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Robert, Duke of Albany, Governor, Updated, pp.144-152.


IN the year 1406, in the month of November, dies Pope Innocent [VII.]; in whose place was elected Angelo Corario, Cardinal of San Marco [Venice], a Venetian born now called Gregory XII. Onuphrius [Panvinius] notes that he was created at Rome [on] the last day of November; against this Pope, says he, there sat at Avignon, Pedro [Martinez de] Luna, called [antipope] Benedicte XIII. one whose manner of life and conversation differed very much from his birth.

This same year did Robert [Stewart], Duke of Albany, the Governor, keep justice courts in all the remotest parts of the kingdom, and did execute justice, to the no small benefit of the labourers of the ground, who thereafter enjoyed their own in peace.



The year 1407, Louis, Duke of Orléans, the French King’s brother, is killed in the city of Paris, the 11th of December, by John [of Valois], Duke of Burgundy and Flanders, who immediately after he had committed the fact, fled with all the speed he could to Flanders.

This year, also, dies Henry, 3rd of that name, King of Castile; and to him succeeds his young son John, 2nd of that name, left by his father’s will and testament under his mother’s tutelage.

This year the religious order of Mount Olivet [Olivetans] had its beginning and primer institution by one Bernard Ptolemy.



In the year 1408, Valentina [Visconti], the Lady of the late killed Duke of Orléans, and her children, sue for justice at the King’s hands, against the Duke of Burgundy; but it was a labour how to catch the fox.

The 25th of April, this year, Ladislaus, King of Naples, takes Rome, when, as the Florentines and [Sienese] had refused him aid, in his return home towards Naples, he made them pay dear for their refusal; the best of them [choosing] to lay down his purse, to redeem his disobedience, at the victor’s feet.



Robert, the Governor, in the year 1409, restored to his dignities and lands George [de Dunbar], the traitorous Earl of March; but before Archibald, Earl of Douglas, would consent thereto, and quit the Lordship and castle of Dunbar, he had for himself and his heirs forever [taking] of the castle of Lochmabin and Lordship of Annandale; and because Walter [de] Haliburton, Lord Dirleton, son-in-law to the Governor, who had married his daughter, Lady Isobel [Stewart], countess of Ross, did mediate the reconciliation between the Governor and the Earl of March, for his travels he had the 40 lib (pounds sterling) land of Brigham, to him and his heirs forever, ere the Earl could get his pardon passed: so went matters in court in these days.



The year 1410, Rupert, the German Emperor, departs this life, in the 10th year of his reign.

This year, also, the 3rd of May, dies [anti]pope Alexander [V.] at Bologna. After his death was elected Baldassarre Cossa, Cardinal of St. Eustachius at Bologna, the 16th of June, and was named John XXI., by some the XXIII.

This year, also, Louis, Duke of Anjou, defeats Ladislaus, King of Naples, in a great battle, but knew not how to use his victory which made him lose all hope forever of Naples.



In the year 1411, on St. James’s Day [25th of July], was fought that memorable battle of Harlaw, between Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, bastard son to [Alexander], Earl of Buchan, Alexander Ogilvy, Sheriff of Angus, being his Lieutenant; and Donald [Dómhnall], Lord of the Isles, with MacLean, the chief leader of 10,000 Islanders. On the Earl of Mar’s side were killed:-

Sir James Scrymgeour [Constable of Dundee], of Dudhope,

Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum,

Sir Robert Melville of Dysart,

Sir Thomas Morrow, Knight,

William Abernethy, son and heir to the Lord

Saltoun, and nephew to the Governor,

Alexander Straiton of Lauriston,

George Ogilvy, son and heir to the Sheriff of Angus,

James Lovell, of Ballumbie,

Alexander Stirling;

with diverse other gentlemen. And on Donald’s side, who lost the battle and fled, MacLean, with 900 of his best men, lay dead on the place.

The Earl of Mar, in gaining the victory, lost about 500 of all sorts.

This year, also, the town of Linlithgow was burnt by a casual fire; and the town of Roxburgh was burnt likewise, and the bridge broken by Sir William Douglas of Drumlanrig, and Sir Gavin Dunbar, knights.



This year, 1412, Archibald, 2nd of that name, Earl of Douglas, and Henry Sinclair, 2nd of that name, Earl of Orkney, passed to France with an army of gallant soldiers, to assist the French against the English.



