6th of July

St Julian, anchoret, about 370. St Palladius, apostle of the Scots, bishop and confessor, about 450. St Moninna, of Ireland, virgin, 518. St Goar, priest and confessor, 575.

 

Died. – Pope Benedict XI., 1304; Michael Bruce, poet, 1767, Kinnesswood, Kinross-shire; George Augustus Elliot, Lord Heathfield, military commander, 1790; Sir Henry Raeburn, painter, 1823, Edinburgh; Sir Thomas Munro, 1827, Madras; D. M. Moir, poet and miscellaneous writer, 1851, Musselburgh, Scotland.

 

On this Day in Other Sources.

 

The royal charter, which granted to the bishop and his successors the privilege of having a burgh at Glasgow, with a market on Thursday, and with freedoms and customs of the king’s burghs, is dated at Traquair; and, from the witnesses, it was granted between the years 1175 and 1178.1

– Sketches, pp.29-70. 

1  The original grant gave to the burgesses the king’s peace – firmam pacem per totam terram in eundo et redeundo. A subsequent charter granted a yearly fair to be held for eight full days after the octaves of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul (6th July); and the king granted his peace to all frequenting the fair.

 

[Bishop Jocelin] must have proceeded with extraordinary energy and success, since, on the 6th of July 1197, his new church [Glasgow Cathedral] was sufficiently advanced to be dedicated.1

– Sketches, pp.29-70. 

1  “Jocelinus episcopus Glasguensis Cathedralem ecclesiam suam, quam ipse novam construxerat, pridie nonas Julii, die dominica, anno episcopatus sui xxiiij, dedicavit.” – Chron. Mailr.

 

[The Lady Margaret & her train of 140 ladies and young gentlewomen] take ships at Dumbarton, and arrive [on] the 20th of June, and had a very prosperous passage to France; where she was welcomed with all her train by King Charles VII., and with great solemnity and triumph [was] married to his son, the Dauphin, in the cathedral church at Tours, 6th of July, 1435.*

– Historical Works, pp.153-166.

*  The generally accepted date for the marriage of Princess Margaret to Louis XI is 25th of June, 1436.

 

The next is a letter of King James III. –

III.

“LITERA PRO MALISEO DOIRE, COMMORAN’ IN STRAFULANE.

     “JAMES be the grace of God King of Scottis to all and sindri our liegis and subditis spirituale and temporale to quhois knaulege this our lettre salcum greting. Forsemekle as we haue undirstand that our servitour Malice Doire and his forenearis has had ane Relik of Sanct Fulane callit the Quegrith in keping of us and of oure progenitouris of maist nobill mynde quham God assolye sen the tyme of King Robert the Bruys and of before, and made nane obedience nor ansuere to na persoun spirituale nor temporale in ony thing concernyng the said haly Relik uthir wayis than is contenit in the auld infeftments thereof made and grantit be oure said progenitouris; We chairg you therefor strately and commandis that in tyme to cum ye and ilkane of you redily ansuere, intend and obey to the said Malise Doire in the peciable broiking joicing of the said Relik, and that ye na nain of you tak upon hand to compell nor distrenye him to mak obedience nor ansuere to you nor till ony uthir bot allenarly to us and oure successouris, according to the said infeftment and foundatioun of the said Relik, and siclike as wes uss and wount in the tyme of oure said progenitouris of maist nobill mynde of before; And that ye mak him nane impediment, letting nor distroublance in the passing with the said Relik throu the contre, as he and his forebearis wes wount to do; And that ye and ilk ane of you in oure name and autorite kepe him unthrallit, bot to remane in siclike fredome and liberte of the said Relik, like as is contenit in the said infeftment, undir all the hiest pane and charge that ye and ilk ane of you may amitt, an inrun anent us in that pairt. Gevin undir oure priue sele at Edinburgh this vj day of Julij, the yere of God jm iiijc lxxxvij yeris [1487] and of our regnne the xxvij yere. 

JAMES R.”    

– Sketches, pp.341-394.

