Gender-Fluidity in Scottish History

[IndyLive Research Contents]

The history of those seeking to physically change their gender doesn’t extend further back than the 1930s really, when surgery became available, in a limited & pretty basic fashion, for that purpose. Prior to the 20th century the most that could be achieved was in how you dressed, styled, and carried yourself. But even with these limited means there were those who were able to find themselves accepted as the opposite gender to the sex assigned to them at birth and through their youth. This often meant a complete separation from family and early acquaintances as well as region in order to complete the change to be fully accepted. There are instances where some came into contact with folk who’d known them previously and, through fear of discovery, had to abscond and start from scratch elsewhere. The lengths that were gone to by these people, showed in itself that the desire within them was a strong one, regardless of the motivating factors. Being found out, however, was a guarantee of the law getting involved and a bucket-load of shame being dumped on them. We covered how shame was used as a strong deterrent towards those of the homosexual demographic in our last episode. It destroyed a person’s future prospects.  

All over Asia, however, those people who consider themselves transgender can find themselves with a somewhat higher social status. They’re seen as embodying both male and female attributes and are in a sense seen as more whole human-beings. They’re sought as teachers and sometimes religious authorities. For example, in a letter written, from Indonesia, in 1544 to the Portuguese bishop of the Indian state of Goa, Portuguese Christian missionary, De Paiva, wrote; 

   “Your Lordship will know that the priests of these kings are generally called bissus. They grow no hair on their beards, dress in a womanly fashion, and grow their hair long and braided; they imitate [woman’s] speech because they adopt all of the female gestures and inclinations. They marry and are received, according to the custom of the land, with other common men, and they live indoors, uniting carnally in their secret places with the men whom they have for husbands …” 

These bissus were revered as almost sacred beings and had a huge amount of influence and respect within the Indonesian hierarchy. The Indonesian populace saw people who were solely male or female as having lost a part of themselves and therefore the ability to communicate with the deities. 

In 1848 an Englishman called James Brooke visited Indonesia and recorded the following in his journal: 

   “The strangest custom I have observed is that some men dress like women, and some women like men; not occasionally, but all their lives, devoting themselves to the occupations and pursuits of their adopted sex. In the case of the males, it seems that the parents of a boy, upon perceiving in him certain effeminacies of habit and appearance, are induced thereby to present him to one of the rajahs, by whom he is received. These youths often acquire much influence over their masters.” 

In Malaysia these dual-gendered people are called sida-sida and were, likewise, entrusted with a huge amount of authority and respect. 

Humanity has always had a tendency to look to their varying gods for guidance and to know their place in the world and I encourage viewers to investigate just how many of these deities have led the way in being dual-gendered so as to become a whole, e.g., embodying both chaos and order, yin & yang, death & life, &c. So, where we saw previously in our Pride in Scottish History episode, the Christian religion standing very much in the way of people being able to freely express themselves and their sexuality, that’s entirely not the case with other belief systems. This has led to populations, holding mainly Abrahamic beliefs, being pretty backwards in how they see the LGBTQIA+ community within them. 

Back to our area of focus and there are very few instances I could find of men adopting female modes of dress and lifestyle, though not none. In the last episode we saw men attending private clubs who’d dress as females, and take female names, to have mock weddings to their homosexual husbands, for example. You’d also have both sexes imitating the other in order to make escapes from jails, tolbooths, and varying other situations. Bonnie Prince Charlie is an example of that. These were what we’d now know as cis-gendered people. Those who aren’t conflicted in the sex/gender as assigned at birth, who merely required a disguise in order to evade imprisonment or death. Easier to find were examples of women taking on the guise of men in order to obtain employment they might be denied should they apply as their original selves and for other reasons. Which is easily understood as men were paid higher for their work. There was one story of a male in female attire and employed as a household maid, which is a little more difficult to account for. There are instances noted all over Europe, throughout history, of woman who suffered from natural hormonal imbalances who sported beards and were therefore given a literal license by authorities to wear male garb because their appearance in female clothing was too much of a distraction to the populace of the town in which they lived. They would literally be crowded with the curious if combining their facial hair with a dress. Curiosity seemed to be the extent at which they were taken, I didn’t find suggestions that these ladies’ lives were in danger or that they were at more of a risk of being assaulted when out in public. Which was a relief.  

Caledonian Mercury, Thursday 23rd July, 1724, p.5. 

   Edinburgh, July 23. We hear that a certain Woman, who has pass’d for a Grenadier these 14 Years bypast, and done Duty as such, was on Sunday last (to the incredible Surprize of the whole Regiment) brought to bed (after two Hours hard Travail) in the Canongate. This surprising Event has since been very good Pastime over the Bottle: Some being in a Difficulty how this Amazon should come under Kirk Censure? others again, who should be Father of the Child? Which last Doubt, we hear, was thus resolved by a Virtuoso of the Battalion, viz. I tink it not very wonderable, if he, being a Grenadier, got hur self with Shild. 

Caledonian Mercury, Monday 24th October, 1791, p.2. 

   A very extraordinary wedding was lately celebrated at St Hypolitius. the corporal of a company, who had served for five years, was a woman; upon receiving intelligence that a considerable estate had fallen to her, she discovered her sex; offered her hand to the Lieutenant, who had given her the halbert and they were married. 

Aberdeen Press and Journal, Wednesday 3rd July, 1811, p.3. 

   A marriage was celebrated last month at Paris between a wine-merchant and a female, who disguised in male attire, had served in a regiment of hussars six years, and during that time given such proofs of valour, that she had been raised from the ranks to a captaincy. In a late action in Spain, she was wounded in the breast, which led to a discovery of her sex, and she was permitted to retire on half-pay. 

Perthshire Courier, 19th April, 1822, p.2. 

