Containing an Account of Indigenous Animals, Plants, and Fossils; Vegetables, Part II., pp.238-249.

[History of Rutherglen Contents]

IN Kilbride, both soil and climate are unfavourable for the luxuriant production of exotic plants. Fruit trees very seldom do well: and a flower of any delicacy is hardly to be found. Small fruit comes to much greater perfection than the large. This is ascribed to the cold schistus, or till, that lies at no great depth from the surface; and which greatly injures the roots of large fruit trees, whilst the roots of Currant and Gooseberry bushes, not striking so deep, suffer less hurt. Besides, the trees are much injured by various species of Lichens, which almost wholly cover their bark. This, probably, is owing chiefly to the coldness and stiffness of the soil. The disease of the root greatly hurts the bark, by depriving it of that solidity, and smoothness, which are conducive to the health of the plant. The natural consequence is, that the very minute seeds, of the extremely prolific genus of Lichens, lodge in the blemishes of the bark. In these convenient apartments, replete with proper nourishment, they grow with amazing luxuriancy. That the fertility of the lichen is owing more to the soil than to the climate, appears from this, that some trees and shrubs, of the same species with those that are covered with it, and which are exposed to the same climate, but which happen to grow in a better soil, are greatly exempted. 

IN Rutherglen greater encouragement, both from soil and climate, is given for the cultivation of exotics. The gardens and orchards at Farme, Hamilton-Farm, Hanging-shaw, and Rosebank are in a tolerable condition. 

TO enumerate all the indigenous plants of these parishes, would render this part of the subject unnecessarily prolix. I shall therefore content myself with giving the following List of such as are not very frequently met with in this country.