 

JAMES V., after a thousand amours, which were as discreditable to himself, as injurious to his family, and dangerous to his kingdom, married, Magdalene of France, the sickly daughter of Francis I. She only survived her arrival, in Scotland, forty days of weakness. And the Scotish poets were thus obliged, to change their nuptial songs into premature laments, for the loss of a princess, whose usual amenities had already captivated an admiring people.

– Life of Mary, pp.9-15.

 

Queen Magdalene dies of a fever, the 22nd of July, this year, to the great grief of the King and of all his people, and was solemnly interred in the burial of the Kings, at Holyroodhouse abbey.

– Historical Works, pp.238-275.

 

This year, 1553, King Edward VI., of England, departs this life, the 6th day of July; and to him succeeds his sister Mary, who reestablished the Popish religion in England: and the rebellions against her at her entry to the crown, she pacified with the heads of the intenders. 

– Historical Works, pp.275-340.

 

[The insurgent lords] issued a proclamation for arresting Bothwell; that he might be punished for the King’s murder. Now, the fact is, that Bothwell was himself the keeper of the castle of Dunbar; and the charge to surrender it, can only be construed, as an intimation, that he would do well to depart. After he had here remained twenty days, Bothwell, as hereditary high admiral of Scotland, put to sea, about the 6th or 7th of July [1567], in two small vessels, accompanied by several accomplices, and servants; leaving the castle, in the charge of the laird of Whitelaw, as his deputy keeper. He only went into Murray, where he was received by his grand uncle, Patrick Hepburn, the bishop. The insurgent nobles, who governed, in the name of their imprisoned Queen, pursued Bothwell with proclamations. They afterwards, fitted out two ships, under Grange, and Tullybardin, to follow him to the Orkneys, where his own deputy, Gilbert Balfour, refused to admit him into the castle of Kirkwall. He, in the end, found it necessary, to depart, both from Orkney, and Shetland, having lost one of his ships, and to sail towards Norway, where, having attempted the capture of a trader, vessels of war were sent out, by the Danish government, which took his ship; and he, and his crew were detained in the prisons of Denmark. It was soon discovered, that Bothwell was the lord high admiral of Scotland, and the Queen’s husband, who had been expelled his country, by men, who were even more guilty, and more wicked, than the wretched Bothwell.  

– Life of Mary, pp.155-184.

 

In early times, if the first day of the fair fell upon a Sunday, it appears to have been held on that day all the same; but after the Reformation the magistrates (in 1577) issued a proclamation prohibiting this, and forbidding the opening of booths and selling of merchandise on a day on which “na mercatt aucht to be keipit.”1

– Old Glasgow, pp.276-289. 

1  Burgh Records, 6th July, 1577.

 

One of the burgh minutes in 1581 is interesting as containing the form of this proclamation. It is as follows: “The quhilk day the peace of the fair wes proclamit be David Coittes, mair of fee, vpone the Greyne, and be Richard Tod toun officiare vpon the croce, efter the forme and tenour vnderwritten: Forasmekle as this day is the sext of Julij quhilk is the fair evin of Glasgow, and the morne the fair day, quhilk continewis the space of aucht dayis, thairfore I inhibit and forbiddis straitlie in our Souerane Lordis name, and in name and and behaulfe of ane noble and potent lord Esme erle of Lennox, lord Darnlie and Obinze etc. prouest, and baillie of the baronie, and in name of the bnaillies of this toun, that nane of our Souerane Lordis legis cumand to this fair, reparing thairin, or gangand thairfra, do ony hurt or trublens ane to ane vther for auld dett or new dett, auld feid or new feid, bot leif peaceablie, and vse thair merchandice and eschange vnder Goddis pece and our Souerane Lordis protectioun, vnder all hiest pane and charge that may be impvt to thame doand in the contrare, and to be callit and accusit for breking the kingis Maiesteis pece and trublance of his hienes mercatt To the quhilk proclamatioun the officiares reqvirit witnessis viz David Lindsay elder, Thomas Cloggie, Mungo Wilsoun, and Niniane Drew.”1

 

As a precaution against “breking the pece” – and in all probability not an unnecessary one – certain of the citizens were appointed “to keip the fair,” and for that purpose to be duly armed. Thus at a meeting of the town council held on 6th July, 1574, “being the fair even,” the magistrates issued an order for “every booth halder to have in readiness within the booth ane halbert, jack, and steel bonnet, for eschewing of sic inconveniences as may happen, conform to the auld statut made theranent.” This was in accordance with an act of the Scottish parliament which required that every yeoman or burgess possessed of twenty pounds in goods have a good doublet of fence, or a habergeon, with an iron hat, a bow, and a sheaf of arrows, a sword, a buckler, and a knife. 