   We mentioned in our last a female who had been working as a plaisterer like a man. The following is a more detailed account of that eccentric character:- She belongs originally to Saltcoats, is about 27 years of age, and for better than four years she has, of her own free choice, worn the attire, and discharged the laborious duties, of one of the male sex. Her real name is Helen Oliver; but she has assumed that of her brother John. About six years ago while she was a maid-servant in a farm house in West Kilbride, a particular intimacy took place between her and a person in a neighbouring house, who officiated as ploughman. Been frequently seen walking together in quiet and sequestered places, they were regarded as lovers; ultimately however, this “ploughman” turned out to be also a female; and it’s believed by Helen’s relatives and acquaintances, that it was the arguments of this personage which induced her to abandon the female dress and duties. Upon Sunday the 4th January, 1818, while in her parent’s house at Saltcoat, she requested her to give her her “wee cutty pipe,” and she would give her two new ones in exchange. To this unusual demand the mother after some questions consented; and Helen immediately afterwards began to write a letter, which, in answer to an enquiry from her parent, she said was to inform the people in Greenock, to whom she was hired as a servant, that she would not be with them for some time for several reasons she then alleged. Early on the following morning, Helen helped herself to a complete suite of her brother’s clothes and disappeared, without giving the least intimation of her future prospects, or where she intended to fix her residence. Dressed in her new attire, she reached the house of a cousin in Glasgow on the same day. Her relative was not sufficiently intimate with the person of the fair imposter to detect the fraud. Never doubting in the least that she was “the real John Oliver,” among other enquiries for absent relatives “sister Helen” was not forgotten. A plaisterer stopt at the time in her cousin’s house, and she resolved to learn that business. Accordingly she went for trial to a person in the Calton; but having fallen out with her master, she left the town. She then went to Paisley, where she wrought for about three months, and she was next employed for about half-a-year in Johnstone. There, either for amusement, or to prevent suspicion, and insure concealment, she courted a young woman, and absolutely carried the joke so far as to induce the girl to leave her service to be married. Travelling one night between Johnstone and Paisley, she was accosted by a lad from Saltcoats, who was intimate with her person, parents and history; and in consequence she removed to Kilmarnock, where she remained for six months. Besides the places already mentioned, she has been in Lanark and Edinburgh, working always at the plaistering, except a short time she was employed by a Glasgow flesher about the Bell Street Market. A variety of circumstances have frequently impelled this rustic D’Eon to change not only her master and house of residence, but also the town in which she was comfortably employed, particularly as she was often, or rather always obliged to board and share her lodgings with some neighbourhood workmen, and though for obvious reasons she seldom detailed more of her previous history than mentioned the towns she had visited and the masters she had served, yet some sagacious females have been known to declare that “Johnnie must have been either a sodger or a sailor,” because “when he likes himsel’ he can brawly clout his breeks; darn his stockings, roak’ his ain meat, and wash his ain claise.” At the beginning of February last, Helen applied for employment to a master plaisterer in Hutchesontown. She said she was 17 years of age, and stated that she and a sister were left orphans at an early age; urged her forlorn condition, and that having already some practice, she was very anxious to be bound an apprentice, that she might obtain an ample knowledge of the business. Eventually she was employed, and though she had the appearance of a little man, she was in reality a tall woman, being about 5 feet 4 inches high. By no means shy of a lift, times without number she has carried the heavy hod full of lime for the Irish labourer in attendance. Steady, diligent and quiet, she gave her master every satisfaction, and he considering her rather a delicate boy, feelingly kept her at light ornamental work, and paid her 7s. a-week. Some time since a workman was employed by the same master, to whom Helen was intimately known. The master having learned the facts of the case, placed her apart at work from the men, and took a favourable opportunity to speak with her. She indignantly denied her metamorphosis, offered to produce letters from her sister, declared that she was a free mason, and besides had been a flesher, a drummer in the Greenock volunteers, and made a number of statements with a view to escape detection. Last week, an Irishman, with characteristic confidence, sprang upon the heroine, hugged her like a brother bruin, and cried in his genuine doric, “Johnney they tell me you’re a woman, and dang it, I mane to know, for I lue a pruty girl.” The agile female extracted herself in an instant, and with a powerful kick drove him from her; at the same time exclaiming, with an oath, she would soon convince him she was not a woman. Ultimately however the truth was wrung from her, and she has consequently left the town. She writes a good hand, and previous to her departure, she addressed a card to her master, in which she bade him farewell, and requested him not to make much talk about H. Oliver. – Glasgow Chronicle

Inverness Courier, Thursday 5th September, 1822, p.2. 

   INCIDENTS ABRIDGED. – … “Among the most dashing dandies on town are three or four females dressed in male attire, who frequent most of the places of public resort!” 

Fife Herald, Thursday 7th July, 1825, p.2. 

   In the course of Friday evening the attention of strangers below the bar of the House of Lords, was attracted by the appearance of a female in male attire, whose curiosity, it would seem, had induced her to adopt this mode of gaining admission to hear the debates; but she shortly afterwards withdrew, as if conscious of being recognised. 

Perthshire Courier, Thursday 14th July, 1825, p.4. 

   The town of Derby has been amused during the present week, with a most unusual disclosure. A young woman, of the name of Harriet Moore, a native of Sligo, in Ireland, had, it appears by her own account, assumed the dress of a boy, between six and seven years ago. She was then but fourteen years of age, and was engaged in service among the Irish graziers. About five years ago, she came over to this country as a drover’s lad, and was noticed by Mr Clark, of the inn at Shardlow, as a very sharp and attentive youth. He engaged her to remain in his employment, until by her handiness and care, she got promoted into the service of J. Sutton, Esq. of Shardlow, in whose family she was entertained with much satisfaction for two years, as groom and footboy. Having, however, given some offence to her employer, she was discharged, and while out of place, she followed job employment at the salt works, and lodged at the house of a woman named Lacy. By some accident, this woman became acquainted with her sex, and terrified the poor wench, by telling her, she was liable to be transported for having gone about in male attire. This Mrs Lacy had a daughter, of the romantic name of Matilda; and Matilda Lacy had become pregnant by a butcher of that neighbourhood. The Lacys, both mother and daughter, then proposed to this female John Murphy, that she should marry Matilda, and father the child, in order, by so doing, to conceal the shame of the unfortunate Matilda, and, in his distress, poor John Murphy quitted Shardlow, and sought employment in Nottinghamshire. At Chilwell, she entered into the service of a bricklayer, and first learnt to carry the hod, which she has since been accustomed to do with much dexterity; but when there she had obtained the good will of her master and fellow workmen, her comfort was broken in upon by the mother of fair Matilda, who followed her with entreaties and threats, and at length a letter from Matilda herself, reproaching poor John with deserting the object of his seduction, was sent in such a manner as to fall into the hands of John’s employer, who being a serious moral man, discharged his servant for conduct which appeared so very depraved in one so young. – Apprehensive of the consequences of a prosecution for having disguised her sex, and being at the same time assured by Matilda and her mother, that the father of the child would amply supply its wants, and advance a sum of money as an outset, poor John Murphy at length consented, and the marriage ceremony was performed two years ago, in the church of Aston-on-Trent. John Murphy found it no easy matter to maintain a wife and child, besides a wife’s mother into the bargain. John began to seek work at a distance from home, and this often drew the attention of the parish officers towards him. Derby, however, continued to be John’s general resort, rather than Shardlow or Aston; and in this town John worked repeatedly as a bricklayer’s labourer, for Mr Maconnell, Mr W. Stodart, and Mr Shenton, the slater, by whom she was esteemed as an intelligent, light-hearted and hard-working little fellow. It is natural, however, that the family of married folks should increase, and John Murphy began with sorrow to discover, that in spite of existing circumstances, the cares of a father have a most inveterate tendency to multiply. Another young Murphy was about to make its appearance; and as Matilda, as well as her children and mother, seemed very likely to become a serious incumbrance to the parish, the overseers were very alert in their inquiries after John; who, as may be supposed, had latterly been more shy than ever of home. However, it appears, that in the course of last week, the vigilance of the parish officers had rendered the situation of affairs extremely urgent; and, there, having made a country woman her confidant, she procured feminine habiliments; and, on Sunday last, the wench resumed her petticoats, and thus divorced herself from her matrimonial troubles. She is a short, stout, good-looking young woman, and states herself to be in her twentieth year; but, probably, on account of her laborious occupations, she looks four or five years older. – Derby Reporter

Dundee, Perth, and Cupar Advertiser, Tuesday 2nd March, 1847, p.3. 