of Scarce Indigenous Plants,


Adoxa  moschatellina  Tuberous Moschatel. Banks of Calder. 
Æthusa  meum  Bawd-money. Kittochside, Crosshill in Kilbride
Agrimonia  eupatoria  Agrimony. Crossbasket, Farme
Aira  caryophylea  Silver Hair Grass. Scotstoun
A.  coespitosa  Turfy [Hair Grass]. Whitemoss
A.  flexuosa  Mountain [Hair Grass]. Maxwelltown
Allium  ursinum  Ramsons, or Wild Garlic.1 Mauchlan-hole
Anemone  nemerosa  Wood Anemone. Banks of Clyde and Calder
Anthericum  ossifragum  Bastard Asphodel. Peat-mosses, K. 
Anthyllis  vulneraria  Kidney Vetch. Quarry near Philipshill, and pastures between Kittochside & Carmunnock moor
Arenaria  rubra  Purple-flower’d Chick-weed. Stonelaw
Arum  maculatum  Wake-Robin. Under a hedge at Castelmilk
Asperula  odorata  Woodroof. Banks of Calder
Asplenium  scolopendrium  Harts-Tongue. Fissures of rocks near Calderwood
A.  trichomanoides  Common Maidenhair. Banks of Calder
A.  ruta muraria  Wall Rue. Walls at Calderwood
A.  adiantum nigrum  Black Maidenhair. Browncastle
Boletus  igniarius  Touch-Wood Boletus. On decayed wood, Kilbride
B.  auriformis  Earlike Boletus. Castelmilk, R. 
B.  lateralis  Lateral Boletus. Woodside
Bromus  sterilis  Barren Brome-Grass. In the hedge between Rutherglen and Farme
B.  giganteus  Tall Brome-Grass. [In the hedge between Rutherglen and Farme.]
Byssus  aurea  Saffron Rock Byssus. On stones in Polliskin-glen
B.  candida  White Cobweb Byssus. Ruth
B.  botryoides  Green Cluster Byssus. Bank of Crossbasket
Campanula  rotundifolia  Round-leav’d Bell-flower.2 Blawart, Scotis
C.  latifolia  Giant Throatwort. Banks at Calderwood, and in a hedge between Hamilton-Farm & Clyde
Cardamine  hirsuta  Hairy Ladies-Smock. Gillburnsynke
Carex  montana  Vernal Carex. Moors, Kilbride
Carex  vulpina  Great rought Carex. Banks of Cl
Chara  vulgaris  Common Chara. Ditches at Rogertounn, Limekilns, and Hamilton-Farm
Cheiranthus  cheiri  Wall Flower. Ruins of Mains
Chenopodium  bonus henricus  All-good. South-side of the church-yard next the main street, Ruth
Chrysosplenium  oppositifolium  Common Golden Saxifrage. Banks of Calder, &c
C.  alternifolium  Alternate-leav’d Golden Saxifrage. Mauchlan-hole, and banks at Castelmilk
Circæa  lutetiana  Enchanter’s Night-shade. Gillburnsynke
C.  alpina  Mountain Night-shade. Mauchlan-hole
Conferva  rivularis  River Conferva. Kittoch at the Piel
C.  fontinalis  Spring Conferva. Polliskin-glen, Cart
C.  gelatinosa  Frog-Spawn Conferva. In the Cart a little above Rawhead
Convolvulus  sepium  Great Bindweed. Hedges near Farme
Cratægus  oxyacantha  Hawthorn. Banks of Cl. & Cald
Cucubalus  behen  Bladder Campion. Kittochside
Daucus  carota  Wild Carrot.3 Scotstoun, Rosebank
Drosera  rotundifolia  Round-leav’d Sundew.4 Peat-mosses, Kilbride
Empetrum  nigrum  Crow-Berries. Moors, Kilbride
Equisetum  sylvaticum  Wood Horse-tail. Crossbasket
Erica  vulgaris alba  White-flowering Heath. Herstocks
E.  cinerea  Fine-leav’d Heath. Banks of Calder, Moors
E.  tetralix  Cross-leav’d Heath. [Banks of Calder, Moors.] 
Erysimum  barbarea  Winter Cresses. Castelmilk, and banks of Calder below Calderw
E.  alliaria  Sauce-alone. Rocks at Calderw
Festuca  decumbens  Decumbent Fescu-Grass. West quarry, Rutherglen
Filago  germanica  Common Cudweed. Stonelaw
F.  montana  Least Cudweed. Galloflat
Fontinalis  antipyretica  Great Water-moss. Calder, Cart