… 

McUre says in his day the fair was proclaimed or “fenced” within an inclosure or garden where the convent of the Greyfriars stood, “at a place they call Craignaught.” This place, otherwise written Craignathe, Craignache, and Craigmak, is mentioned in the old burgh records as a place where the magistrates met on the occasions when the fair was to be proclaimed. Thus, under date 6th July, 1580, there is this minute: “The quhilk daye the Court fensit be the baillies at Craigmak, and thaireftir callit the sute roll, and proclamit the fair.” And in all the subsequent minutes of council down to 1607, when the fair is ordered to be proclaimed, it is at a court held at Craignac or Craignaught, although in the same years the ordinary meetings of the council are held in other places; for example, in 1574 the ordinary meetings are held “in the Blackfrier Kirk,” and in 1575 “in the tolbuytht of Glasgw.” McUre says he does not know what “Craignaught” means. Mr. Macvean, in his reprint of McUre’s work, says that in recently digging a foundation there was found in the locality a whinstone rock, which it is probable in former times appeared above the surface, and that this rock may have given rise to the name. This conjecture receives confirmation from the peculiar terms of one of the old burgh minutes (6th July, 1607), which bears that the fair was proclaimed at “the heid court of Craignache halden vpone the Craig thairof by the thrie balleis and accompaneit with the Counsell of the said bruch and deikins thairof.” It would appear from this that the ceremony of the proclamation was at that time made from a “craig” or rock within the inclosure referred to. How it came originally to be proclaimed there I do not know. 

– Old Glasgow, pp.276-289. 

1  Burgh Records, 6th July, 1581.

 

Vincezo was absolved, as it was agreed that he had slain Crichton by accident and in self-defence. The citizens might murmur and exchange meaning glances as his Highness passed by; abroad, suspicion might be expressed with less precaution; but the law declared Prince Vincenzo Gonzaga free from blame for the death of the Scot, James Crichton, and if some accusation reached his ears, he had but to refer to the following report of the so-called Captain of Justice,1 who was no doubt very thankful when the embarrassing process came to an end. It is addressed to Zibramonti, as secretary of the Duke. Here and there a word is wanting, the documents being corroded at the edges, but there is no difficulty in supplying the missing parts:- 

          In answer to your Lordship’s letter, written by order of H.S.H., I inform you that, besides the first examination made of the bodies of the two gentlemen, Hipp. Lanzoni and James Crichton, Scot, slain in the affray of the preceding evening, I myself visited them, and found to be true what Julian, our notary of the guard, had … from the records made by him – namely, that Signor Lanzoni, from one single wound under the bone of his left shoulder, in … by a blow from the point of a poniard, penetrating inwardly towards … for a palm, as is seen from the mark of the blood on the Scot’s poniard; … that from this wound here, on the spot of the affray, he fell dead in a short time at his Highness’ feet. The Scotch gentleman has a thrust from a rapier,2 on the right side above the teat, penetrating straight forwards for about five fingers,3 as is shown by the measure of the blood stain on the point of the Serene Signor Prince’s sword, received in the same affray. From this wound he fell, before reaching the house of Messere Hippolyta della Serena, where he had directed himself to have his wounds dressed. He was then carried to the said house, where he expired. 
          To assist me in my duty, I took information of the deed from several witnesses, and now nothing is wanting but the confession of the Serene Signor Prince, which, judging from the draft of it in the possession of the castellan, I see is in conformity with the process. From the whole it is shown – that the encounter was casual, the one party not recognising the other till the blows had been given; that all the information is in favour of what his Highness the Prince necessarily wrought in the matter; and that, from it, his absolution and liberation by justice reasonably follows, always granted that his Highness thinks this sufficient to repress every sinister opinion of the world and to take away from his Serene Person every stain which men consider such acts make on those who commit them. The fierceness and danger of this affray show what a strife it has been, two out of three having been slain. The grace of God is seen, in the preservation of his Highness from all injury, when we consider the impetus and terribleness of the Scotch gentleman, and the slight sword of the Signor Prince, more suitable for peace than for war, for ornament than for strife, five fingers shorter than that of his adversary and all hacked and ill-conditioned. We must therefore be most grateful to the goodness of God. With this I remain the servant of your Lordship, whom may God preserve in happiness. 
Your Lordship’s affectionate Servant,
          Mantua, 6th July, 1582.                                                                   THE CAPTAIN OF JUSTICE. 