   A FEMALE LOTHARIO. – Appearances are often very deceitful, but never more so than when a lady assumes male attire, and in that disguise visits one of her own sex, and pours into her willing ear a portion of the soft sweet strains of never-ending love. There are few girls who could nerve their hearts sufficiently to perform such an unfeminine task; but, when one does occasionally undertake it, she leaves no means untried that she thinks will enable her to captivate the heart of the girl whom she has selected for the experiment. There is something strange and romantic about the practice of the ladies making love to each other, for which we could never account. Whether it is done through mischievous playfulness, or from a mere curiosity to know the secrets of other hearts, or whether it arises from a desire to be revenged on the sex, by a portion of it who have never themselves been favoured with a lover, they only know who practise it. So far as we are concerned the whole is shrouded in mystery. We make the foregoing remarks by way of introducing a series of courting adventures which lately fell to the lot of a buxom young Irish girl residing in this city. This maiden of the would-be masculine gender rejoices in the name of Eliza McCormick, and for the last three years has manifested such a particular regard for a gentleman’s coat and pantaloons that she often promenaded the streets of Hamilton in full dress, even to a cigar and crooked cane. Thus equipped, her next object was to look out for a sweetheart, – a business in which she seems to have been exceedingly fortunate, probably because she was better acquainted with the strength of the citadel, and the method of conducting a successful attack, than any of those whose dress and appearance she had assumed. Be that as it may, we have been made acquainted with six of her pretended courtships, and all with dressmakers. How many more she may have been engaged in we know not, but to three of these she “popped the question” of marriage – was accepted, and one of them indulged so far in the pleasing dream of anticipated matrimonial bliss that she actually prepared her wedding dress. During the time that this female Lothario was carrying on her flirtation, she was living as a servant in the city, and she invariably played her pranks upon such girls as were acquainted with the families in which she lived. She assumed all manner of characters, and had as many names as a member of the London swell mob. Sometimes she was a student of medicine – sometimes a limb of the law – in one place she was a book-keeper in a dry goods store – in another a gentleman of property lately arrived from Ireland, and was exceedingly hard up for a wife. When she determined on a nocturnal visit to any of the dear creatures whose hearts she had so skilfully charmed, she always went in her real character and dress a day or two previously, and, after sounding the depth of the young lady’s affection for Mr Mackenzie or Fitzpatrick, or whatever name she had assumed, she would inform her that she had been sent by this gentleman to say that he would visit the object of his heart’s fondest solicitude at a certain hour of a certain night. This was playing a double game. It enabled her in her real character to find out the state of the girl’s mind, and, in her assumed one, to use that information for her own advantage. It has been a matter of surprise to some how she kept up the disguise without being detected; but she was a shrewd observer of men and manners, and she knew from experience that a young, confiding girl is very slow to discover errors in the person who is dear to her heart. She sees a nobleness in all his actions – a winning peculiarity in his smiles, and a beauty in his beaming eye – which forbids her to distrust him. It is highly probable that to these circumstances alone she was indebted for her success in the art of deception. The most recent love-making adventure that this breaker of ladies’ heart was engaged in terminated rather tragically on Sunday night last. She was engaged as a servant some two months ago by a lady in the city, and at her master’s house she became acquainted with a young girl who was occasionally employed as a sempstress. When the acquaintance had ripened into something like confidence, she told the girl that a clerk in a certain store in town was deeply in love with her, and that he had walked several nights in front of her father’s residence, whistling a peculiar tune, in order, if possible, to get one glimpse of her pretty face. The bait was swallowed. To be loved so ardently, and by a clerk too, made the young girl’s heart beat high; and, when she was informed that Mr Crawford (the name the heroine had assumed) would pass her dwelling whistling, on a certain night, she awaited his approach with a kind of feverish anxiety, shaded with hope. The night came, and so did Mr Crawford, alias Miss Eliza McCormick, dressed in a suit of her master’s clothes. He whistled his little tune; the door of a certain house was noiselessly opened as he passed, and the young sempstress, blushing at her boldness, stood gazing on his receding figure. In a few minutes he had returned, and in a few more he commenced operations. He was in love, deeply, distractedly, and incurably. She listened to his avowal, gave him some encouragement, and told him she was free from any engagement. This seemed to revive his love-lorn spirits, and, after making an appointment for another interview Mr Crawford departed. The parties met several times subsequently, but the young girl was not so green as her pseudo lover had expected. She suspected that Mr Crawford was an animal of the feminine gender, and she communicated her suspicions to a young man of her acquaintance, who, with a trusty companion, was ready to pounce upon the unfortunate lover the next time he would make his appearance. Last Sunday night gave the desired opportunity. Mr Crawford was seized; but, like a genuine Irishman, he up with his fist and knocked down one of the intruders. When the scuffle was ended, Mr Crawford’s sex was soon discovered. She was taken to the Police Office and locked up during the remainder of the night. On Monday evening, as no person had appeared against her, she was liberated and resumed female attire. We hope that the shame and mortification of a public exposal will have a salutary effect upon her future conduct. Miss McCormick is said to be the same person who figured for three weeks in the neighbourhood of Galt, a short time since, under the disguise of a sick tailor. – Hamilton (C. W.) Spectator, December 26. 

Elgin Courant, and Morayshire Advertiser, 5th September, 1856 

   STRANGE OCCURRENCE. – Sixteen or twenty years ago the song of the “Female Drummer” was very popular. Several years ago a lad came out of Scotland and hired as a farm servant in the neighbourhood of Under Skiddaw. He was known generally by the name of “Tommy,” and is now between 20 and 30 years of age. “Tommy” was an excellent servant. he could plough, harrow, drain, or do any job about the house. Recently he has been employed in draining. He was extremely fond of a little short pipe – the colour of which was without parallel. On Thursday week, “Tommy” as he was called, was taken ill and safely delivered of a fine child. That some mystery hangs about this affair is certain. At present this is all we know. – Carlisle Patriot

Glasgow Saturday Post, and Paisley and Renfrewshire Reformer, Saturday 22nd June, 1861, p.3. 

   EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN. – The Birmingham whip-makers are on strike against the initiation of women into the art and mystery of whip-making. The female poor are to be pitied. With a lamentable want of remunerative branches of employment, almost all their attempts to better their condition by sharing in the monopoly of the male sex, however suitable the employment, are sure to be met with ungallant resistance. Only let a woman unsex herself by the assumption of male attire, and many good sources of livelihood are open to her without let or hindrance – till found out; and then her occupation is gone, and the resumption of female attire brings with it a great reduction of wages, and a restricted sphere of industry. Why should this be so? In the case of whip-making, which would appear to be not unsuitable to women, even though they should succeed in obtaining a share of the work, and do it as well, too, as the men, doubtless they will still earn far less wages, unless they disguise themselves in male attire – in every way a very unfair mode of treating poor women, say we. – Builder

Famous English case reported in most of the papers of the time; 

Falkirk Herald, Thursday 5th May, 1870, p.3. 


