Chap. IV. – Lozenges and Syrups, pp.41-48.

[Lozenges and Syrups Contents]


WHICH are now much used, are well calculated for keeping the throat moist, and are held in repute according to the ingredients with which they are composed. Peppermint is an herb of a most powerful nature, and used in all complaints of the stomach arising from wind or griping; it is also a safe medicine, and freely administered to infants. 

Peppermint Lozenges.

   The preparation of all lozenges are, in the first stage, exactly the same as already ordered in making gum paste. Take of gum dragon and finely pounded sugar according to the quantity wanted, and proceed as directed (page 34.) Observe, that the more labour you bestow in working the paste in the mortar, the lozenges will be whiter and more solid; add to each pound of sugar one tea spoonful best oil of peppermint. When by the addition of sugar it is too stiff to be wrought with the pestle, take it out and work it on a marble table or slab, to a proper stiffness; roll it out very smooth, somewhat thinner than a quarter of an inch, and cut them out with a tin cutter of the size of the lozenge; lay them regularly on half-sheets of writing paper, placed upon tin sheets, and let them dry slowly in a room; when hard turn them, and then remove them to a warm room, and when hard put them into a box. To make them work more freely use a little hair powder in rolling them out. 

Tolu Lozenges.

   Take an ounce of gum dragon quite free from any black specks, put it in a bason or bowl, with a gill of water, let it stand two days; strain it through a cloth, put it into a clean marble mortar and work it till very white. Upon two ounces of Tolu balsam pour one gill spirit of wine, and let it stand two or three days to extract the virtues of the balsam, pour it into the mortar, and add four ounces cream of tartar; work the whole together, and add treble refined sugar put through a lawn sieve, from time to time, till very stiff, then take it out, roll and cut as ordered for peppermint lozenges. Or they may, for variety, be rolled in long pieces the thickness of a goose quill, by means of a flat board, and cut in lengths of two inches. When dry put them up in boxes and keep them in a dry place. They are called pipes. 

Lozenges for a Seated Cough.

   Take gum arabic two pounds, fine sugar pounded twelve ounces, hair powder twelve ounces, eringo root cleaned and cut two ounces, liquorice root scraped and cut twelve ounces, althea, or marshmallows, twelve ounces. The althea, liquorice, and eringo roots, are put into two Scotch pints of water and boiled till one half is wasted; then put in the gum and let it stand near the fire till dissolved; strain the liquor, clean the pan and put it on the fire again, add the sugar and starch, or hair powder, boil it over a slow fire till no bell appears, stirring it all the time with a spattula. When no bells of water appear it will be of a thick consistence, pour it on a marble stone that has been first oiled, roll it out with a roller, which must also be oiled, cut it in long strips, or any shape you please, and when cold put them up for use. 

Heartburn Lozenges.

   Take eight pounds brown sugar candy, three pounds chalk, or magnesia, two ounces prepared coral, eight ounces crabs eyes, three ounces bole-ammoniac, one ounce prepared pearl, one ounce nutmegs, two pounds gum arabic; reduce all these ingredients to a powder, and mix them well together; make it into a paste with orange flower water, roll it out thin, and cut it like other lozenges. Or, in place of the gum arabic make use of two ounces of gum dragon, which prepare as formerly directed in Tolu lozenges, using sugar pounded in place of the brown candy. Two or three will ease the heartburn and may be taken at any time. They have been in repute these seventy years, and never fail in giving immediate relief, as I have often experienced. 

Paterosa Lozenges.

   Proceed as directed in making peppermint lozenges; with this difference, dissolve the gum dragon with strong rosewater, also dissolve as much lake as will make the whole mass a beautiful rose colour; then add as much essence of roses as will give it a rich flavour. Thus are all kinds of lozenges made, by flavouring the paste with any oil or essence, according to taste. 



   Take two ounces of the herb maidenhair, boil it in two gills of water, strain it through a jelly bag, put to it one pound and a half fine sugar, clarify it with an egg and make it into a pure syrup, and when cold bottle it. It is now generally made as follows. Take five pounds eight ounces fine sugar, and eight ounces brown sugar candy, clarify it very fine and boil it up to a good syrup, then add as much orange flower water as will give it a good flavour, and when cold bottle it up. Sometimes a glass of rum is added. 


