joanna [I.], Queen of Naples, having wickedly strangled her husband, Andrew, of the blood royal of Hungary, she immediately thereafter marries Louis, son to the Prince of Taranto, a brave young gallant.

This same year, the war is renewed between the English and French in Gascony, Normandy and Flanders.



This year, 1346, [Uilleam] the Earl of Ross, under silence, caused murder Ronald [MacRuaidhrí], Lord of the Isles, near the priory of Elcho, in Strathearn.

This year was fought in the battle of Durham [Battle of Neville’s Cross], in England, wherein many of the Scottish nobility perished, and King David himself was taken prisoner. There were killed in this unfortunate battle,

John [Randolph], Earl of Moray,

[Maurice de Moravia], Earl of Strathearn,

[David de la] Hay, Great Constable of Scotland,

[Robert] Keith, Great Marischal of Scotland,

[Sir Thomas Charteris], Lord Chancellor,

[John of Roxburgh], Lord Chamberlain,

Sir David Lindsay [of Crawford], the younger,

Sir Roger Cameron,

Sir Gilbert [de Carrick],

Sir William Fraser [of Cowie],

Sir Andrew Buttergask,

Sir John de Bonville,

Sir Michael Scott, [Lord of Rankilburn],

with diverse others; and there were taken prisoners with the King, at this time, men of mark and quality.

[Donnchadh], The Earl of Fife,

[William de Moravia], Earl of Sutherland,

Malcolm Fleming, the 1st Earl of Wigton,

[John Graham], Earl of Menteith,

Sir William Douglas, [Lord of Liddesdale],

Sir Walter Halyburton [of Dirleton],

and many others of the nobility and gentry.



In the year 1347, William Douglas, who was the first Earl of Douglas, returned this year out of France.

This same year died the [Holy Roman] Emperor Louis [IV.], of Bavaria, the 11th day of October, by a fall from his horse in [bear] hunting. [Johannes] Nauclerus, [Johannes] Aventinus and Cuspiman [authors], call him the last of all the Roman Emperors that dare wage war against the Pope and his Cardinals.

The sect of Flagellants [are] first known to the world this year, but shortly thereafter condemned by the Pope.



The beginning of March this year, 1348, by the Pope’s mediation, there was a peace concluded between [the] English and French.

Louis [I.], King of Hungary, this year, also, the brother of Andrew [Duke of Calabria], late King of Naples, murdered by his Queen, enters Naples by force of arms, and expels Queen Joanna [I.], that lewd and licentious Princess. She flees to Avignon, in Provance, and there shelters herself under St. Peter’s keys, with the Pope, as old a bawdy as she was an adulteress.



In the year 1349, Humbert [II.], Prince of Dauphiné, leaves his principality to the eldest son of the crown of France for ever, with this special condition and caveat, that the said eldest son of France should forever carry the title of Dauphin of Viennois, which is the chief town of this province, with the arms of the same, which they do to this day.

About the same time dies that sworn enemy to the Christian name and republic, Orhan, King of the Turks; and to him succeeded his son Süleyman, or Solyman [died before Orhan leaving throne to Murad I.].



In the year 1350, Sir David Barclay [of Brechin], knight, was traitorously killed at Aberdeen, on [St. Timothy]‘s eve [25th of January], by John de St Michael and his accomplices, by the instigation (as was thought) of Sir William Douglas, then a prisoner in England, in revenge of his brother, John Douglas’, death, father to James Douglas of Dalkeith, whom the said Sir David Barclay caused [to] be killed at Howwood.

This year, John [II.]. King of France, institutes the order of knighthood called the Star. The badge was, to wear a star on their hat or shoulder, with this motto, –

King’s stars show the way.



The year, 1351, began the war between the Venetians and Genoese, which continued with various success almost 5 full years.

The English, this year, before the truce expired between the French and them, by a strategem, take the strong castle of Guînes.

This year, also, Charles [de la Cerda] of Spain, of the house of Castile, is created [Count] of Angoulême; and to him was given in marriage [Marguerite] the daughter of the [Count] of Blois. He was thereafter killed by [Charles II.] the King of Navarre, for some private quarrels amongst them.



In 1352, Murad [I.], having succeeded his brother Süleyman in the Turkish kingdom, transports the seat of his empire to Adrianople, in Europe, where he infests the Greek empire with continual war, to its daily loss.

The Genoese overthrow the Venetian fleet, this year, in a great battle at sea, near the city of Constantinople.

The 6th of December, this year, Pope Clement VI. departs this life at Avignon; and to him succeeds [Étienne Aubert], Cardinal of Ostia, a Limousin, by the name of Innocent VI.



