This same year, within 15 days after King Malcolm’s death, was his brother William, Earl of Northumberland, solemnly crowned at Scone by Richard, Bishop of St. Andrews, in presence of the three estates of the realm [Clergy, Nobility & Burghs].
This same year, also, died Aelred, 3rd Abbot of Rievaulx, who elegantly wrote the life of St. David, King of Scotland: and to him succeeded Silvanus, Abbot of Dundrennan.
In the month of May this year, 1166, King William went beyond seas, and shortly thereafter returned without so much as smelling the Holy Land.
This year died Gospatric [3rd Earl of Lothian], Earl of March [title not used until Patrick 4th Earl in 1242]; and to him succeeded his eldest son Waltheof [at which point Earl of Lothian became Earl of Dunbar].
This year, 1169, died Gregory, Bishop of Dunkeld; to whom did succeed Richard, King William’s chaplain, consecrated on St. Lawrence day [10th of August] the same year.
This same year died holy Humbald, who first brought a convent to the monastery of Paisley: which was founded by Walter, the son of Alan [fitz Alan], Great Steward of Scotland.
In October this year, 1170, David, Earl of Huntingdon, the brother of King William, is solemnly knighted by Henry, King of England, after his return out of Normandy, at Windsor, in presence of King William, his brother.
This same year David, Earl of Huntingdon, and Angus, brother to Malcolm and William, Kings of Scotland, with an army well appointed, passed unto Ireland, and there, with the help of one of the petty Kings [Diarmaid] of that island, whose daughter [Aoife] David did marry, he won the city of Dublin, and a great many counties in that country [Battle of Baginbun].
This same year, also, Ingelram, who was Chancellor to King Malcolm IV. in despite of Roger [de Pont L’Évêque], Archbishop of York (who [subscribed] to himself the primacy of Scotland), was elected Bishop of Glasgow, and consecrated at Rome by Pope Alexander III.
This year, 1171, began with fearful and dreadful aspects, pretending the death of many great personages in this kingdom; the sea, by many thousands of people, was seen to burn and rise in flames and smoke to the clouds.
This year died Nicholas, Lord Chancellor of Scotland, and Conan [IV], Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond.
Ferteth, Earl of Strathearn, died likewise this year, and Edward, Bishop of Aberdeen.
Simon de Tosny, Abbot of Coggeshall, a monk of Melrose, is this year elected, and consecrated Bishop of Moray [on] the 10th of February [of] the following year, 1172, at St. Andrews.
In the end of March this year, Matthew, Archdeacon of St. Andrews, is elected Bishop of Aberdeen, and consecrated [on] the 7th of April.
This year, 1173, King William besieged the castle of Warkworth, but immediately arose from thence, hearing that King Henry of England was returned from Ireland, and had levied a great army.
In June this year, 1174, King William with an army, enters England to Alnwick, destroys and kills many. and at last is taken prisoner by the English, and led captive to Richmond first, and then carried over to France, and kept close in the castle of Falaise, in Normandy. David, Earl of Huntingdon and Angus, hearing that his brother was taken prisoner by the English, leaves all the laurels he had gathered in Ireland, and with all speed with his army returns unto Scotland.
On Candlemas day [2nd of February] this year, dies Ingelram, Bishop of Glasgow, sometime [Lord] Chancellor of Scotland; and in his place was elected Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, 23rd of May, at Perth.
This year, 1175, King William is liberated, and returns home out of France, from the English captivity; Richard, Bishop of St. Andrews, and Richard, Bishop of Dunkeld, with 5 of the nobility, having treated with King Henry for 3 months before in Normandy.
After King William’s return from the English captivity, this same year, he convenes his whole nobility, gentry and clergy, at Perth, and there [they took] a new oath of homage and fidelity to him, for which those he doubted often gave their eldest sons in pledge of their faith.
This same year, Dervorguilla, the daughter of Alan, Earl of Galloway, founded 2 monasteries; the one of Sweet Heart, in Galloway, of the order of Cistercians, the other of Minor [Grey] Friars, at Dundee, in Angus.
About the end of this year, also, Gille Brigte, the 3rd son [of] Fergus, Earl of Galloway, put out his elder brother Uhtred’s eyes, and raised arms against King William.
