St Barsabias, abbot, and his companions, martyrs, in Persia, 342. St Artemius, martyr, 362. St Zenobius, bishop of Florence, confessor, 5th century. St Sindulphus or Sendou, of Rheims, 7th century. St Aidan, bishop of Mayo, 768.
Born. – Stanislaus Leczinski, king of Poland, 1677.
Died. – Charles VI., king of France, 1422; Henri Basnage du Fraquenet, eminent lawyer, 1695, Rouen; Archibald Pitcairn, physician and author, 1713, Edinburgh; Charles VI., emperor of Germany, 1740; Michael Dahl, Swedish portrait-painter, 1743, London.
On this Day in Other Sources.
Bowie’s narrative of the descent of the [Campbell] family has the advantage of being founded, in all material parts, on charters and written evidence in the charter-room, to which, from his employment, he had access. He only alludes to the origin of the race, and its first settlement on Loch Awe,1 and then passes at once to Sir Colin of Glenurchy, the second son of the Lord of Loch Awe, who, on 20th October 1432, had a charter from his father of the territory of Glenurchy, and by the second of two illustrious marriages acquired the third of the great lordship of Lord.
– Sketches, pp.341-394.
1 “The Stock and Immediat Originall off the Howss of Glenurquhay.
“Imprimis, Duncane Campbell, commonlie callit Duncane in Aa, knicht of Lochow (lineallie discendit of ane valeant man, surnamit Campbell, quha cam to Scotland in King Malcolm Kandmoir his tyme, about the yeir of God 1067, off quhom came the howss of Lochow), quhilk floorisched in King David Bruce his dayis, etc.
“The foirsaid Duncane in Aa, knicht of Lochow, hade to wyffe Margaret Stewart, dochtir to Duke Murdoch, on whom he begatt tua sones, the eldar callit Archbald Campbell, the other namit Clene Campbell, quha wes the first laird of Glenurquhay discendit off the howss of Lochow off the name of Campbell.”
“The foirsaid Colene (quha eftirwart was stylit Sir Colene) receaving from his fatherm the 20 of October anno 1432, the foirscoir marklandis of Inuerynen, etc., lyand on Lochow, mareit to his first wyff, Mariott Stewart, dochtir to Walter Stewart of Albanie (sone to Isobell Duchess of Albanie and Countess of Lennox), quhilk Mariott departit schortlie thaireftir but successioun.
“The said Sir Colene, eftir the deceis of his said first wyffe, mareit Jonett Stewart, eldest dochtir to William Stewart, lord of Lorne (with quhom he gatt, in name of tochirgude, the auchtene markland of the bray of Lorne, hir father being then alyve. Bot eftir hir said father his deceis, the hail lordschip of Lorne falling to his thre dochteris heretrices thairoff, the said Sir Colene, be vertew of his vyff, eldest of the three, fell to the haill superioritie of the lordschip of Lorne, and first thrid thairoff, extending to tua hundreth and fyftie marklandis). On hir he begatt ane sone callit Sir Duncan Campbell, quha succedit laird of Glenurquhay, and ane dochtir callit Geilles Campbell, quha wes mareit on McCowle in Lorne.”
“The said Sir Colene, being tutour to his brother sone Colene Campbell (quha wes maid first Erle of Ergyle), he mareit him on the secund heretrice of Lorne, and thaireftir (for the favour he bure to him, and the standing of his hows) frelie dimittit unto him the superioritie of the hail lordschip of Lorne.
∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
“And biggit, induring the tyme of his tutoritie to his brother sone foresaid, the Castell of Inuerraray. Item, thaireftir he biggit to him selff the Castell of Ilankeilquhirn, in Glenurquhay. Item, the barmekyn wall of the Isle of Lochtay, and the toure of Straphilane.
“Memorandum, the said Sir Colene, throch his valiant actis and manheid, was maid knicht in the Isle of Rhodos (quhilk standeth in the Carpathian Sea, near to Caria, ane countrie of Asia the les), and wes thre sundrie tymes in Rome.”
The 20th of October, this same year , the Queen was brought to bed of a son, christened Arthur; about which time the French King sends in a [gift] to King James, two goodly ships full of all kinds of ammunition for war.
– Historical Works, pp.214-238.