The year 1353, died the Lady Matilda, King David’s sister, and was interred at Dunfermline. She was married to one Thomas Isaac, by whom she had 2 daughters. Joan, the eldest, was married to John, Lord of Lorne, and had a numerous [brood]. Catherine, the 2nd daughter, was not married, neither [had she] left any [children], and died at Stirling.

This same year, in August, was [Sir] William Douglas, Lord of Liddesdale, killed by his own cousin, William [Douglas], first Earl of Douglas, in Ettrick forest, near Galswood.



In this year, 1354, Edward Balliol, that usurper of the Scottish crown, being [reticent] of his own ability to possess the Scottish throne, whereunto he had, against all right, intruded himself, seeing these that formerly had partied and assisted him [to] daily make defection from him to King David II., resigns and [gives over] all right, be whatsoever title he could pretend, of the Scottish crown and kingdom, in favours of Edward III. of England.

The Venetians receive a notable overthrow this year, by sea, from the Genoese, near a promontory of Peloponnesia, wherein they lost 28 ships, and 35 trim galleys, with their general, Niccolo Pisani.



In the month of August, 1355, was fought the battle of Nesbit Moor, between the Scottish and English, wherein the English were totally routed, and many of them killed. The generals of the Scottish army were, Patrick [de Dunbar], Earl of March, and William Douglas, [first] Earl of Douglas. No man of quality was killed in this battle of the Scots, but Sir John Haliburton.

This year, also, Thomas Stewart, Earl of Angus, took the town of Berwick from the English, and gave the spoil to his soldiers. William [de] Tour was the first man that scaled the walls and entered the town, and with his own hands killed 8 or 9 of the English, amongst whom was the heir of Sir [Alexander] Ogle.

This year, likewise, King David was liberated from his imprisonment in England, and returned home. Immediately after whose return, John Stewart, Lord of Kyle, thereafter Earl of Carrick, and King of Scotland, son to Robert, Earl of Strathearn, then Regent of Scotland, defeated the English army in Annandale, and put all their garrisons there to the sword.



In this year 1356, Archibald [the Grim] Douglas, son to noble Sir James [the Good], killed by the Moors in Spain [in 1330], who afterwards was Lord of Galloway and Earl of Douglas, was taken, this year, by the English, with John [II.], King of France, in the battle of Poitiers; but by the means of Sir William Ramsay, of Colluthie, made his escape, and so freed himself of their hands.

This year, likewise, died the Lady Christina Bruce, the widow of Sir Andrew Murray, the famous Governor of Scotland, and sister to King Robert I., and was interred at Dunfermline.



This year, Queen Joan, by her husband King David’s permission, went to England, where she died, and never returned to Scotland.



This year, 1358, was very ominous to the French monarchy, being at this time much infested with intestine broils; for the Parisians, led by Étienne Marcel, effected the government of the realm, and the commons rising [up] in arms everywhere against their governors [the Jacquerie], [Charles II.] the King of Navarre was not ideal in acting of a part in this public tragedy; and the miseries of the realm were not lessened, by [Charles V.] the Dauphin’s proclaiming himself Regent of the realm, and having killed Marcel at the port of St. Antoine, enters the city of Paris.



This year, 1359, the truce between the English and French expires, and to arms again they go; amongst whom there was diverse battles and conflicts, the event often proving various. Yet the French had the best of it. The King of Navarre [Charles II.], this same year, leaves the English, and returns to the French obedience.

This year, Cologerius is created [Ecumenical] Patriarch of Constantinople, by the name of Kallistos [I.].



This year, 1360, brings forth a peace between the English and French; Edward [of Woodstock], the Black Prince, having cudgelled the French to what conditions [he] himself [was] pleased to propose. At last, by the mediation and good counsel of [Henry of Grosmont] the Duke of [Lancaster], especially, concludes it the 8th day of May, which peace was ratified and sworn at Calais, the 24th of October; and immediately is John [II.], King of France, released from the English captivity, and returns to Paris.



King Edward III., of England, this year, 1361, makes a law, that all civil pleadings before the chief courts of his realm of England, be done and performed in the English tongue, and not in the French and Norman tongues as formerly.

This year, also, John [V.] Palaiologos, the Greek Emperor, with the aid of Bulgarians and Turks, overruns and destroys all [of] Peloponnesia.

This same year, likewise, Casimir [III.], King of Poland, founds the university of Kraków.; and Kallistos, [Ecumenical] Patriarch of Constantinople, dies, and in his see, succeeds, by election, Philotheus [I.] (by some historians) called Philetus.



In this year, 1362, Philip [the Bold], Duke of Burgundy, being dead, to him succeeded John [the Fearless], King of France, as nearest heir, being descended from the Lady Joan, who was [direct aunt] to Duke Philip.