This year, 1177, died Walter, the Great Steward of Scotland, and was interred at Paisley.
This year, 1178, the Countesse Ada, mother to Malcolm IV., and William, Kings of Scotland, that founded the Abbey of Haddington, Richard, Bishop of Dunkeld, and Richard, Bishop of St. Andrews, all departed this life.
Walter Bidon, Lord Chancellor of Scotland, this year was elected Bishop of Dunkeld.
This same year, likewise, King William founded the monastery of Arbroath, in Angus; and his brother, Earl David, after his return from the Holy Land, founded the monastery of Lindores in the woods, in Fife.
This year, also, King William made Gilbert [Murray], a learned man, [Lord] Chamberlain of Scotland and Bishop of Caithness; this is that Gilbert that stood out so stiffly for the liberty of the church of Scotland against Roger [de Pont L’Évêque], Archbishop of York and all the prelates of England.
Mr John (surnamed Scotus), that learned doctor, was, against King William’s mind, elected by the Pope Bishop of St. Andrews, this same year.
This same year, King William, with his brother, Earl David, and a great army, went to Ross to take order with one [Donald] MacWilliam (as he would be named), but rather Donald Bain, giving himself out to the people that he was come of the royal branch, and was the son of William the son of Duncan, bastard son to King Malcolm III, who had raised an army in open rebellion against the state; the King defeated his whole army; and the chief rebel being killed, his head was brought to the King.
The 1st of September this year, 1179, died Alina, Countess of Dunbar.
In the year 1180, Jocelin, Bishop of Glasgow, founded and built the great church of St. Mungo [now the city Cathedral], in Glasgow.
This same year, also, died Waltheof, Earl of Dunbar and March; to whom succeeded his son Patrick.
Alexis, the Pope’s Nuncio, altogether against King William’s will, came this year to Scotland, that he might judge the fact of the King’s refusal to admit Mr John the Scot, to the Bishopric of St. Andrews, whom he consecrated Bishop by Matthew, Bishop of Aberdeen, absolving the kingdom from the interdiction he had laid thereon at his departure, the King not scarcely countenancing him.
This year, 1182, King William did send Jocelin, Bishop of Glasgow, Edward, Abbot of Melrose, and Osbert, Abbot of Kelso, his Ambassadors to Rome, to Pope Lucius III, about diverse business of importance, which they faithfully performed to the King’s great contentment; by them the Pope sent to King William his benediction, with a rose of gold.
In the year 1183, King William gave his daughter, Isabella [MacWilliam], in marriage to Robert Bruce, whom he had [with] the daughter of Robert Avenel; and in the following year, 1184, he married his other daughter, Ada, to Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March, the son of Waltheof, Earl of Dunbar.
This same year died Simon de Tosny, Bishop of Murray.
This year, 1185, died Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, the 3rd day of January, at Dunfermline; and on the 16th of March thereafter, died Robert Avenel, who gave his lands of Eskdale to the abbey of Melrose.
This same year also, King Henry of England restored the earldom of Huntingdon to King William, who immediately gave it to his brother David. This county he had extorted from him formerly, for a part of his ransom; he [in] like rendered to King William the counties of Northumberland, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, the ancient [patrimony] of the Scottish King’s eldest sons, while their fathers lived.
King Henry likewise, with great solemnity and triumph, married his aunt, Ermengarde, daughter to [Richard] the Viscount Beaumont [le Roger], to King William, at Woodstock Castle, in England, this year also, the 5th of September.
In September this year, died Christian [of Whithorn], Bishop of Galloway or Killearn.
This same year died Gille Brigte, Earl of Galloway, the son of Fergus, who deprived his brother Uhtred of his sight and tongue; upon whose death, immediately, [Lochlann], the son of Uhtred, levied an army against Gille Pátraic, Henry Kennedy, Samuel and their adherents, and in a furiously fought battle overthrew them, 5th July; in this conflict was Roland’s brother killed.
And in September this year, King William gave the Earldom of Galloway to [Lochlann] and his heirs, and to the son [Donnchadh] of Gilbert, he gave the Earldom of Carrick, in respect, at the King’s desire, he had quite claimed his right of Galloway in favours of Roland.
