3rd of October

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St Mansuet, first bishop of Toul, in Lorraine, about 375. St Macnisius, first bishop of Connor, in Ireland, 513. St Simeon Stylites, the Younger, 592. St Remaclus, bishop of Maestricht, confessor, about 664.

Born. – Matthew Boulton, partner of James Watt, 1728, Birmingham; Prince Eugene de Beauharnois, step-son of Napoleon Bonaparte, 1781, Paris
Died. – Claude Salmasius, author of a Defence of England, 1658, Whitehall, London; David Ancillon, eminent Protestant divine, 1692, Berlin.


The 3d of September had become a day very memorable to Cromwell. In his expedition to reduce the Scotch Presbyterians, who had taken up the son of the late king as their sovereign, he gained his first great success in the battle of Dunbar, fought on the 3d of September 1650. The affair was closed triumphantly for him at Worcester on the 3d of September 1651. In an age when individuals were believed to have days specially connected with their destiny, the 3d of September might well appear auspicious to the Protector. A strange turn, however, was given to these superstitious ideas in his case, when, on the 3d of September 1658, the Protector died. It is usually stated that his decease took place amidst a storm of singular violence, which was tearing and flooding the whole country, and which fittingly marked the occasion; but the storm, in reality, happened on Monday the 30th of August, and must have been pretty well spent before the Friday afternoon, when Oliver breathed his last.

On this Day in Other Sources.

The year 1419, the 3rd of September, Robert [Stewart], Duke of Albany, Governor of Scotland, departed this mortal life, after he had governed the realm 10 years, since the death of his brother, King Robert III., and was solemnly interred at Dunfermline, in St. Marie’s Chapel; after whose death, his eldest son Murdoch [Stewart], Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife and Menteith, was, by the estates of the realm, chosen Governor of Scotland. 

– Historical Works, pp.144-152.

William Turnbull, Archdeacon of Lothian, and keeper of the privy seal, was the next bishop [of Glasgow].1 During a short incumbency he procured valuable privileges, papal and royal, for his bishopric and city; and he will ever be regarded with affectionate gratitude as the founder of the University of Glasgow. He died 3d September 1454. 

– Sketches, pp.29-70.

1  “In that saym yer (1449) master William Turnbill said his first mess in Glasgue the 20 day of September.” – Auchinl. Chron.

On the 3d of September [1565], [Mary] joined her army, at Kilsyth, and marched to Glasgow. Here, she remained, on the 4th and 5th, without making any effort, to pursue the rebels into Dumfries-shire. 

– Life of Mary, pp.98-126.

The Regent Lennox held a parliament at Stirling, where he made an oration to the nobility. The king, five years old, was present, and, while his grandfather was speaking, he looked up and espied a hole in the roof, occasioned by ‘the lack of some sclates.’ At the conclusion of the harangue, the child remarked: ‘I think there is ane hole in this parliament.’ 

‘In effect, his majesty’s words came true; for the same month, about the end of the parliament (September 3 [1570]), there came to Striviling in the night, ere the nobility or town knew, the Earl of Huntly, the queen’s lieutenant, Claud Hamilton, with the Lairds of Buccleuch and Ferniehirst, who, ere day brake, had possessed themselves of the town, crying “God and the Queen!” so that those that were for the King and his Regent could not, for the multitude of enemies, come to a head. Wherever they could see any that belonged to the Regent, him they killed without mercy. The Regent being taken prisoner by the Laird of Buccleuch, and horsed behind him, ane wicked fellow lift up his jack and shot him through the body with a pistol… [On a counter-surprise, the queen’s party] departed the town immediately. The Earl of Mar was declared Regent, and concluded the parliament. This was the hole which the young king did see in the parliament, although he meant nothing less.’ – Bal

– Domestic Annals, pp.45-55.

Lennox being killed in a surprise at Stirling (September 3, 1571), the Earl of Mar was chosen to the vacant regency. 

– Domestic Annals, pp.45-55.

Sep. 3 [1574]. – The town-council of Edinburgh agreed with a Frenchman that he should set up a school in the city to teach his own language, for which he should be entitled to charge each child twenty-five shillings yearly, besides enjoying a salary of twenty pounds during the council’s pleasure. – City Register, apud Maitland. 

– Domestic Annals, pp.56-80.

Upon receipt of the intelligence from Lord Berridale, Sir Robert Gordon made preparations for entering Caithness without delay; and, as a precautionary measure, he took pledges from such of the tribes and families in Caithness as he suspected were favourable to the earl. Before all his forces had time to assemble, Sir Robert received notice that the war ship had arrived upon the Caithness coast, and that the earl was meditating an escape beyond seas. Unwilling to withdraw men from the adjoining provinces during the harvest season, and considering the Sutherland forces quite sufficient for his purpose, he sent couriers into Ross, Strathnaver, Assynt, and Orkney, desiring the people who had been engaged to accompany the expedition to remain at home till farther notice, and, having assembled all the inhabitants of Sutherland, he picked out the most active and resolute men among them, whom he caused to be well supplied with warlike weapons, and other necessaries, for the expedition. Having thus equipped his army, Sir Robert, accompanied by his brother, Sir Alexander Gordon, and the principal gentlemen of Sutherland, marched on the third day of September sixteen hundred and twenty-three from Dunrobin to Killiernan in Strathully, the place of rendezvous previously appointed. Here Sir Robert divided his forces into companies, over each of which he placed a commander. The following morning he passed the river of Helmsdale and arranged his army in the following order: Half a mile in advance of the main body, he placed a company of the Clan-Gun, whose duty it was to search the fields as they advanced for the purpose of discovering any ambuscades which might be laid in their way, and to clear away any obstruction to the regular advance of the main body. The right wing of the army was led by John Murray of Aberscors, Hugh Gordon of Ballellon, and Adam Gordon of Kilcalmkill. The left wing was commanded by John Gordon, younger of Embo, Robert Gray of Ospisdale, and Alexander Sutherland of Kilphidder. And Sir Robert Gordon himself, his brother Sir Alexander, the laird of Pulrossie, and William Mac-Mhic-Sheumais of Killiernan, led the centre. The two wings were always kept a short distance in advance from the centre, from which they were to receive support when required. In this manner the army advanced towards Berridale, and they observed the same order of marching during all the time they remained in Caithness. 