This year, also, died Pope Innocent [VI.], at Avignon, the 12th day of September; and to the Roman see was elected, [on] the 5th of November, Guillaume de Grimoard, abbot of St. Victor of Marseille, a [Toulousain], born in France; and was called Pope Urban V.



This year, 1363, Murad [I.], King of the Turks, by help of the ships of Genua, transports out of Asia into Greece 60000 men, well-armed under colour to invade [John V. Palaiologos] the Greek Emperor, but in effect to plant the chief cities, as Philippopolis and Adrianople; by which act he so curbed the Greek Emperor, that ever thereafter he scarce dare look abroad out of Constantinople; but was forced to become their tributary, to his perpetual shame, and the great detriment of the Christian commonwealth.

This same year, these discords between the [Holy Roman] Emperor Charles [IV.] and [Casimir III.] the King of Poland, are wisely composed by the Pope’s mediation.



This year, 1364, after the death of John [II.] the Magnanimous, King of France, his son Charles, the 5th of that name, called the Wise, was solemnly crowned at Rheims, the 19th day of May; he warred very fortunately at this time against his enemies the English, by his brothers and chief commanders; and whatever former neglect or evil fortune had lost or omitted, by his wisdom he providently foresaw and recovered.

By the Pope’s mediation, likewise, this year, a peace is concluded between the Florentines and Pisans [Battle of Cascina].



In this year, 1365, [Lorenzo] Celsi, [Doge] of Venice, departs this mortal life; and in his place is elected Marco Cornaro.

This year [Peter I.] the King of Cyprus wastes and destroys Alexandria, in Egypt, with fire and sword.

Louis [Duke of Anjou], the French King’s brother, this year, also, mediates a peace and concludes it, between the [Count] of [Montford], and the widow of the Earl of Blois [Jeanne de Penthièvre]; which peace did much avail [Charles V.] the French King’s affairs, having received the homage of [Montford] for the duchy of Brittany, at Paris.



In this year, 1366, the English war in France, which had some intermission, begins now to burst out in a violent rupture.

This year, also, Henry, [Count] of [Trastámara], the eldest of the 4 bastard brothers of Peter, King of Castile, by a concubine, Eleanor [de] Guzmán, enters in[to] a confederacy, this same time, with the Kings of Aragon [Peter IV.] and Navarre [Charles II.]; by whose auxiliary forces, and by the return of 12000 [Bertrand du Guesclin’s mercenaries] from France, he expels his brother Peter, King of Castile, (being hated by his subjects, and declared incapable of government by the Popes sentence) from his kingdom, and enthrones himself therein.



This year, 1367, makes a revolution of the Castilian affairs; for Peter, the late [discarded] King, aided by Edward [the Black], Prince of Wales, and a gallant English army, dethrones Henry, and again installs Peter in the kingdom; but Peter no sooner enthroned, but he flatly refuses to pay the Princes army, that which he had under his oath and seal conditioned them. The Prince returns to Gascony, and Henry, to be revenged of his brother, finding that he [had] become odious to the English, presently arrives, and fights a great battle against King Peter, his brother, whom in battle he killed, and overthrew his whole army; and so without any contradiction, possessed himself of the kingdom.



In this year, 1368, Charles [IV.], the [Holy Roman] Emperor, at the Pope [Urban V.]‘s solicitation, descends unto Italy, and with him his Empress [Elizabeth of Pomerania]. She was solemnly crowned at Rome: and after he had fined the Florentines first, then the Pisans, this same year he returns to Germany.

This year died Frederick [III.], named the Simple, King of Sicily, leaving one only daughter his heir.

This same year, likewise, dies Marco Cornaro, [Doge] of Venice; and in his place was elected Andrea Contarini.



This year, 1369, Charles [V.] the Wise, the French King, institutes the guard of 200 Scottish archers to attend his person day and night.

This same year, Pope Urban [V.] returned to Avignon, out [of] an earnest desire to compose the English war, which was at this time very hot in France.

This year, likewise, the principalities of Ferrara and Parma [Italy] took their beginnings; and Ludovico [II. Gonzaga], after the death of his father [Guido Gonzaga], succeeds him in the principality and duchy of Mantua.



In this year, 1370, King David II. departed this life, at his castle of Edinburgh, the 47th year of his age, and 39th of his reign; and was interred [within] the abbey church of Holycross, before the high altar, with great solemnity.


* Fordun on David de Strathbogie’s eradication of the freeholders on his land in 1335 – “But the great tyranny and cruelty this earl practised among the people words cannot bring within the mind’s grasp; some he disinherited, others he murdered: and in the end, he cast in his mind how he might wipe out the freeholders from the face of the earth.”
Exit mobile version