   At the Bow Street Police Station, London, on Friday, Mr Flowers the presiding magistrate, heard an extraordinary charge against two young men of having been found personating women. The names and character of the case as entered on the charge-street were “Ernest Boulton, aged 22 years, living at 23 Shirland Road, Paddington, gentlemen; Frederick William Park, 13 Bruton Street, Berkeley Square, law student, aged 25; Hugh Alexander Mundell, 158 Buckingham Palace Road, gentleman, aged 23, charged with frequenting a place of public resort – to wit, the Strand Theatre – with intent to commit a felony, and the first two in female attire, at the parish of St Mary-le-Strand.” The greatest curiosity was manifested to see the prisoners as they were brought from Bow Street Station to the Police Court on the opposite side. The thoroughfare was crowded, the police having considerable difficulty in keeping a space clear for the traffic. When they walked across the road they were greeted with shouts of laughter and hisses. The court was crowded by people eager to hear the charge. When the prisoners were placed at the dock, great surprise was manifested at the admirable manner in which Boulton and Park had “made up.” Both had an unexceptionable feminine cast of features. They appeared in evening dress, as when they were apprehended at the theatre, Boulton wearing a cerise satin dress, with an “open square” body. The neck was hidden by the folds of a white lace scarf. The sleeves were short, scarcely reaching to the elbow, and edged with white lace, which was the general trimming of the dress. The prisoner had a massive gold bracelet on the left arm, and an imitation pearl one on the right. Adopting the pronoun used regarding the prisoner during the hearing of the case, “she” had a small signet-ring on the little finger of the left hand, but did not wear earrings. Her hair – or rather wig – of a golden colour, was fashionably dressed in the Grecian style, with plaited chignon. The front was bound with a narrow strip of black velvet, and a piece of the same material was worn round the neck, a locket being suspended from it. Park wore a beautiful green satin dress, which was made with an “open square body” and short sleeves, like that of Boulton. It was also trimmed with white lace. The prisoner had a lace scarf thrown across her shoulders, so as to cover the open part of the dress. She had a handsome gold chain bracelet; on her left hand a signet-ring, and in her ears imitation pearl drops. Her hair was the same colour as that of her friend, and dressed in like fashion, excepting that the back part was done in curls instead of plaits; and in front was a diamond star on the velvet band. Both prisoner wore a white kid glove on the right hand. While listening to the evidence, Boulton rested her head on her right hand, but did not pay very particular attention, excepting when the detective stated that he had seen the prisoners about for some time, and produced the photographs which were found at their lodgings. Park was evidently anxious about the case which would be established, and carefully listened throughout. Both conducted themselves decorously. The complete case with which they maintained their parts astonished every one in court, and even the magistrate and most experienced detective officers had to admit that the “get up” was artistic enough to deceive themselves. The third prisoner, Mr Mundell. wore his walking dress. His case was that he had only met the other prisoners twice – a few nights since at the Surrey Theatre, when they were in male attire, and at the time they were all three taken into custody. On the first occasion they were pointed out to him as women who were in men’s dress, and he them made an engagement to meet them at the Strand Theatre on Thursday night. Beyond this, he asserted that he knew nothing of them, and the evidence so far supported the statement that when the case was remanded Mr Flowers consented to take his recognisance in £100 to appear at the adjourned hearing next Friday. No one of the prisoners spoke to the others. As Boulton and Park were represented by a Solicitor, they did not question the witnesses, and there was therefore no opportunity of hearing whether their voices would indicate their sex… 

Huntly Express, Saturday 20th May, 1871, p.4. 

   BOULTON AND PARK. – The Boulton and Park case ended on Monday with the acquittal of all four prisoners, to the general satisfaction of a crowded court. The Lord Chief-Justice commended with great severity on the impropriety of bringing up what he called the Scotch defendants and trying them with the others in this country. They ought to have been tried, he said, in Scotland, were their crimes, if they had committed crimes, had been committed, and where, too, they could have called witnesses in defence of their character and conduct. Still more severely, if possible, did he condemn the conduct of London policemen going down to Edinburgh, where they had no jurisdiction or authority whatever, and, without even applying to a Scotch magistrate, breaking open doors, ransacking rooms, and opening letters. Such conduct was from first to last illegal, and must be put a stop to. There remains the charge against the two principal defendants of outraging public decency by appearing in the streets in female garb, which stands over to next term. But it will probably be heard of no more. 

Southern Reporter, Thursday 19th October, 1871, p.4. 

   A MAN DISGUISED AS A WOMAN FOR TEN YEARS. – Quite a strange occurrence was brought to light at Limerick during the past week, the cause for which will doubtless soon be elicited by the constabulary in the neighbourhood in which it took place. At the Petty Sessions of Ballyneety (a small village within five miles of Limerick), on Thursday last, a person who has passed by the name of Bridget Fleming, and who has been in the employment of several farmers in the neighbourhood of Ballinagarde and Ballyneety in the different capacities of female servant – the most recent being that of dairymaid with a farmer living at a distance of half-a-mile from the latter village during the past twelve months – was brought before the magistrates charged with being of a different sex from that assumed. The prisoner had been remanded from a previous examination, at which his sex had been fully proved, and had given bail for his second appearance, and presented himself when called upon very neatly dressed in female attire, and conducted himself with the utmost nonchalance. From the facts elicited, it appears that the prisoner was between nineteen and twenty years of age, during the past ten of which he had earned his living by such occupations as those usually pursued by females, and had always passed for one of that sex – assisting in the washing and making up of clothes; and could sew with great neatness, and had always made his own clothing and underclothing, besides assisting others at the same employment; had most excellent testimonials of character from his various employers, and had always obtained the very highest wages, being remarkably expert, clever, and industrious. The birthplace of the prisoner, whose real name is James Fleming, is an extensive bog near Cahirconlish, named Crieve Bog, notorious some dozen years ago as the resort of some very lawless characters. For this reason a suspicion has been raised that he may have assisted in some crime, to hide which the more effectually he may have assumed female garb as a disguise. The magistrates, on searching through their books, discovered that they had neither the power to punish him for the offence nor to commit him for trial. He was therefore discharged, subject to the surveillance of the police, who are to see that in future he adopts masculine apparel. The prisoner (who is evidently not badly educated) thanked the magistrates and left the court. – Saunders’ News-Letter

Banffshire Reporter, Friday 12th January, 1872, p.3. 