– History of the Highlands, pp.257-286.

Cromwell, fresh from the reduction of Ireland, came into Scotland with an army in July, to put down this movement. He found the campaign less simple than he anticipated. Distressed by want of provisions and by sickness, he was even inclined to withdraw along the east coast. But the Scottish army posted on the Doon Hill, near Dunbar, made such a movement impossible. In these circumstances, he must soon have been brought to a capitulation. But the imprudence of the Scottish leaders, in forcing General Leslie to attack the English, proved his salvation. He gained a complete victory (September 3, 1650), killing three thousand, and taking several thousand prisoners, many of whom were sent to the plantations as slaves. Edinburgh and its castle fell into his hands, along with most of the southern provinces. 

– Domestic Annals, pp.278-301.

Up the West Bow for centuries did all that was regal, noble, and diplomatic, advance on entering the city; and down it, for 124 years – between the Restoration and 1784 – went more criminals than can be reckoned, to their doom, and many a victim of misrule, such as the luckless and unflinching Covenanters, testifying to the last and glorying in their fate.  

Down the Bow, on the 3rd of September, 1716, there were marched from the Castle, en route for trial at Carlisle, eighty-nine Jacobite prisoners. “The departing troop was followed by a wail of indignant lament from the national heart, the Jacobites pointing to it with mingled howls and jeers, as a proof of the enslavement of Scotland.” 

– Old and New Edinburgh, pp.315-321.

When the famous patriot chief, Pasquale de Paoli, had been driven into exile by the French invaders of Corsica, among other places in his wanderings he came to Edinburgh in the autumn of 1771, accompanied by the Polish Ambassador, Count Burzyuski; and on the 3rd of September they arrived at Peter Ramsay’s “White Horse” Inn, in St. Mary’s Wynd, from whence he was immediately taken home by Boswell to his house in James’s Court, while the Count became the guest of his neighbour, Dr. John Gregory, “to whom they brought a letter from the ingenious Mrs. Montague.” Boswell introduced Paoli to Lord Kames, Dr. Robertson, David Hume, and others, who though greatly his seniors, admitted him into their circle, and he showed him over the Castle, Holyrood, Duddingston, and other places. Ramsay’s inn was chiefly famous for its stables, and in that establishment he realised a large fortune. 

– Old and New Edinburgh, pp.297-300.


   ‘J. Lunan’ writes:- What is it that those English Jingoes and their confederate ‘Humming Birds’ blame us for in Scotland? Simply for defending our freedom and our rights as by law established. The freedom to form our own characters under our own conditions and the right to our honest name. (This established also by law.) We insist upon the Treaty of Union being fulfilled as regards the free rights, the national sentiments, and national name of the Scottish people. The effort to cajole us into acquiescence is an affront to our intelligence; and, at the same time, a verification of the stupidity of those who prompt the attempt. Scotland declines – without thanks – the opportunity of sliding down this declivity to national extinction all for the glorification of the English name. Glory may be a fine thing emotionally, but justice is better. Here is a verse from ‘Bannockburn,’ by Mr J S. Rae, which all of us should learn to sing:-

May our children, ocean sundered,
   Freedom’s cry ne’er slight nor spurn;
But as fearless break the tyrant
   As the Scots of Bannockburn.”
– Aberdeen People’s Journal, Saturday 3rd September, 1898.

– Treaty of Union Articles, 1875-1900.

28 thoughts on “3rd of October

  1. New visitor to your Wonderland.
    Thank you most interesting.
    Rather than sharing whole articles is it possible to screenshot parts and refer them to your webpage?

    1. You’re very welcome to look around to your heart’s content, love. You may share the information in whatever way suits you best, there are no rules here. All the best.

  2. I believe the date of the eclipse is wrong, all other sources I’ve found date it as 3 May 1715.

  3. Had never heard of the Graham Square fire, Glasgow has had more fires with loss of life to Firefighters than any other place in Scotland, and possibly the whole of the UK.

  4. Sorry cat jumped on me as I started typing, I keep an eye on and post anniversaries on my FB group and noticed the Sir David Wilkie date is wrong, out by a month, was prob a typo on the source page, he was born November 18th.

  5. Been dropping in for a few days now, excellent work sir, I am hooked.

  6. Thanks for all the work you have done here, it very worthwhile, and indeed highlights the very many reasons Scotland has to be it’s own nation again. Brilliant is too small a word, for all your efforts.
    Best Wishes
    Les Wilson

    1. Thank you so much for saying so, love ☺️ Your enthusiasm for the site makes us happy 😁


    1. Your welcome love. I appreciate the acknowledgement of the work that goes into the page as it’s never ending, though forever a constant eye-opener. Truly learning something new every day which helps maintain momentum 😉

    1. You’re welcome love 😊. Keep doing what you’re doing, it’s good work 😁, and thank you for reciprocating & paying Random Scottish History a wee visit xx

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