This year, 1186, after that King William had married the daughter of the Viscount Beaumont, (his first wife, the daughter of Sir Adam [de Hythus] Hutchison, by whom he had begotten one daughter, Margaret, being dead,) King Henry rendered him the castle of Edinburgh, which his garrison had ever kept since King William’s liberation from captivity out of the castle of Falaise.
Richard [de Lincoln], King William’s clerk, is this year, 1187, elected and consecrated Bishop of Moray, in March.
This year died Henry [of Marcy], Cardinal of Albano [Italy], Abbot of Clairvaux; and in July thereafter died likewise Richard [de] Morville, Great [Lord High] Constable of Scotland, and the Lady Avice, his wife; and to him did succeed William [de] Morville his son, who gave the lands of Park [the lands of Blainslie over to Leader Water] to the abbey of Melrose. And in December died Hugo [Capellanus], the holy Bishop of St. Andrews, within 7 miles of the city of Rome, having gone there for the decision of a controversy between him and John [Scotus], Bishop of Dunkeld.
This same year, King William made his cousin Roger, son to the Earl of Leicester, in England, Lord Chancellor of Scotland, and in the following year he made him Abbot of Melrose, and immediately thereafter Bishop of St. Andrews; and in his place Hugh de [Roxburgh/Cancellarius], the King’s clerk, was made [Lord] Chancellor of Scotland.
King William gave to King Richard of England, for quite claiming of Berwick and Roxburgh, which King Henry had unjustly detained for 16 years, since King William’s captivity, 10,000 marks of silver, in April 1190; and in June thereafter, David, Earl of Angus and Huntingdon, the King’s brother, married Maude [de Kevelioc/Matilda of Chester], the sister of Ranulf [de Blondeville], Earl of Chester, in England, and daughter of Hugh [de Kevelioc].
This year, 1191, King William gave his daughter Isabella [MacWilliam], the widow of Robert Bruce [de Brus], in marriage to Sir Robert de Ros, Knight, at Haddington.
King William gave his daughter Margaret, begotten on the daughter of Sir Adam [de Hythus] Hutchison, in marriage to Sir Eustace de Vesci, Knight, at Roxburgh, in Ao 1193.
King William gave this same year two thousand marks of silver, to help to pay King Richard of England’s ransom, which made his ambassadors to return with gladness; and Duncan, the son of Gilbert, Earl of Galloway, gave this year the lands of Maybole in Carrick, to the abbey of Melrose.
In Ao 1195, died Gregory, Bishop of Aberdeen or Rosemarkie, in whose place was elected Reinald [Macer], Abbot of Melrose.
This year King William altered the stamp and standard of his coin; and in September this same year, he was dangerously sick for a long time at Clackmannan, where he [had] cause [to] call his estates, and made them to give their oaths of fidelity to his daughter Margaret, as to his true heir, in case he should have no sons by Queen Ermengarde; this lady Margaret was the only child of his first marriage.
This year died William de Morville, Great Constable of Scotland; to whom succeeded [Lochlann], Earl of Galloway, who had married his sister; having given to the King 70 marks of silver for the office of Constabulary, which the King averred to be his, in respect William had died without any [children] of his own body.
In this year King William raised an army to suppress the rebellion of Harald [‘the Young’ Maddadsson], Earl of [Orkney and Mormaer of] Caithness, and marches to Caithness, who no sooner entered the confines, but Harald submits himself to the King’s obedience, and is received to grace. At this same time, Rory and Thorfinn, Earl Harald’s two sons, invade the King’s army, and by it are utterly overthrown, and Rory killed.
In the following year, 1197, Harald, Earl of [Orkney and Mormaer of] Caithness, by his wife’s instigation, the daughter of Máel Coluim mac Aedh, again breaks out, against whom the King sends an army, who defeats his, and takes him prisoner, and leads him fettered to the King, who moves him close prisoner in a turret of Roxburgh Castle, who shortly thereafter, for his father’s new rebellions, was deprived of his eyes and genitals, and ended his life there miserably.