   A SINGULAR MARRIAGE CASE. – A female named Maria Campbell was (yesterday) Thursday brought before the Sheriff, charged with a contravention of the Registration Act, and remitted to a higher court. About eighteen months ago we inserted a paragraph about two females who married together at Kirknewton in 1869. One of them, who personated a man, had been for several years engaged at labouring work in the neighbourhood, and dressed in men’s clothes. The pair lived, so far as the neighbours could see, happily together for some months, but in the autumn of 1870 the supposed husband absconded, and the police were informed of the affair. They were not, however, able to trace the runaway till last month, while labouring in male attire in Rutherglen, she was seized with small-pox. Her landlady, who did not suspect her sex, knew her by the name of John Campbell, and it was only when a doctor was called in to examine her that her real sex was discovered. She was removed to an hospital, and detained till fit for removal to Edinburgh, where she arrived on Thursday morning in charge of an officer. She is apparently about thirty years of age, a native of Inverness-shire, which she left when very young. She assigns as her reason for assuming male apparel that she could earn higher wages than she would if employed as a female. She also states that the female with whom she entered into a matrimonial engagement was aware before the marriage that she was a woman. – Daily Review

Fife Herald, Thursday 5th December, 1872, p.4.  

   Amid the variety of strange marriages, the palm of oddity must certainly be conceded to those from which man has been excluded. One case of this sort came to light this very year, when the Edinburgh police laid their hands upon a young woman who was “wanted,” from information supplied by an Irish girl, whom the masquerading female in question had married, while employed as a labourer in the neighbourhood of Kirknewton. The couple had lived happily together for a time; but quarrelling over some domestic matter, the wife resolves to part company, and informed the police what manner of a husband she had married. A stranger story of the same nature is told in the Gentleman’s Magazine for 1766. “A discovery of a very extraordinary kind was made at Poplar, where two women had lived together for thirty-six years as man and wife, and kept a public-house without ever being suspected. But the wife happening to fall ill and die, a few days before she expired revealed the secret to her relatives, made her will, and left legacies to the amount of half what she thought they were worth. On appealing to the pretended husband, she at first endeavoured to support her assumed character; but being closely pressed, she at length owned the fact, accommodated all matters amicably, put off the male, and put on the female character, in which she appeared to be a sensible, well-bred woman, though in her male character she had always affected the plain, plodding ale-house keeper. It is said they had acquired in business three thousand pounds. Both had been crossed in love when young, and had chosen this method to avoid further importunities. – Chambers’s Journal

Glasgow Herald, Tuesday 21st August, 1877, p.7. 



   Yesterday, at the Southern Police Court – before Bailie Torrens – Francis Cairney was brought up on a charge of disorderly conduct. The allegation was, that, at one o’clock yesterday morning, he was in Houston Street, importuning and annoying passengers. Prisoner, who is a lad of 15 years of age, appeared at the bar clad in the habiliments of the softer sex. He has rather feminine features, and certainly played the woman with his eyes. 

   The BAILIE – It is a very distressing thing to see a female crying. (Laughter.) You stupid fellow, what made you dress yourself in this way? 

   Prisoner (crying) – I did not intend to do any harm. 

   The BAILIE – What did you intend to be about when you put on these clothes? What do you do? 

   Prisoner – I work in the Adelphi Biscuit Factory. 

   The BAILIE – Biscuit Factory! Well, I do not know, but some of the ladies might bake as well as you. There was no use, however, in your putting on these clothes to get work there. I do not know what to do with the like of you. What is the charge? 

   Superintendent DONALD – He is charged with disorderly conduct by importuning passengers. 

   The BAILIE – He is not charged with having dressed himself in female garb? That is a much heavier charge than merely disorderly conduct. It is a very dangerous custom for a man to dress himself in female clothing. 

   Superintendent DONALD – There is not a great deal in the charge. It seems to have been more of a frolic. 

   The BAILIE – This might have been a much graver charge, and if it had, I would have given you the experience of prison for such a time as you would not have easily forgotten it. Foolish fellow that you are. Do you plead guilty? 

   Prisoner – Yes, but not to speaking to anyone. 

   The BAILIE – No such frolic as this can be allowed. We sometimes look over foolish acts by young people, but this is serious. Take him away just now, I will take the case at the end of the Court. 

   When all the cases had been disposed of prisoner was again placed at the bar. 

    Superintendent DONALD – It was not known for some time after being apprehended whether he was really a man. (Laughter.) 

   The BAILIE – You must not do the like of this again. See that you have some idea of the dignity of being a man. Now, go away and get on your own clothes. 

   Prisoner’s mother was in Court, and in a rather excited manner followed her son with his own clothes, which he put on in a side room, and subsequently left the office. 

Dundee Courier, Thursday 19th June, 1879, p.2. 


   Some twenty years ago the circus-going public in both hemispheres was electrified by the daring and graceful equestrian feats of a person who assumed the name of “Ella Zoyara,” and bore all the outward semblance of a young woman, but who was long afterwards discovered to be a man. “Ella’s” real name was Omar Kingsley, and it is probable that he was the finest equestrian who ever appeared in public. he was born in St Louis in 1840, and joined a circus while still a little boy. Being carefully trained by his employer he soon became very daring, and won great celebrity and applause. He always appeared in female garb, and being handsome and graceful as well as very strong and supple, he not only maintained the deception perfectly, but also created a great sensation wherever he went. He came to Europe, and rode as a female in all the principal cities. In Moscow a Russian count is said to have fallen madly in love with him, and offered a large sum for an introduction to the fair Zoyara. It was in the sunny clime of Italy, however, that the greatest conquest took place. Victor Emmanuel saw him at the circus, and afterwards sent for him. He attended, though accompanied by his woman-servant, without whom he rarely appeared in public. Emmanuel frequently attended the performance, and Zoyara called upon him. The King of Italy presented him with a magnificent black stallion. In America and Australia he constantly met with success, love-letters, and would-be husbands. At Manilla a Spanish officer fell in love with Zoyara, and sought an introduction, but was refused. Some of his fellow-officers hinted that the fair rider was not a female, and he wagered that he was. A party of them went to the dressingroom, seized the subject of disrepute as he came from the ring, and were about to strip the clothing from him, when a tumult ensued, which ended in Zoyara being placed in jail, where the sex of the equestrian was made known. After that Zoyara continued riding, but generally in male attire. He was in Australia in 1875, whence he sailed for India, where he appeared until he was taken ill at Bombay, where he died last April of smallpox, thus closing a somewhat remarkable career. 

Irvine Herald, Saturday 13th February, 1886, p.5. 


Lansdowne Crescent,      

Glasgow, Feby. 8th, 1886.      