In Carrubber’s Close stood the ancient Tailor’s Hall, the meeting-place of a corporation whose charter, granted to them by the Town Council, is dated 20th October, 1531, and with their original one, was further confirmed by charters from James V. and James VI. They had an altar in St. Giles’s Church dedicated to their patron St. Ann, and the date of their seal of cause is 1500. They had also an altar dedicated to St. Ann in the Abbey church, erected in 1554 by permission of Robert Commendator of Holyrood.
-Old and New Edinburgh, pp.235-241.
Finding that his castle was no longer his safest shelter, Huntley sent his wife to the Queen, on the 20th of October, [1562,] to explain to the Queen his innocence, and his intentions: but, that respectable woman was not admitted, within two miles of the court. He now sent a messenger, “offering to enter into ward, till his cause might be tried, by the whole nobility:” but this offer was refused, however reasonable, it was in itself, and consistent with the minister’s policy. Huntley, at length, meditated to retire into the fastnesses of the highlands: but, in an unlucky hour, for himself, and his family, he resolved to appeal to arms, which could avail him little, under such circumstances.
Huntley was thus driven to commit an offence of great magnitude. And, he came forward to Corrachie, within twelve miles of Aberdeen, with five hundred new raised men, some of whom, daily, deserted him, in order to force his way to the Queen’s presence, like Essex, at a subsequent day, when he attempted to gain access to Elizabeth, by forcible means. He had, at length, taken his ground; and, by doing so, had fallen into the snare, which had been laid for him, by so many artifices. Murray, as the Queen’s lieutenant, now marched out, from Aberdeen, with two thousand men, to surround the victim of his policy. Huntley had taken his position, on a hill of difficult access: but, he was driven from it, by the harquebusiers, into a narrow morass below: and, he was here obliged to surrender, with his two sons, Sir John, and Adam, a boy of seventeen, after a very slight resistance. Huntley had only with him, adds Randolph, his own friends, tenants, and servants, of whom divers, in two nights before, stole secretly, from him: of those, that remained, there were slain 120; on the other side, not one man, but divers hurt, and many horses slain. Murray, when he marched out of Aberdeen against the Earl, had about 2000, said Randolph, with Athol, Morton, and many other noblemen.
– Life of Mary, pp.62-77.
It was partly owing to those passions of Elizabeth, but still more to another principle, which she avowed, in one of her letters, that the Queen of Scots‘ head should never rest, that Mary was removed, in April, to Winkfield, in Derbyshire. Winkfield, says Camden, was a very great, and goodly manour, where Ralph, Lord Cromwell, in the reign of Henry VI. built a stately house, for those days. Shrewsbury, whose liberal spirit disposed him to treat a woman, and a Queen, with gentleness, was so harassed, by the guilty passions, and the watchfulness of his wife, that he was thrown into several fits of violent disease. The intrigues of the Countess of Shrewsbury were officious, and incessant, with Elizabeth’s court: And, the Scotish Queen, on the 20th of October 1569, wrote to Secretary Walsingham, from Winkfield; “earnestly requesting him, to attach no credit to the schemes, and accusations of La Comptesse que est maintenant avec vous;” as she is a mortal enemy to her, and her son; and has even attempted her life; the Queen added, she could defend herself against the calumnious reports of the said comptesse, before all the kings, and princes, in christendom.
– Life of Mary, pp.235-244.
Oct. 20 . – ‘The Earl of Mar, regent, ended his life about three hours in the morning. It was constantly affirmed, that about the time of his death, the trough of the water of Montrose, where it runneth through his lands, was dry, the water running nevertheless above [higher up]. At the same time, a violent wind drave a great number of sheep from the links of Montrose into the sea.’ – Cal.
Some events of the kind did certainly occur about the time of the Regent’s death; but, contrary to all rule in such matters, they came after that event, if we are to believe another historian, who places them under November, and describes them as follows: ‘In this mean time was ane great ferly in Montrose. By the space of six hours, the water thereof was dry in the sea, and during the whilk space the people past within the said sea, and got sundry fishes.’ – D. O.
– Domestic Annals, pp.45-55.