F.  minor  Less Water-moss. Gillburnsynke. 
Gentiana  campestris  Gentian. Ardochrig
Glecoma  hederacea  Ground-Ivy. Banks near Torr
Gnaphalium  dioicum  Mountain Cudweed. Bank of Cald. near Pateshall, Rawhead
Helvella  mitra (fortasse Curled Helvella.5
Hieracium  murorum  Wall Hawkweed. At a wall near Limekilns
Hydnum  repandum  Yellow smooth Hydnum. Woods near Torrance
Hypericum  quadrangulum  St. Peter’s Wort. Banks of Crossbasket
H.  perforatum  St. John’s Wort. Banks of Clyde and Calder
H.  humifusum  Trailing St. John’s Wort. [Banks of Clyde and Calder.] 
H.  hirsutum  Hairy [St. John’s Wort. Banks of Clyde and Calder.] 
H.  pulchrum  Elegant [St. John’s Wort.] Crossbasket
Hypnum  bryoides  Little pinnated Hypnum. In a clump of firs near Stonelaw
H.  undulatum  Waved Hypnum. Polliskin-glen
Jasione  montana  Sheep’s Scabious. Way-side near Galloflat, Hamilton-Farm
Ilex  aquifolium  Holly-Tree. Banks of Calder
Imperatoria  ostruthium  Masterwort. In an old wall at Langland-house, and waste ground near Jackton
Lichen  scriptus, geographicus, &c. &c. &c This numerous genus of plants grows very plentifully in Kilbride. 
Ligustrum  vulgare  Privet. Bank of Calder a little above Torrance
Lychnis  dioica  Wild Campion. Banks of Clyde and Calder
L.  flos cuculi  meadow Pink. Avenues at Torr
Lycopodium  clavatum  Common Club-Moss. Moors, K
L.  selago  Fir Club-Moss. [Moors, K.] 
Lysimachia  nemorum  Yellow Pimpernell of the woods. Mauchlan-hole
Lythrum  salicaria  Willow Herb, or Loosestrife. Clinkert-hill
Marchantia  polymorpha  Great star-headed Marchantia. Pateshall
Melampyrum  pratense  Meadow Cow-wheat. Mauchl. 
Menyanthes  trifoliata  Trefoil. Meadows near Mains
Mercurialis  perennis  Dog’s Mercury.6 Banks of Clyde and Calder
Myriophyllum  spicatum  Spiked Water Millfoil. In ponds at Galloflat, Farme & Torrance
Ononis  arvensis  Restharrow. Way-side at Shawfield bank
Osmunda  spicant  Rough Spleen-wort. Polliskin-glen
Parietaria  officinalis  Pellitory of the wall. In an old dyke, on the road-side, between Rutherglen and the Farme
Paris  quadrifolia  Herb Paris. Banks a little above Calderwood
Peziza  cyathoides  Smooth scarlet Peziza. [Banks a little above Calderwood.] 
Phalaris  arundinacea  Reed-grass. Clyde
Phallus  impudicus  Stinking Morel. In a belt of Firs above Calderwood
Pilularia  globulifera  Pepper-Grass. In the pond at Galloflat
Pimpinella  saxifraga  Burnet Saxifrage. Pastures near Kittochside
Pinguioula  vulgaris  Butterwort. Rawhead Moor
Plantago  lanceolata ß multacapita  7
P.  maritima  Sea Plantain. On the way-side, near the entry of the avenue into Whitemoss
Polygonum  bistorta  The greater Bistort, or Snake-weed. In the east end of Shawfield-bank; in waste ground near Kilbride, and in a bank at Castelmilk in great abundance
P.  convolvulus  Black Bindweed. In corn-fields, Rutherglen
P.  hydropiper  Water-Pepper. Stonelaw
P.  amphibium  Perennial Arsmart. Shawfield-bank
Polypodium  vulgare  Common Polypody. Banks of Calder
P.  lonchitis  Rough P. In fissures of rocks below Calderwood
P.  phegopteris  Soft pale-stalked P. Near the Cascade at Mauchlan-hole
P.  cristatum  Crested P. Polliskin-glen
P.  aculeatum  Prickly P. Crossbasket
P.  fragile  Fine-leav’d brittle P. Gillburnsynke
P.  dryopteris  Small-branch’d P. Polloskin-glen


