St Christina, virgin and martyr, beginning of 4th century. St Declan, first bishop of Ardmore, Ireland, 5th century. St Lupus, bishop of Troyes, confessor, 478. Saints Romanus and David, patrons of Muscovy, martyrs, 1010. St Kinga or Cunegundes of Poland, 1292. St Francis Solano, confessor, 16th century.
Born. – John Philpot Curran, distinguished Irish barrister, 1750.
Died. – Caliph Abubeker, first successor of Mohammed, 634, Medina; Don Carlos, son of Philip II. of Spain, died in prison, 1568; Alphonse des Vignoles, chronologist, 1744, Berlin; John Dyer, poet, author of Grongar Hill, 1758, Coningsby, Lincolnshire; Armand Carrel, French political writer, died in consequence of wounds in a duel, 1836.
THE FIRST ROAD-TRAMWAY.
In 1801, Dr James Anderson, of Edinburgh, in his Recreations of Agriculture, set forth, in very glowing terms, the anticipated value of horse-tramways.1 ‘Diminish carriage expenses by one farthing,’ he said, ‘and you widen the circle of intercourse; you form, as it were, a new creation, not only of stones and earth, trees and plants, but of men also, and, what is more, of industry, happiness, and joy.’ In a less enthusiastic, and more practical strain, he proceeded to argue that the use of such tramways would lessen distances as measured by time, economise horse-power, lead to the improvement of agriculture, and lower the prices of commodities.
1 Dr James Anderson, originally a Scotch farmer, by his periodical work, The Bee, published all through the years 1791, 2, and 3, might be considered as the first to exemplify a respectable cheap literature. His daughter was the wife of Mr Benjamin Outram, and these were the parents of the Bayard of India, Sir James Outram. Mrs Outram died recently at an advanced age.
On this Day in Other Sources.
The Governor [charges] a parliament to be held at Edinburgh the 24th of July, this year ; and by it, by a herald, with sound of trumpet, at Edinburgh cross, he cites the Earl of Angus, and his brother, [William Douglas] the prior of Coldingham, with the Lairds of Dalhousie [William Ramsay], Somerville [Hugh], Wedderburn [David Home], Cambusnethan [Sir John Ross], Langton [William Cockburn], and diverse others of that faction, to [appear] before parliament, and to render an [account] of their lewd and wicked pranks.
– Historical Works, pp.238-275.
Lord Lindsay, on the morning of the 24th of July 1567, was sent to Lochleven, to obtain the Queen’s signature, to her own resignation of the crown, and to the commissions of regency. He was selected, for this abominable business, as being the most ferocious and brutal, and the greatest zealot of all those brutish, and perfidious nobles, who then domineered over Scotland. We have now seen, from the most indubitable evidence, that the whole instruments of the Queen’s resignation, as well as the Privy Seal, proceeding thereon, were obtained, by threats, by violence, by force: and of consequence were unwarrantable, and void. We have now seen clearly, that Murray, Morton, and their associate commissioners, who asserted, at York, that the Queen’s resignation of her sovereignty was voluntary, were the most egregious falsifiers.
– Life of Mary, pp.155-184.
FROM KING JAMES VI.
TO OUR TRUSTIE AND WELBELOUED SIR DUNCAN CAMPBELL
OF GLENURQUHAY, KNIGHTE.
JAMES R. – Trustie and welbeloued, wee greete yow well. Wee have understood as well by your letter to our seruant Sir Patrik Murray as by the reporte of our seruant Scandoner, your careful and earnest endeuouris for the performance of whatsoeuer yee can imagine to tende to our seruice, and likewise your speciall care and good enterteynment of Scandoner himselfe, which, as it hath giuen him occasioun to speake of that our kingdome in generall and of yow in particulare as of people deutifullie deuoted to their prince and well affected to strangers, so wee give yow moste heartie thankes for the same. Wee haue also, by your letter to Sir Patrik Murray, understood your honest offer for bringing of deere into Glen Aumonde, which, as it hath proceeded of your speciall desire to procure our contentment, so wee verie well esteeme thereof, and therefore desire you to go on, assuring you that thereby yee shall do us verie acceptable seruice, whereof, when occasion shalbe offered, we will not be unmindefull. Farewell. Giuen at our Mannour of Theobaldes, the 24th day of Julie 1622.
– Sketches, Appendix VII.