Oct. 20 . – The Estates passed an act against ‘strang and idle beggars,’ and ‘sic as make themselves fules and are bards;’ likewise against ‘the idle people calling themselves Egyptians, or any other that feigns them to have knowledge of charming, prophecy, or other abused sciences, whereby they persuade the people that they can tell their weird, deaths, and fortunes, and sic other fantastical imaginations.’ The act condemns all sorts of vagrant idle people, including ‘minstrels, sangsters, and tale-tellers, not avowed in special service by some of the lords of parliament or great burghs,’ and ‘vagabond scholars of the universities of St Andrews, Glasgow, and Aberdeen.’
– Domestic Annals, pp.81-98.
Oct. 20 . – In a General Assembly held at Edinburgh, an order was issued to execute the acts of the kirk upon apostates; ‘particularly that the Laird of Dun execute this act upon the Master of Gray, an apostate now returned to Scotland. It being reported to the king that the Master of Gray his house did shake and rock in the night as with an earthquake, and the king [then fourteen years old] interrogating David Ferguson [minister of Dunfermline], “What he thought it could mean that that house alone should shake and totter?” he answered: “Sir, why should not the devil rock his awn bairns?”’ – Row’s History.
– Domestic Annals, pp.81-98.
Oct. 20 . – Before this time, soap was imported into Scotland from foreign countries, chiefly from Flanders. The king now gave a patent to Mr Nathaniel Uddart for the manufacture of soap within the country, and Mr Nathaniel accordingly raised a goodly work at Leith, furnishing it with all matters pertaining to the business.
– Domestic Annals, pp.177-227.
As regards the Cathedral, it was resolved by the town council that “grate paines be takin by making of the sait for the assemblie; repairing of the flure of the uter kirk; taking doun certain windous in the inner kirk biggit up with stane, and putting glass thairin; and other warks thair incumbent, as occasion sall offer.”1 The repairs then and previously made prevented the fabric from falling to ruin, but it continued in a sadly neglected state down to the period of its restoration in the present century – a noble work if it had not been marred by the act of vandalism which I have referred to.
– Old Glasgow, pp.104-116.
1 20th October, 1638.
At subsequent meetings the mode of assessment was arranged, and in the following year there is an order that “intimatioun be made be sound of drum to certifie all personis wha comes not to pay thair contributioun at the ringing of the bell, as sall be appoyntit to that effect, sall be poynded for the double, and thair names oppinlie publisched in the kirks who refuses to doe the samyn.”1
– Old Glasgow, pp.289-299.
1 20th Oct. 1639.
A difference appears to have been made between “Inglische Schooles” and a lower order of institutions called “Scots Schooles.” Two years after the date of the last-mentioned minute there is an order of the council “to tak up the names of all persounes men or weomen who keepes Scots Schooles within the toune and to report.”1
– Old Glasgow, pp.276-289.
1 20th October, 1660.
Coming to the real and only marriage of Grizel Bell, the provost’s second daughter (called Janet by McUre), the chronicler has confused the facts. Alexander Bell, her husband, was a writer in Edinburgh in 1657, as the retour says, not then “of Antermony,” which he must have acquired afterwards. Their son was not Alexander, for the printed retours of Dunbartonshire show that on 20th October, 1676, James Bell was served heir of his father Alexander Bell of Achtermainzie, in the 8 merk land of old extent of Achtermainzie, composed of certain lands in the parish of Campsie, united into the barony of that name;
- Scots Lore, pp.141-148.
Oct . – Lord Lovat, writing to the Lord President Forbes on the 20th of this month, adverts to the effect of the civil broils in giving encouragement to men of prey in the Highlands. He says: ‘This last fortnight, my cousin William [Fraser], Struie’s uncle, that is married to Kilbockie’s daughter, and who is a very honest man, and she a good woman, had twenty fine cows stolen from him. The country [that is, the country-people] went upon The track, and went into Lochaber and to Rannoch, and came up with the thieves in my Lord Breadalbane’s forest of Glenurchy. The thieves, upon seeing the party that pursued them, abandoned the cattle, and ran off; and William brought home his cattle, but had almost died, and all that was with him, of fatigue, cold, and hunger; but, indeed, it is the best-followed track that ever I heard of in any country. You see how loose the whole country is, when four villains durst come a hundred miles, and take up the best cattle they could find in this country; for they think there is no law, and that makes them so insolent.’
– Domestic Annals, pp.398-408.
Steps were, however, immediately taken to put the latter threat – my removal – my banishment! – into execution.