Crichton, as has already been seen, had left several debts behind him, but his creditors at Mantua were not the only ones who let themselves be heard when the news of his death had spread. In Venice and in Padua he had left some claims unsettled, but the person to whom he owed most, the person who made the most clamour to be paid, was his well-beloved Cornaro, of whom he had ever extolled the extreme goodness, the “almost divine qualities.” On the 6th of July this gentleman wrote a most woeful epistle to Zibramonti, in which, after expressing his profound grief at the loss of his friend, he gives a detailed account of what he had done for Crichton, and begged the Duke to see that his claims were satisfied with the proceeds of the sale of the horses. 

– Scots Lore, pp.238-252. 

1  Biagio dell’Orso. 
2  The breadth of five fingers. 
3  Stoccata.

 

On 6th July, 1603, accordingly, the consideration of the complaint was resumed by the convention, and, after hearing parties Glasgow was ordained to desist from uplifting the duty, for authority to levy which no evidence was shown.1

– Scots Lore, pp.15-29.

1  Convention Records, ii. 161.

 

The Edinburgh Gazette for July, 1702, informed the public that Duncan Campbell, of Ashfield, chirurgeon to the city of Glasgow, was receiving patients in his lodging at the foot of the West Bow, and that he was great in operations for stone, having “cutted nine score persons without the death of any, except five”; and one astounding case of his is thus reported by Lord Fountainhall, under date July 6th, 1709:-  

“Duncan Campbell, of Ashfield, giving himself out to be the best lithotomist and cutter for the stone, pursues Mungo Campbell, of Netherplace, that he being under the insupportable agony of the gravel, and was kept down in his bed by two servants, sent for the said Duncan to cure him, who leaving the great employment he had, waited on him for several weeks; and by an emaciating diet, fitted him for the operation, then cut him and brought away a big stone of five ounces’ weight, and since that time he has enjoyed better health, for which extraordinary cure all he got in hand was seventeen guineas; whereas, by his attendance and diversion from patients, and his lucrum assans, he has lost more than £50 sterling, and craves that sum as his fee and the recompense of his damage.” 

But as it was represented for the Laird of Netherplace, that he had done his work unskilfully, and caused much agony to the patient, the Lords held that the sum of seventeen guineas was sufficient payment.  

– Old and New Edinburgh, pp.315-321.

 

From the Tweeddale family the mansion passed into the hands of the British Linen Company, and became their banking house, until they deserted it for Moray House in the Canongate, from which they ultimately migrated to a statelier edifice in St. Andrew Square. This company was originally incorporated by a charter under the Privy Seal granted by George II. on the 6th of July, 1746, at a time when the mind of the Scottish people was still agitated by the events of the preceding year and the result of the battle of Culloden; and it was deemed an object of the first importance to tranquillise the country and call forth its resources, so that the attention of the nation should be directed to the advantages of trade and manufacture. With this view the Government, as well as many gentlemen of rank and fortune, exerted themselves to promote the linen manufacture, which had been lately introduced, deeming that it would in time become the linen the staple manufacture of Scotland, and provide ample employment for her people, while extensive markets for the produce of their labour would be found alike at home and in the colonies, then chiefly supplied by the linens of Germany. 

– Old and New Edinburgh, pp.274-282.

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