Previous to 1662 there was no quay at all at the Broomielaw. Under date 24th July of that year the following minute appears in the council records: “The said day it is concludit for many guid reasons and considerations for the moir commodious laidining and landing of boats that there be ane little key builded at the Broomielaw, and that the samyn be done and perfectit with the best convenience be sight and advys of the magistratis Deane of Gild and Deacon Conveiner.” This first structure, which extended above what is now the site of Jamaica Street Bridge, appears to have been of stone, but it must have been of very small dimensions.
– Old Glasgow, pp.248-266.
Both articles from the Advertisement pages of the Caledonian Mercury, Midlothian – Thursday 24th July, 1794:
BARONY OF GRUIDS,
TIMEOUS NOTICE is hereby given to FARMERS and CROFTERS, that the leases upon that extensive Property will expire at Whitsunday 1796, and as few Highland districts present more advantageous inducements in either the cattle or sheep farming line, or both, those having any such views cannot, it is presumed, be more happily situated.
The Barony is situated in nearly the most western extremity of the county of Sutherland; its boundaries are well ascertained and marked, and the property contiguous and uninterrupted; its extent is from 27 to 30 miles in length from south-east to north-west, and from about 4 to 8 miles upon an average in breadth, the greatest breadth being towards the southern extremity. The proportion of arable land is equal to, if not beyond, what is generally to be met with on properties of the like extent in the north Highlands.
The eastern boundary is entirely water, viz. Loch Shin about 27 miles long (whereof 9 to 12 miles on the south-west shore is a fine skirting of birch-wood) and about from three to four miles of the River Shin, boldly issuing out of the Loch, on which there is a coble ferry. The river runs further from 3 to 4 miles from the southern extremity of this property and falls into the Dornoch Frith at Invershin. Very little labour and expense may make a most excellent carriage road from the Loch-end to the Dornoch Frith, being only about 7 miles, chiefly on a hard rocky and gravelly bottom; and the western extremity also of Loch-shin is but a trifling distance from water communication with the western sea.
The whole estate will be either let entire or in separate farms on LEASE, from 7 to 19 years as offerers may induce.
Further information may be had by applying to Messrs DAVIDSON and GRAHAM of London, trustees of the estates of Sir George Munro of Poynzfield, deceased; to Major George Sutherland at Rearchar [Rearquhar], by Dornoch, one of their factors; or to George Andrew, writer in Edinburgh.
N.B. – George Munro, ground-officer of the Barony, will attend any person desirous to view the property.
AN EXCELLENT SHEEP FARM
WITH THE STOCKING THEREON – FOR SALE.
To be exposed to public Roup and Sale, within the Old Exchange Coffeehouse, Edinburgh, on Friday the 17th day of October 1794, between the hours of five and six after-noon.
A SUBSET of All and Whole the LANDS, GRAZINGS, and SHEEP FARM of CULLACHY, KYTRIE, and Others, as possessed by Lieutenant Evan Macpherson and his Subtenants, under lease, of which there are twelve years to run from Whitsunday 1794.
This farm is situated close to Fort Augustus, in the county of Inverness, extending from the river Oich southward [lacuna] to the ridge of the high mountains of Corryerrack, along the military road leading by Garvamore to Perth and Edinburgh; and from east to west two miles, along the military road leading from Inverness by Fort-William and the [lacuna] Mount to Glasgow. It comprehends at least twenty-[lacuna] miles of surface, of which upwards of 200 acres are [lacuna] land of the best quality in that country, and a great deal of fine meadow ground, which yields fine crops of natural hay.
The soil is in general very rich, producing a profusion of sweet and strong grass finely intermixed, and which has been found, from long experience, to be peculiarly well adapted for rearing and feeding sheep and black cattle at all seasons of the year, as the farm affords, from its abundant pasture and good shelter, perfect security in the most severe winters.
Along with the Sublease will be exposed,
The WHOLE STOCKING on the Farms, conform to inventory. The present Stocking consists of near four thousand Black faced Sheep and Black Cattle are not inferior to any flock in the Highlands of Scotland, either for bone, fashion, or [lacuna]; and after seven years trial, the farm has proved itself perfectly equal to maintain this number, besides having a considerable portion of the arable land kept constantly under a corn crop.
Within the last seven years about 700l. Sterling has been laid out in various useful improvements upon this farm which renders further expence unnecessary during the remainder of the lease, either in the erection of houses, sheep [lacuna], dykes, or inclosures of any kind; and the purchaser will also be intitled to draw certain meliorations from the proprietor, at the termination of the lease.