filix mas 

filix femina 

Male and Female Feru. Banks and way-sides
Potomogeton  natans  Broad-leav’d Pondweed. Peat-mosses, Kilbride
P.  perfoliatum  Perfoliated P. Clyde
P.  crispum  Curled P. [Clyde.] 
P.  compressum  Flat-stalk’d P. Pond at Castelmilk
P.  gramineum  Grass-leav’d P. Clyde
Prunus  padus  Bird-Cherry, Gillburnsynke, and the bank from that to Crossbasket
Ranunculus  hederaceous  Ivy-leav’d Water Crowfoot. In spouty ground at Whitemoss, Crosshill, Braehead, &c. 
R.  aquatilis  Various-leav’d Water Crowfoot. In Clyde, Calder, Cart, and in a rivulet between Nook and Bossfield
Reseda  luteola  Dyers-weed, or Strawaald. East-quarry, Rutherglen
Rubus  ideaus  Raspberry-Bush. Calderwood, Crossbasket, Torrance
Sambucus  ebulus  Dwarf Elder, or Dane-wort. On the road-side between Kittochside and Carmunnock
Sanicula  europæa  Sanicle. Woodside
Scabiosa  succisa  Devil’s Bit. East-quarry, Law-moor
Scirpus  setaceous  The least Rush. Clinkert-hill
Scrophularia  nodosa  Fig-wort. Banks of Clyde
Scuttellaria  minor  Little Scull-cap. Rosebank
Sedum  villosum  Marsh Stonecrop. Highflat, Rigfoot
Senecio  viscosus  Viscid Groundsel. Rawhead
Solanum  dulcamara  Common Woody Night-shade. In hedges near Farme
Sorbus  aucuparia  Quicken-Tree, or Mountain Ash. The Rown, or Roan-Tree. (Scotis.) Banks of Calder
Spergula  nodosa  Knotted Spurry. Clinkert-hill
Stellaria  nemorum  Broad-leav’d Stichwort. Banks of Clyde, and under a hedge near Drumlaw
S.  Holostea  Greater Stichwort. Woodside
S.  graminea  Lesser [Stichwort.] Farme, Rosebank
Symphytum  officinale  Comfrey. Under a hedge at Castelmilk
Teucrium  scorodonia  Wood Sage. Banks of Clyde, Kittoch, Calder
Thymus  serpyllum  Mother of Thyme. Drumlaw, Rogertoun
Trifolium  mel. officinalis  Melilot. On the road-side between Rutherglen and Farme
Triglochin  palustre  Arrow-headed Grass. Ditches and peat-mosses near Crosshill, Kilbride
Trollius  europæus  Lucken-Gowan. (Scotis) Globe-Flower. (Anglis) Mauchlan-hole, and meadows in the higher parts of Kilbride
Tufsilago  petasites  Common Butter-bur. In the artificial bank at Hamilton-Farm
Vaccinium  myrtillus  Blae-berries (Scotis) Billberries (Anglis.) Banks of Calder, and moors in Kilbride
V.  oxycoccos  Common Cranberry, or Mossberry. Peat-mosses, Kilbride
Valantia  cruciata  Crosswort. Banks of Clyde
Valeriana  officinalis  Valerian. Rutherglen-Green, Polliskin-glen
V.  locusta  Corn-Sallad, or Lamb’s Lettuce. Calderwood
Verbascum  thapsus  Broad-leav’d Mullein, Shepherd’s Club (Scotis.) In old walls at Calderwood
Veronica  hederifolia  Ivy-leav’d Speedwell, or small Henbit. In gardens near R
Viburnum  apulus  Marsh Viburnum, or Gelder-Rose. Polliskin-glen, Gillburnsynke
1  Cows eat this plant so plentifully, in the beginning of Summer, that the milk partakes of the taste and smell of garlic. 
2  I mention this plant not because it is rare, but because it has given a proper name to some places in Scotland; as Blawart-hill in the parish of Renfrew. 
3  Although this useful plant grows abundantly in Rutherglen, Cambuslang, Blantyre and some other neighbouring parishes; yet I could not find, in all the parish of Kilbride, more than a specimen or two. The scarcity is probably owing to the exposed situation of the place. 
4  Dr. Borlase (Hist. Cornw. p. 230.) says, “that this plant is extremely hurtful to sheep that feed upon it, and of which they eat greedily, wherever they find it. Its hurtful qualities are thought to be owing to an insect, or worm, which, feeding on this herb, lays its eggs on the leaf, and fixes them there by some poisonous gum: the eggs are swallowed with the flower and leaf, and, eluding the menstrua of the stomach, get into the chyle and blood: they are detained in the capillary vessels of the liver, where, meeting with the requisite degree of heat and moisture, they fecundate; the animalcules grow, and there make holes in which several of them lodge together, and feed upon the liver, till it can no longer perform the functions of its station, and the sheep dies. In Cornwall sheep-feeders take all possible care that the sheep may not come near it.” 
5  Of this plant I found several specimens, in a wood near Castelmilk, in the month of October 1792. The stalk was about an inch in height, and ⅛ in thickness. It was cylindrical and solid, and grew from a thick tuberculated, or bulbous-like root, without fibres. The pileus was entire, but greatly deflexed on two sides, whilst the other sides were raised up in two regular arches. The margin all round bended upwards with a beautiful curve. The colour was a bright white; but faded a little in the dry state. The substance was wax-like, brittle and soft to the touch. Neither the stalk, nor pileus, was ornamented with furrows, gills or pores; but, when viewed through a magnifying glass, seemed to be covered with a kind of down. All the specimens were growing separately. 
6  A whole family, in the parish of Cambuslang, was, a few years ago, poisoned nearly to death, by drinking an infusion of this plant, which, by mistake, had been gathered in place of the Teucrium Scorodonia, or Wood Sage. 
7  I have taken the liberty to give this name to a variety of Ribwort, which, in 1790, I found growing at Stonelaw; and a specimen of which I transplanted into Major John Spens’ garden at Rutherglen, where it now grows in great perfection. Every stalk bears about 12 or 15 spikes, which are sessile, and adhere to the base of the main spike. they are, however, well shaped, and bear seed: but whether the seeds will produce the same variety is yet uncertain.

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