In the year 1413, Sir John Drummond, of Concraig, knight, on St. Lawrence day [10th of August], traitorously killed Patrick Graham, Earl of Strathearn, in the town of Crieff, notwithstanding that he had formerly obliged himself never to wrong the said Earl, by sacramental oath, and his own hand wrote; and for the better assurance of their friendship, the Earl’s sister was given to the said Sir John in marriage.



This year, 1414, the 5th of November, began the council of Constance, whereat was present the [King of Hungary] Emperor Sigismund, and Pope John. The occasion of this council’s meeting was to abolish the [papal] schism.



In the year 1415, King Henry V., of England, takes advantage of the weak state France at this time stood in, and with a powerful army goes over [there], and immediately after takes Harfleur; and on the 25th of October, this same year, he overthrows the flower of all the nobility, gentry, and soldiery of France, in a great battle near Agincourt [near] Blangy. In this battle there was killed 10,000 on the place, [besides] a great many of the chiefs of the nobility and gentry; the Dukes of Orléans and Bourbon were both taken prisoner.



The year 1416, the Emperor Sigismund came himself in person to France, and from thence to England, in hope to mediate a peace between these two kings [Charles VI. & Henry IV.], but seeing small hopes that he could do any good, he returns by Aragon, exhorting all such princes as with him had any interview, that they hold hand to remove the schism between the popes, out of the Roman church.

This year, [John of Valois] the Duke of Burgundy concludes a peace and league with England; without any mention at all of France; about which time dies Ferdinand [I.], King of Aragon, 2nd of April, and to him succeeds his son Alfonso [V.].



The year 1417, Otto Colonna is created Pope, the 11th of November; then after his creation, he was named Martin V., so was the schism quite taken away out of the Roman church.

This year, also, dies Louis [II. of Naples], Duke of Anjou and Provence; to whom succeeded his son Louis [III. of Naples].

Henry V., of England, this year passes over to France, with a new recruit[ment] of men, and at his arrival takes diverse towns and places of importance, and fortifies them with good garrisons.



In the year 1418, Henry V., the English King, having in effect subdued all Normandy, besieges Rouen.

This year God flung a great scourge (wherewith he had whipped the Christians) in the fire; to wit, by removing from this life Mehmed [I.], King of the Turks; to whom succeeded his son, Murad, the second of that name, the first that instituted the order of Janissaries, being the tribute of Christian children.*

About this same time, the Duke of Burgundy possessed himself of the city of Paris, which was the cause of great slaughters and bloodshed.



The year 1419, the 3rd of September, Robert [Stewart], Duke of Albany, Governor of Scotland, departed this mortal life, after he had governed the realm 10 years, since the death of his brother, King Robert III., and was solemnly interred at Dunfermline, in St. Marie’s Chapel; after whose death, his eldest son Murdoch [Stewart], Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife and Menteith, was, by the estates of the realm, chosen Governor of Scotland.



The year 1420, Pope Martin [V.], having experience of [Joanna II.] the Neapolitan Queen’s ingratitude towards him, he stirs up against her to war, [Filippo Maria Visconti],** Duke of Milan; and transfers her right of that kingdom on Louis [III.], second Duke of Anjou.

One Picard [Beghard, neo-Adamite, priest], this year, in Bohemia, reviews the sect and heresy of the Adamites.



The year 1421, died the Greek Emperor, Manuel [II. Palaiologos]; to whom succeeded his brother [John VIII. before] Constantine [XI.], the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople.

This year, also, Sigismund is crowned King of Bohemia; but the imperial army is overthrown by Žižka, general of the Protestant army.



In the year 1422, the constable of France [John Stewart]*** came to Scotland and married [Elizabeth Douglas] the daughter of Archibald, 2nd of that name, Earl of Douglas, whom he persuaded to go to France, which he did with 10,000 brave men, to aid the French against Henry V. of England; being invited by the kind letters of the French King, and a patent under the great seal of France of the duchy of Touraine, to him and his heirs forever, which the Earl accepted.



About the latter end of this year, 1423, Prince James, being now a prisoner in England 18 years, having married the Lady Joan [Beaufort], daughter to [John Beaufort] the Duke of Somerset, Marques Dorset, was freed from the English captivity, and with his wife returned to Scotland, being accompanied with a great train of English Lords and Ladies to Berwick.


*  This order consisted of kidnapped Christian boys trained up as an elite army
**  It would be another 30 years before the Sforza family took control of this duchy.
***  Charles, Duke of Lorraine was constable of France until 1424 when the title was then passed to John Stewart.
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