There are upon the premisses a complete set of office-houses, in good repair, and an excellent garden, containing half an acre of ground, well stored with young fruit trees, and sufficiently inclosed.
The dwelling-house is a commodious substantial new building neatly finished, and fit to accommodate a genteel family. It contains a large dining-room, a breakfasting parlour, four bed-rooms, three bed-closets, a kitchen, servants hall, three cellars, and three large garrets. The house, from its windows, commands a delightful view of the lake and banks of Lochness, the garrison and village of Fort Augustus, and of the wild and romantic scenes of Glentarse.
This place is peculiarly well adapted for a Summer Residence or Shooting Quarters; the adjacent hills and mountains abound with red deer, grouse, black cock, and tarmagan, and low grounds with hare, partridge, woodcock, and wild duck. The lakes and rivers, which are numerous, produce a great variety of excellent trout; and Lochness and the river oich abounds with salmon.
All necessary supplies from market can be easily and cheaply conveyed from Inverness, only 32 miles distant, by means of the navigation of Lochness, and the mail arrives at Fort Augustus three times a-week from Inverness, and as often from Fort William.
The farms being in a high state of improvement, the purchaser may reasonably expect, by proper management, a free profit from 300l. to 400l. per annum, during the currency of the lease. The subtenant will be entitled to take possession as at Martinmas next; and the price only payable at Whitsunday thereafter.
In a word, this purchase deserves the attention of sheep farmers in particular in point of profit – of the sportsman for his pleasure – and of every gentleman of taste, who wishes for a delightful, convenient, and healthy retirement in the country. In all these respects such an opportunity seldom occurs as the present sale offers.
Any of the shepherds or servants at Cullachy will show the farms and stocking; and for further particulars enquire at Alexander Stewart, Esq. of Achnacoan, or the Rev. Mr John Kennedy, at Aucheraw [Auchterawe], by Fort Augustus, or James Robertson, writer, Castlehill, Edinburgh, who will show the principal lease, and articles of roup.
Transcribed directly from the British Newspaper Archive. [Lacuna]s are just where the type couldn’t be deciphered or was too faded to read.
See Sallachy Hunting Lodge and Suidhe Viewpoint in Googlemaps for an idea of the area described.
– Gloomy Memories, Contemporary Newspaper Advertisements of Highland Land.
To the Editor of the Scottish Herald.
SIR, – An unaccountable apathy has come over the press this some time past regarding Highland affairs. Twelve months ago the nation was made to ring with indignant exclamations at the oppressions and privations under which our Celtic countrymen have been long groaning; but now there is as little said on the subject, as if the people on whose behalf so much complain of. This, however, is not the case. The grievances of the Gael still remain unredressed. They still continue to live, steeped in the same poverty and degradation which have been their lot since they were burned out of their ancient habitations in the valleys, and planted like sea fowls on the outskirts of their country. While a Highlander is left to shiver out a miserable existence on that dismal, sea-begirt locality which he has been compelled to exchange for his once comfortable inland farm – while one glen remains unoccupied, capable of affording adequate shelter and nourishment to him, the public ought not to be satisfied, and the press betrays its trust by remaining silent.