Determined to leave no means untried to obtain deliverance, I prepared an humble memorial in my own name, and that of the helpless orphans, whose protector I was, and had it transmitted to the Marquis and Marchioness of Stafford, praying for an investigation. In consequence of this on the very term day, on which I had been ordered to remove, I received a verbal message from one of the under-factors, that it was the noble proprietor’s pleasure that I should retain possession, repair my houses and provide my fuel as usual, until Mr. Loch should come to Sutherlandshire, and then my case would be investigated. On this announcement becoming known to my opponent, he became alarmed, and the parish minister no less so, that the man he feasted with was in danger of being disgraced: every iron was therefore put in the fire, to defeat and ruin Donald for his presumption in disputing the will of a factor, and to make him an example to deter others from a similar rebellion.
The result proved how weak a just cause must prove in Sutherland, or anywhere against the cruel despotic factors and graceless ministers; my case was judged and decided before Mr. Loch left London! I, however, got Jeddart justice,* for on that gentleman’s arrival, I was brought before him for examination, though, I had good reason to know, my sentence had been pronounced in London six weeks before, and everything he said confirmed what I had been told. I produced the receipts and other documents, and evidence, which proved fully the statements in my memorial and vindicated my character apparently to his satisfaction. He dismissed me courteously, and in a soothing tone of voice bade me go home and make myself easy, and before he left the country he would let me know the result. I carried home the good news to my wife, but her fears, her dreams, and forebodings were not so easily got over, and the event proved that her apprehensions were too well founded, for on the 20th October, 1830, about a month after the investigation by Mr. Loch, the concluding scene took place.
On that day a messenger with a party of eight men following entered my swelling (I being away about forty miles off at work), about 3 o’clock just as the family were rising from dinner; my wife was seized with a fearful panic at seeing the fulfilment of all her worst forebodings about to take place. The party allowed no time for parley, but having put out the family with violence, proceeded to fling out the furniture, bedding, and other effects in quick time, and after extinguishing the fire, proceeded to nail up the doors and windows in the face of the helpless woman, with a sucking infant at her breast, and three other children, the eldest under eight years of age, at her side. But how shall I describe the horrors of that scene? Wind, rain and sleet were ushering in a night of extraordinary darkness and violence, even in that inclement region. My wife and children, after remaining motionless a while in mute astonishment at the ruin which had so suddenly overtaken them, were compelled to seek refuge for the night under some neighbour’s roof, but they found every door shut against them! Messengers had been dispatched warning all the surrounding inhabitants, at the peril of similar treatment, against affording shelter, or assistance, to the wife, child, or animal belonging to Donald McLeod. The poor people, well aware of the rigour with which such edicts were carried into execution, durst not afford my distressed family any assistance in such a night as even an “enemy’s dog” might have expected shelter. After spending most part of the night in fruitless attempts to obtain the shelter of a roof or hovel, my wife at last returned to collect some of her scattered furniture, and erect with her own hands a temporary shelter against the walls of her late comfortable residence, but even this attempt proved in vain; the wind dispersed her materials as fast as she could collect them, and she was obliged to bide the pelting of the pitiless storm with no covering but the frowning heavens, and no sounds in her ears but the storm, and the cries of her famishing children. Death seemed to be staring them in the face, for by remaining where they were till morning, it was next to impossible even the strongest of them could survive, and to travel any distance amid the wind, rain, and darkness, in that rugged district, seemed to afford no prospect but that of death by falling over some of the cliffs or precipices with which they were surrounded, or even into the sea, as many others had done before.
– Gloomy Memories, pp.46-49.
* Jeddart justice – means when a man was hanged first and tried afterward.
“IS SCOTLAND A PART OF BRITAIN OR ONLY A PART OF ENGLAND?
TO THE EDITORS OF THE EVENING TELEGRAPH.
SIR, – In Wednesday’s paper your special telegraphic news began with a paragraph headed ‘England and Arabi.’ Why ‘England?’ England has nothing more to do with Arabi than has Scotland or Ireland. The paragraph itself was quoted from the London Daily News, and began, ‘Arabi must and will have fairplay when England is standing by;’ and went on – ‘The Khedive and his Ministers owe their power to the English arms.’ This English fashion of naming ‘England’ in place of ‘Britain’ is a fashion which, I think, the Scottish people, as represented by the Scottish press, ought steadily to resist.