   SIR, – I am fresh from perusing your detailed report of the celebration of the Burns Anniversary in Irvine on the 25th ult. It gives me pleasure, as a member of the club, to find that the poet’s name was so fitly honoured, and that the evening was so enthusiastic a one. I was sure it would be; but I had been equally certain that an admiration of Burns, whether as man or poet, was more than any other subject of worship calculated to create in the hearts of his admirers a spirit of wide toleration and of infinite charity. My confidence has been painfully shaken. The Rev. Mr MacVean is reported as proposing the toast of “The Living Poets.”… 

… Tennyson made “a very nice book to put into the hands of young ladies, but he was not for strong masculine men.” Incidentally noticing this argument in favour of the superiority of the female intellect, since what confuses a masculine man is a suitable study for ladies, I stop to admire the phrase “masculine men.” It is excellent good, but I feel in its regard as does the rev. gentleman when attempting the study of “In Memoriam” I feel confused. How they differ from the ordinary male of every-day life I am unaware, and the phrase darkly hints at a generic counterpart – “the feminine man.” To be sure when we were young we used to hear that there were three genders, for there were three sexes – males, females, and curates; but unless through this explanation, which I hesitate to adopt, I am unaware of what breed this latter creature is. And I hesitate to adopt this explanation, because so frequently is masculinity insisted upon in the speech, that I picture this speaker as a muscular Christian, a full-bearded, broad-chested, large-limbed, rough-clubbed Hercules. Yet Hercules, the ancient Hercules, loved Hylas, beautiful Hylas, Hylas of the braided locks and of the yellow hair, who fluttered the hearts of the river nymphs till they drew him down the stream to his lover’s distraction… 

Hamilton Advertiser, Saturday 7th July, 1888, p.3. 

   He got tired of it. – A story that is now going the rounds tells of a man living in Pickens County who during the war donned his wife’s dress, kept his face closely shaved, and wore a big sun bonnet in order to avoid being conscripted and sent to the front. The officers in search of recruits frequently visited the house and asked his wife where her husband was, and at the very moment he could be seen working in the field in female garb. By the time he had worn out seven of his wife’s dresses he became tired of masquerading, enlisted, and became a good soldier. – Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle

At the end of the 19th century calls were ramping up to give women the franchise and all aspects of the women’s rights movements were being reported. One of these was the call from women to be able to wear more masculine clothing, if they chose to, which led to this obnoxious response; 

North British Advertiser & Ladies’ Journal, Saturday 31st May, 1890, p.5. 

   Our member who champions “women’s rights,” so called, wants to know if I approve of reform in feminine attire, “so as to give women some of the benefits that men have.” My dear madam, is it not sufficiently painful to see one-half of humanity hopelessly inartistic in its dress, and worrying itself daily and hourly to cover its ugliness, without your attempting to reduce the other half to the same state of inelegance? Consider, if you please, what a calamity you are threatening us with, and be sure that the masculine population, to a man, will resist your proposal to the death. Goodness gracious! you surely don’t suppose that that is a progressive movement! I always consider your masculine women only less objectionable than your effeminate men, and the latter are an abomination. It is an insult to women to call them “effeminate,” for no women could be so serenely silly. No, no, madam, men and women should never expect to improve themselves by mere external imitations of one another. 

Sermons were preached on such things; 

Dundee Evening Telegraph, Thursday 10th July, 1890, p.2. 


   Speaking at Preston, the Bishop of Manchester said:- You all know that women cannot bear an effeminate man. (Laughter.) Very well, then, you ought easily to know that men cannot bear a masculine woman. (Renewed laughter.) When a woman puts on the collars and the cuffs, the caps and the waistcoats of men – when a woman imitates the manly stride, and the bold, manly stare, she becomes a horror to most of us. But some of the strong-minded sisters would say, “I don’t care what men think of me; it is quite enough if I am satisfied with myself.” Just so, and I venture to add that the human race will lose very little if that kind of lady continues to be an aversion to men until she dies. (Hear, hear, and applause.) But, ah! ladies, what will happen if you all one of these fine days take up that role? I believe it would be one of the most awful calamities that could befall the human race. For what does antagonism between the sexes mean? It means the abandonment to a large extent of marriage; it means to a large extent the abandonment of the foundations of home – the true source of all the virtue, all the grace, all the strength, and all the happiness of human life. Ladies, be sure God has committed to you a very sacred trust. First of all, to be the tender companions and the wise counsellors of the inferior sex. Secondly, to be the embodiment of all those graces of purity, tenderness, and wisdom which in memory keep your sons noble and pure, and your daughters wise and good. You must not fail us there, whatever becomes of the small minority of your very strong-minded sisters. Now, I am in favour of the higher education of women just for this reason, because I believe that by developing to the greatest possible extent the mental and moral and spiritual faculties of women you will make them better wives and better mothers. 

London Evening Standard, Wednesday 3rd April, 1895, p.2. 


   Otto Schmidt, 30, described as a vocalist, was charged with being a suspected person, dressed in female attire, supposed for an unlawful purpose. Schmidt wore a black shirt and bodice of the same colour, with velvet sleeves, black fur cape, and small black bonnet and figured veil. His wig was of a rich golden colour, and hung in curls down his back. He carried in his left hand a pair of dull red cotton gloves. – Police-constable Day, 262 E, said at half-past three yesterday morning he was attracted to Euston-road by loud screams of “Police!” Opposite the Great Northern Railway terminus he saw Schmidt struggling with another man. The Prisoner’s wig was much disarrayed, and by the gruffness of his voice the officer at once became aware of Schmidt’s sex. He took him into custody, but the man with whom the Prisoner had been quarrelling walked off. – The Prisoner, by the aid of an interpreter, told the Court that he was a character vocalist; he had been to the Harmony Club in Fitzroy-square during the evening, and was returning home when a man attacked him. – In answer to the Magistrate, the police-officer said it was the Prisoner who called for the assistance. – Schmidt gave an address in Pentonville, and Mr. Bros remanded him in order that his character might be inquired into. 

Elgin Courant, and Morayshire Advertiser, Tuesday 25th January, 1898, p.7. 



   YOU will see some of them at Olympia. When Nature has given to a lady the beard of a man, and to a man the countenance of a dog, and when she has joined together two whom she ought to have put asunder, there have obviously been mistakes – mistakes of the kind which will happen in the best-regulated families. Unquestionably, Barnum’s freaks are not the most lamentable of her errors. To have the face of an alien sex is, no doubt, a handicap in life; yet there is the compensation that it means a fairly regular wage in a travelling show when once the natural diffidence is overcome. But he who finds that his man’s form is joined to a woman’s soul is in a much more pitiable plight. Do we not all know such? Timid, shrinking men, with most of the feminine virtues, each one of which is a disqualification for the battle of life; sensitive plants growing where oaks should be; men condemned to wear upon their sleeves hearts visibly shrinking under the publicity. Yet, humanly considered, effeminate men are just as much freaks as the Needle King or the Skeleton Dude, and more deserving of sympathy, in that their infirmity does not help them to a livelihood. On the contrary, they have all a woman’s need for gentle handling without a woman’s claim to it. As Nature’s misfits are not confined to one sex, the masculine woman is the natural counterpart to the effeminate man. And in this case the word “masculine” does not imply aggressiveness. In fact, the aggressive woman is generally hysterical, and hysteria is not a masculine complaint. The masculine woman is simply a woman, lacking as a rule the softer virtues proper to her sex, but endowed instead with a man’s courage, a man’s strength of purpose, and a man’s self-reliance. Hundreds of women are to-day doing genuine men’s work, and doing it well; and they are quite right. But they are not feminine. 