I have been led into these remarks in consequence of accidentally perusing an admirable work on the state of the Highlands, published in 1785 by Mr. John Knox, a man celebrated for his patriotism and enlightened philanthropy. About the period Mr. Knox wrote his book, the depopulating projects of the Highland lairds were in full operation, and this warmhearted individual resolved, if possible, to avert the ruin he saw impending over his country. He accordingly travelled alone through the glens and mountains of the north on horseback, with the view of convincing the chieftains of the cruelty and error of their conduct towards their unoffending clansmen, and devising schemes for the immediate relief and permanent elevation of those unhappy sons of toil; and since Mr. Knox’s day no author that I am aware of has written so powerfully on the distress of the Highlanders [‘A Tour through the Highlands of Scotland and the Hebride Isles’ (1786)], or displayed so minute and accurate a knowledge of the remedies best adapted for their condition. True, Mr. Knox was no flatterer of the great, no visionary dreamer. He did not, as is the modern custom, go to the Highlands to calumniate the natives, to represent them as drones and cumberers of the ground, in order to minister to the designs of a few rapacious capitalists and hard-hearted landowners; no, he went there to console the inhabitants under the hardships they were suffering – to proclaim to the world their patient industry, and the many noble virtues by which they were distinguished. But he was sensible his work was only half done when he accomplished these things. A practical benefactor, he examined into the fishing and agricultural capabilities of the country, and having, after incredible labour, satisfied himself that the Highlands teemed with resources, sufficient to sustain ten times the umber of human beings that were starving in those regions, he points out how the resources he had discovered might be called forth, and the aboriginal tribes thereby kept at home, and made useful citizens, instead of being banished like felons into far distant climes. O that Scotchmen of the present day would imbibe a little of Mr. Knox’s wisdom and fervour in this cause, and look with the same compassionate eye that he did towards the neglected hills of Caledonia: but, alas! I fear everything like a disinterested, manly public spirit is dead among us, and the age is vanished when the Highlanders would have disdained to ask any other aid save that of their own good swords to right their own wrongs. But did Mr. Knox content himself with using soft words while witnessing those terrible exhibitions of havoc, oppression, and expulsion which were then prevalent in the Highlands? Very far from it; being convinced that the chieftains were for their own mean and selfish ends madly bent on destroying a community that might be the glory and stay of their country inthe hour of peril, his indignation rose in proportion to the magnitude of crime those infatuated men were committing, and he speaks of their doings in the following emphatic terms:-
“I shall not waste paper on arguments which with some minds pass as tinkling sounds. Since neither the precepts of Christianity nor philosophy can make any impression – since humanity and avarice never can assimilate – we must change our ground, and trace the subject to its origin. The earth which we inhabit was given for the general support and benefit of all mankind, by a Being who is incapable of partiality or destinction; and though in the arrangements of society the earth is divided into very unequal proportions, and these confined to a few individuals, whilst the great body of the people are totally cut off, this distribution doth not give the possessors a shadow of right to deprive mankind of the fruits of their labour. The earth is the property of Him by whom it was called into existence; and, strictly speaking, no person hath an exclusive right to any part of it who cannot show a charter or deed handed down from the original and only Proprietor of all nature; if otherwise, they hold their possessions upon usage only. Grants of land were made by princes to their champions, friends and favourites; and these have been handed down from father to son, or by them transferred to new possessors; but where are the original charters from the Author of nature to those monarchs? In vain may we search the archives of nations from one extreme of the globe to the other. If so, and who can controvert it? the man who toils at the plough from five o’clock in the morning to sunset, and who sows the seed, hath undoubtedly a right to the produce thereof, preferably to the lounger who lies in bed till ten, and spends the remainder of the day in idleness, extravagance, and frivolous or vicious pursuits. The tenure of the former is held from God, founded on the eternal law of justice; the claim of the latter is from man, held in virtue of the revolutions and casual events of nations.
“He therefore who denies his fellow-creatures the just earnings oftheir labour counteracts the benevolent intentions of the Deity – deprives his king and country of an industrious and useful body of the community, whom he drives from starvation at home to slavery abroad – ought to be considered as an avowed enemy of society, particularly the man who can take the cow from the aged widow, and afterwards the bed, the kettle, and the chair – thus turning out the decrepid at fourscore to wander from door to door, till infirmities and grief close the scene of tribulation.
“Since human laws do not reach such persons, while petty rogues are cut off in dozens, their names ought to be published in every newspaper within these kingdoms, and themselves excluded from any place of honour or profit, civil or military.”
Now, Sir, let it be observed, these are not the sentiments of a person who had revolutionary or party purposes to serve, but the deliberate opinions of a philosophic, humane, generous, and independent spirit; who could take an enlarged view of the matter he had in hand, and sincerely feel for the distresses, and show that he had a thorough perception of the inalienable rights of his fellow-creatures. But I fatigue you, and I would just add in conclusion, let your readers ponder well the quotation I have just given them from Mr. Knox’s publication, and ask themselves the question, whether it is not as capable of being applied to landowners, both in the Highlands and Lowlands, in the 19th, as it was in the 18th century. I could instance facts to prove this; but, as I understand Mr. Donald McLeod is to give you a few sketches of some pictures of wretchedness he saw in Sutherland lately, I forbear inthe meanwhile, and shall simply refer you to him for practical illustrations of the truth of the general statements contained in this epistle.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
Edinburgh, 24th July, 1844.
– Gloomy Memories, pp.71-134.