It involves, first of all, wherever used, whether in England or in Scotland, a gross historical blunder, and, I may add, a gross historical injustice. In point of fact, no such State exists as England. England as a State ceased to exist in 1707, when she and Scotland became united into one new State by the name – not of ‘England,’ but of ‘Great Britain.’ And so far from the name being deemed a matter of trifling importance, the very first Article in the Treaty of Union expressly provides that the new State formed by the union of the two kingdoms of England and Scotland shall be called, not by the name of either kingdom, but by the new name of ‘Great Britain.’ In like manner the Third Article provides that ‘the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament, to be styled the Parliament of Great Britain.’ To speak, therefore, of ‘the English Parliament,’ ‘the English army,’ ‘England standing by,’ and so forth, is historically both a blunder and an injustice. And it seems to me that our Scottish press, on which the Scottish nation in a matter like this has to depend so much, should see that in Scotland at least this injustice is not done; and should, in printing an English telegram or quoting from an English paper, correct this English blunder, just as it would correct an error in spelling or a manifest slip in the name of some public man.
But this is worse than a mere blunder, worse even than a mere evasion of the letter of the law. It is a fashion that will, if it be permanently adopted, rob Scotland of her most glorious and inspiring traditions, and so far weaken the empire itself by taking away from Scotland the inspiration of her history. Some people pooh-pooh this idea, because they do not trouble themselves to think. But no man who reflects for a moment will estimate lightly the influence upon a nation of a noble historical record. England is right in being proud of her history and of her name. It is one of the elements of her dignity and power. But Scotland, not less than England, has a history – an ancient and noble history – a history that is a power and inspiration to every Scotchman that deserves the name. Under the name of ‘Great Britain,’ Scotland and England ring both their names and both their histories into union. The empire is stronger for both, and for want of either the empire would be so much the weaker. Ask the English – even those who honour Scotland most – how they would feel if the British Empire were called ‘Scotland,’ and the army ‘the Scottish army,’ and the Government ‘the Scottish Government.’ If there is nothing in a name (as some people thoughtlessly say), then there could be no objection to this change. But the Englishman, when the question is put in that form, sees at once what he is so apt meantime to miss. He sees that under the name of ‘Scotland’ he, as an Englishman, would lose his place in history, and be robbed of the glorious names and the glorious deeds identified for a thousand years with the name of England. A Scotchman is a Briton, but he is not an Englishman; and under the English name Scotchmen are pushed into connection with a local history that is not theirs, and away from the history of their own country, glorious with the names of Wallace, of Bruce, of John Knox, of a thousand more, all of them fountains of manly pride and noble inspiration, which even in the interest of the empire it would be wiser of England to help Scotland preserve… Surely a man who can use the word ‘British’ at one end of his sentence could learn without much difficulty to use it also at the other. It is worth remembering, further, that public men when they come to Scotland and find the reception that awaits them when they begin before a Scottish audience to speak about national interests as ‘English,’ are found quite able on their return – or even in their next speech in Scotland – to use the proper terms. Lord Palmerston never forgot the wholesome lesson taught him when he came to Glasgow first and spoke of Scotland as ‘that part of England north of the Tweed.’ Those who think that Scotchmen are indifferent on this question should have seen that sight. But Palmerston knew the value of national feeling and honest pride in one’s fatherland; and when he returned he not only spoke of ‘Britain’ and ‘the British,’ where formerly he said ‘England’ and ‘English,’ but he applauded the Scottish people for ‘treasuring up in their hearts the honourable and glorious traditions of their country.’.. – I am, &c.,
– Dundee Evening Telegraph, Friday 20th October, 1882.
– Newspaper Articles and Letter Relating to the Treaty of Union, Articles 1875-1900.
These 3 monuments used to be 4, if I remember correctly, though that’s all my memory gives me for these. They are related in some way (I will find out!). The only inscription that can be (kind of) read is that of the middle memorial:
ERECTED BY THE CORPORATION
OF THE CITY OF GLASGOW
IN MEMORY OF
WHO WAS KILLED AT [Lacuna] PIT AYRSHIRE
ON THE 20TH OCTOBER 1893.
It seems as though they were victims of some kind of mining disaster.