   In one of his earlier and more exuberant fancies, Mr Barry Pain tells the story of two souls, a boy’s and a girl’s, which were inadvertently prisoned up in the same body. Something analogous to that is seen every day. In fact, Nature’s blunders in this direction are so numerous and aggravating as to indicate culpable carelessness. Think of the host of men with brains enough for two, and of the many others who have none to speak of! It is as if Nature made amends for giving A one arm by giving B three…  

There is seemingly the suggestion that it’s fine to accost effeminate men… 

Sunday Post, Sunday 30th May, 1926, p.11. 

Effeminate Men. 

   An experience that recently befell a comparatively well-known actor gives an example of what the average person thinks of the “womanly” man. 

   Whilst staying at a fashionable seaside resort this artist’s complexion, eyebrows, and lashes, and even lips, were obviously not innocent of cosmetics during the day. 

   Some young men in his hotel asked him to stop such affectation. He refused. Two nights later he was seized in the dark and subjected to a good scrub! 

   On recovering he announced his intention of taking proceedings against the offenders. After thinking matters over, however, he changed his mind! 

In looking for some mentions of the support groups that developed from the early 80s I came across a plea for help from a 1975 agony aunt page, which is not alone in stressing that Female-to-Male transitioners have a more difficult time of it than their Male-to-Female counterparts; 

Reading Evening Post, Tuesday 3rd June, 1975. 

“Wanted: someone who will understand 

   Can anyone assist me? From time to time I have transexual correspondents female to male whom I find very difficult to refer to a helpful agency. The Beaumont Society takes transexuals – male to female – as members and can counsel and help, but this society (so I am informed by one of their counsellors) is not really suitable for the female to male transexual. 

   Everyone in this category needs warm friendship, acceptance and understanding from people in a similar situation. There are groups such as the Campaign for Homosexual Equality, Gay Liberation and so on who apparently welcome transexuals, but the female /male does not appear to fit in here and neither does she in a lesbian group. 

   I can find counselling for such a person but it is friendship and understanding I am looking for because all the counselling in the world is useless as one has no loving friends, and this applies to every situation in life. 

   I know Samaritans will help, but this is really an emergency service and not geared to long term befriending. I hope somebody will be interested enough to write to me about this.” 

The first mention of transexual I could find was a quote in 1975 from the Rocky Horror Picture Show but in 1979 there’s an article by an Aberdonian male-to-female writer who’s willing to come out, so to speak, and criticise an “uncaring society” for having made her transition “hell;” 

Aberdeen Evening Express, Tuesday 31st July, 1979. 

“My hell, by sex-change woman 

   AN ABERDEEN woman who had a sex-change operation in Aberdeen over six years ago has spoken publicly for the first time, writes Helen Lumsden. 

   The woman who still lives and works in the city, has spoken to the Press in the hope of encouraging other transexuals to unashamedly face up to their problems. 

   Fear of an “uncaring society” which ridicules people like her has prevented the woman from revealing her identity. 

   For in the north of the city where she now lives, she believes nobody suspects her secret of six years. 

   But she is always on her guard and adds: “I have done nothing wrong. But I still can’t walk down the street without feeling people are staring at me.” 

   The woman, whom we shall call Pamela, is a very attractive and young looking 32-year-old. Her envious figure and clear complexion would quickly quash any thoughts of sex-change from the mind. 

   Now, six years after the operation which ended a “life of hell,” Pamela is happy and content to live in Aberdeen where she was born and brought up. 

   Pamela was registered as male when she was born and lived the life of a male until the sex-change operation was performed in Woodend Hospital. 

   But she always felt like a woman. 


   She said: “I started attending the Ross Clinic in 1968. I was 22 at the time and was given drugs to develop my breasts. 

   “I felt visits to the Ross Clinic were a complete waste of time. Psychiatrists just kept asking me stupid questions. 

   “I spent ages down there and kept being told they were working towards a sex-change operation. 

   “Eventually I lost my temper and demanded help. Four years after my first visit I was referred to a plastic surgeon and underwent the operation.” 

   The past six years have failed to wipe from Pamela’s mind the “worst experience of my life” – when she left her Aberdeen home as a man and came back a woman. 

   She recalled: “I was working as a labourer the week before I went into hospital. In those days, sex change or anything related to it were just not talked about. Many people didn’t think it even existed. 

   “After I came home from hospital I was subjected to abuse and called all sorts of names.” 

   Eventually she moved home and now lives with a family she befriended several years ago. 


   Pamela met a man who asked her to marry him. 

   But it turned out to be one of the most hurtful times of all. 

   She said: “He was an accountant, a well-bred man – a gentleman. 

   “We went out for some time and he started to get serious. He asked me to marry him and I felt I had to tell him about my birth certificate which, because of the law, still registers me as a male. 

   “I explained everything to him but he just could not accept the situation. The last I heard from him was when he wrote me a note on a scrappy piece of paper which read: ‘After long deliberations and thought I feel our relationship can no longer continue.’ 

   “It was a shock because I like him a lot.” 

   Pamela is also bitter about the treatment she has received from people who had known her all her life. 

   “They upset me with their attitude. They don’t try to understand. 


   “The public have everything to do with the hell people like myself go through. They are very narrow-minded on this.” 

   Psychiatrist, Prof. Malcolm Millar could not agree more. And he predicts a gloomy future for transexuals ever being accepted into our society. 

   For while transexuals receive every sympathy in the medical world where their problems are better understood, the man on the street creates a life-long nightmare. 

   Prof. Millar said: “These people do need sympathy. The public is a great problem.” 

   But will the public ever accept that in some cases sex-changes are medically desirable. 

   “I’m afraid I don’t see that coming for a long time. The public can’t accept. Public tolerance of anything unusual is very low indeed. It doesn’t matter whether it is a sexual deviation or any kind of deviation. the public is, by and large, grossly intolerant of anything off-line. 

   “It is different for people who have studied the problem. They usually understand. 

   “I am pretty sceptical of ever getting a change of attitude from the public.”  

   But in Britain we are lucky. On the Continent, for example, sex-change victims are much sought after for prostitution.  

   Prof. Millar added: “Transexualism tends to show itself in very early age – a male body with female brain or vice versa. It is not their own doing. It is all part of their genetic make-up.”  

   Transexualism in men wishing to become women is much more common than vice versa.  

   Prof. Millar was quick to point out that this should not be associated with homosexualism. He said: “The two conditions are totally different.”  

   Apart from more public acceptance, what more could be done for people like Pamela?  

   Prof. Millar said: “Surgeons are most reluctant to commit themselves to sex change operations in that there is fairly radical surgery to be performed.  