Is a very cooling drink, and much used at balls, assemblies, &c. it is made with almonds and flavoured to your taste. Take one pound best Jordan and eight ounces bitter almonds, blanch and wash them clean, beat them in a marble mortar with a quart (two mutchkins) of spring water, very fine, take a ladle full of the liquor and put it into a strong fine towel, by twisting the two ends the liquid is forced through into a bason placed below. Squeeze the almonds till dry, then lay them out, and take in more from the mortar, and so go on till all are squeezed; then clarify to this quantity of almond juice four pounds of fine sugar, boil it to the crackled degree; take it off the fire, and strain into it the almond liquor through a lawn sieve; add a little orange flower water to flavour it, and set it over the fire till all is well incorporated and smooth; then put it through the lawn strainer, and when cold bottle it up. 

   To use it. – Mix two gills of syrup with two pints (mutchkins) cold water, stir it well together and serve it up. 

Lemon Syrup.

   Squeeze what number of lemons you want, pass the juice through a sieve, beat up the whites of two eggs to each quart of juice, and mix it well; let it stand a few days to clear, then pour it off; with this clarify the sugar and make a good syrup. When cold, bottle it up in small bottles, and when corked dip them in wax. Or

   Take one dozen lemons, of which grate six, squeeze the whole upon the grate and stir it well, so that the acid may extract the flavour of the rhind; put a quart (choppin) of syrup on the fire and boil it near the carmil degree; put the juice through a fine sieve, and add it to the sugar. If, when mixed, the syrup is too strong add more juice; let it boil a few minutes; when cold bottle it up. This syrup is most excellent for colds when mixed with water is a cooling drink in summer, and must be useful to shipmasters on long voyages; also for making punch. It will keep a long time

Orange Syrup.

Take twelve China oranges, grate six, squeeze the whole, and proceed as directed in the last receipt. 

Seville Orange Syrup.

   Take twelve bitter oranges, grate a large one, then squeeze them in a bason upon the grate, add the juice of a lemon with the grate and mix it well with a spoon. Put on the fire six English pints (mutchkins) of pure syrup, let it boil till near carmil, take it off the fire and strain the juice through a lawn sieve into the syrup; mix it well, put it on the fire again, let it boil a little, and when cold bottle it up. 

Syrup of Roses and Violets,

Or of other flowers, is made with an infusion of the leaves in warm water in a vessel close covered up; after standing a day they are taken out and fresh leaves put in, and continuing this method until the water is strongly impregnated with the essence of the leaves; it is then strained and made into a thick syrup. 

Syrup of Coltsfoot.

   Take of the herb coltsfoot six ounces, two ounces maidenhair, two ounces hyssop, one ounce liquorice root, boil all into two pints (mutchkins) water, till one-fourth part is wasted, make it into a syrup with two pounds of sugar. 

Syrup of Mulberries,

Is made with the juice expressed. 


   The berries are put into a jar and heated in the oven, and the juice pressed out and made into a syrup. 

Syrup of Marshmallows.

   Take of the fresh root two ounces, parsley roots one ounce, and a little of liquorice root, figs, raisins, and tops of the mallows, steep them some days in three pints (mutchkins) barley water, boil it into two pints, press it out, let it stand to clear, then make it into a syrup, adding one ounce gum arabic. 

Syrup of Cream.

   Make a pound and a half lump sugar into a strong syrup, when cold mix in a pint fresh cream; or pound the sugar and mix with the cream, bottle it up in small bottles, cork and seal them. It will keep several weeks. 

Robe of Elder Berries,

Is often used for souring punch, &c. Take a peck of the berries, bake them in an earthen pan, or jar, in the oven, squeeze out the juice, which set to stew upon a very slow fire for some days; when it is very thick, so as to be cut with a knife, put it into small cans for use; or put it on plates, and when it is dry cut it in squares. Stir it frequently while on the fire. 

Robe of Black Currants

Is made in the same manner, only you may add six ounces sugar to every pint of juice; a small quantity, viz. six pints, may boil in two hours, then pour it on plates, and set it in a stove to dry; when hardening turn them, cut them in small pieces. They are good for colds and sore throats

Fruit Lozenges,

Are made with the juice of red or black currants, elder berries, &c. and boiled with some sugar to the consistence of a thin paste, then poured out on a stone, and when cold cut in squares, dried, and put up in small boxes. They are good for colds, &c.