   “Until we are satisfied nothing else can be done we will not resort to surgery. I don’t think the situation can ever be simple.  

   “Ideally problems such as these should be stopped in the early stages by carrying out the treatment in the young.”  

From a TV listings page in 1996 a Channel 4 documentary series is noted with an episode specific to those who seek a sex-change. It gives a fairly dark synopsis of what’s to be discussed; 

   9.00 – THE DECISION: Continuing the series looking at cases of extreme medical and ethical complexity, the first of two programmes exploring the plight of the female to male transexual, an isolated and marginalised group whose lives are characterised by shame, self-hatred and secrecy. 

LOTS of articles about bearded ladies in varying parts of the world that have been allowed by the area’s authorities to wear men’s clothing to make them less of a spectacle to the general public when out and about. 

Aberdeen Evening Express, Monday 3rd November, 1980, p.7. 



   In the beginning God made MALE and FEMALE. And so that the sexes would NOT BE CONFUSED, God decreed that the clothes that pertained to men MUST NOT BE WORN BY WOMEN, and vice versa. And God declared that anyone who breaks this Commandment is AN ABOMINATION IN HIS SIGHT. Deuteronomy 22:5. And millions of women are risking the wrath of God every day, as they go around in trousers and jeans. WHEN WOMEN PROFESS TO FOLLOW CHRIST, AND DRESS IN THIS WAY, THEY MUST SURELY BE A DOUBLE AGGRAVATION TO THE LORD. 

   This sin has spread until we now have UNISEX. Unisex fashions, and unisex hairdressers, where effeminate men will happily sit and have their hair dressed alongside women. AND SOME MEN HAVE HAIR LIKE WOMEN, AND SOME WOMEN HAVE HAIR LIKE MEN. 

   A flood of evil behaviour has spread over the world. UNCLEAN THOUGHTS, UNCLEAN LANGUAGE, AND UNCLEAN WAYS. The Lord has declared to me that the present habit of husbands watching their wives giving birth is LASCIVIOUSNESS. 

   Now the Lord has warned us that as this present age draws to a close, the state of the world will be like the days of Noah and of Lot. MEN AND WOMEN WILL REFUSE TO LISTEN TO WARNINGS, AND WILL BE GIVEN TO WORLDLY PLEASURES, AND THE LOVE OF MONEY. 

   THE LORD ALSO TELLS US THAT WE MUST EXPECT THE TERRIBLE SIN OF SODOMY TO SWEEP OVER THE LAND. In Lot’s day, the men of Sodom, BOTH OLD AND YOUNG, were HOMOSEXUALS. Genesis 19:4. From their evil conduct we get the word SODOMY. This loathsome sin is utterly condemned by God. Leviticus 18:22. 


   Some of you are rightly affronted and taken aback by people of religion who profess Christ, YET DO NOT TAKE CHRIST’S SIDE IN CONDEMNING THIS SIN. To those of us who remember how the minister of Queen’s Cross Church, Dr Edmund Jones, PUBLICLY SPOKE GREAT EVIL ABOUT THE LORD JESUS CHRIST SOME YEARS AGO, it is no surprise that he writes about homosexuals as he does. HE BRINGS SHAME UPON THE WHOLE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. 

   Now then, what about Mario Conti, the Roman Catholic bishop of Aberdeen? He says homosexuals are suffering from a disorder, and deserve respect. BUT GOD SAYS OTHERWISE. GOD SAYS HOMOSEXUALS ARE FILTHY DREAMERS, WHO HAVE GIVEN THEMSELVES OVER TO FORNICATION, WHO HAVE DEFILED THE FLESH, AND WILL, LIKE SODOM AND GOMORRAH, SUFFER THE VENGEANCE OF ETERNAL FIRE. Jude 7-8. As the apostle Peter says God turned the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah INTO ASHES… and made them an EXAMPLE of warning to all who lead ungodly lives. 2 Peter 2:6. 

   BISHOP CONTI BELONGS TO A CHURCH THAT INVENTED PURGATORY. I find that people who cannot face up to the reality of the lake of fire, which is torment for ever and ever, ARE SURE TO GO WRONG IN OTHER PARTS OF GOD’S WORD. 

   Now I encourage the true Christians. Look up, for your redemption draweth nigh WHAT GLORY WE SOON SHALL SEE! Don’t be dismayed as the cup of sin fills up. Not one soul shall be lost who is faithful to the Lord. 

   To the unsaved once again we say you should come to Christ. TO THE LOVELY SAVIOUR OF YOUR SOUL. Come while there is yet time. REPENT AND BE BAPTIZED EVERYONE OF YOU. Repentance is not looking at someone else’s sins, however much they caused us suffering, BUT LOOKING ONLY AT OUR OWN. WE CRY TO THE LORD FOR MERCY. Then is the well of Salvation opened unto us. 

Mrs. Oslena Stott,      

131 Broomhill Road,      


In 2004 the UK saw the Gender Reform Act implemented in order for those seeking to change their gender identity to be legally recognised as who they are. This meant those identifying as trans were able to obtain a revised birth certificate if they were at least 18 year old. This Act meant someone of that persuasion could obtain a Gender Recognition Certificate, which didn’t alter the fact that your gender could already be changed, prior to this act, on your passport or driver’s license without any problems. 

In 2015 Ireland passed their Gender Reform Act which is the same as the 2004 UK act with the exception that the age of request was at least 16 years old, with only the consent of a legal guardian required. A change of name has already been available to everyone in both countries by Deed Poll. 

This year the Scottish Government have brought in their own Gender Recognition Reform Act to make the process even less of a hassle for those it affects and lowers the age of application here to 16 years old, in line with Ireland’s reform. Also, instead of the 2 year purgatory requirement of living as the chosen gender prior to being able to apply, it would now be 3 months, lessening the caught-in-limbo feeling many trans people feel prior to being officially accepted as their chosen gender. 

Unfortunately, it’s still the case, that those in the trans community, along with others identifying as LGBTQIA+ suffer a greater chance of assault or bullying in some form, than those outside this community. Humans can be weird with those who don’t conform to their personal ideas on how you should live your life. 

Humans being gender-fluid is not by any means a new phenomenon or something to suddenly fear. If anyone tries to deny another’s right to express themselves in a non-violent, non-aggressive, manner, they’re in the wrong. It’s not their business to determine what another person chooses do with their body, or wear. It’s akin to despising or fearing folk for having tattoos, piercings, or any other kind of body modification. It’s none of your concern unless you are, or you’ve someone in your close personal circle, going through these feelings and changes, and then the only positive way forward is to be supportive.  

Useful Sources;

The West Can Learn from SouthEast Asias Transgender Heritage

5 Examples of Gods Who are Both Femine & Masculine

LGBTQIA+ Acronym Explained

Gender Recognition Reform Scotland Bill

4 thoughts on “Gender-Fluidity in Scottish History

  1. This was so interesting and topical. Thank you. Mrs Oslena Stott sounds nice 😱.

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