This same year proved very joyful to the King and his whole realm, for the birth of a young prince, borne by Queen Ermengard, and christened Alexander.
The 26th of April, 1199, died Jocelin, Bishop of Glasgow, at the abbey of Melrose. This year died likewise Hugh, Lord Chancellor of Scotland, [10th] of July; to whom succeeded, the 16th of September, William de Malveisin; and in October died Matthew, Bishop of Aberdeen.
This year, 1200, did begin with the death of [Lochlann], Earl of Galloway, at Northampton, in England, and was interred in St. Andrews church there; and in the 3rd and 5th month, died the Countess Ada [Fitzwilliam], and her sister Marjorie, the King’s daughters, and Robert de Quinci.
This year, about the 19th of October, the King communicates the estates of his realm, from whom he exacts an oath of fealty to his son, Prince Alexander, which was performed with great solemnity at Musselborough.
This year, also, the Chancellor, William de Malveisin, was consecrated Bishop of Glasgow, at [the] command of Pope Innocent III, in France.
And this year, also, Gilbert, Earl of Strathearn, founded the monastery of Inchaffray, in Strathearn [in dedication to his deceased son].
In the year 1202, died Roger [de Beaumont], Bishop of St. Andrews, to whom succeeds William de Malveisin, Bishop of Glasgow and [Lord] Chancellor of Scotland; and to him, in the see of Glasgow, succeeded Florence, son to [Florence III] the [Count] of Holland.
In 1203, died John [Scotus], Bishop of Dunkeld, at Newbattle, (this that John the Scot,) a learned doctor, who was elected Bishop of St. Andrews; to him succeeded Richard de Prebenda, cousin and clerk to King William.
This same year, likewise, died Richard [de Lincoln], Bishop of Moray, to whom succeeded Bricius [de Douglas], Prior of Lesmahagow.
This year died Alan [fitz Walter], the son of Walter, Great Steward of Scotland, and Donnchadh, Earl of Fife, to whom succeeded his son Máel Coluim, that thereafter founded Culross Abbey.
Thus the preaching Dominican Friars first had their beginning.
In the year 1205, two moons of the same bigness appeared in the firmament, the horns at one end being joined, at the other dangling.
This same year, David, Earl of Huntingdon and Angus, the King’s brother, did homage to Alexander, the son of King William.
About the end of August this same year, died Duncan, Earl of Lennox [Ailin II held this position from 1200-1217? The first Duncan was ‘Donnchadh’ in 1385-1425], and [England’s] Queen Eleanor [De Aquitane]; and in the month of October died likewise Araldus, Earl of Mearns.
In this year, 1206, the order of the Friars Minors [Franciscans] under St. Francis, did begin; about which time John [of Whithorn], Bishop of Galloway, resigned the bishopric, and turned monk in the abbey of Holyroodhouse, near Edinburgh.
This year, also, died John [of Kelso], Bishop of Aberdeen, to whom succeeded Adam [de Kald], the King’s clerk.
And this year, likewise, Florence [of Holland], Bishop of Glasgow, by the Pope’s permission, resigned his bishopric, in whose place was elected Walter, King William’s chaplain.
In May this same year, Alan, Earl of Galloway, the son of Earl [Lochlann], married the Lady Margaret, daughter to David, Earl of Huntingdon, at Dundee.
In September, likewise, this same year, died John [of Whithorn], Bishop of Galloway; to whom succeeded Walter [of Whithorn], Chamberlain to Alan [fitz Roland], Earl of Galloway, Great Constable of Scotland.
This same year, William [de Malveisin], Bishop of St. Andrews, Walter [Capellanus], Bishop of Glasgow, William Comyn [Earl of Buchan], Justiciar of Scotland, and Philip de Valognes, Lord Chamberlain of Scotland, were sent [as] ambassadors to John, King of England.
In the year 1207, Randolph de Soules, Knight, was killed by his own servants, in his house; and the half of the town of Roxburgh, was burnt by chance.
In this year, 1208, Pope Innocent III having excommunicated John, King of England, and interdicted his realm, the Bishops of Salisbury and Rochester came to Scotland, and were kindly received by King William, who allowed them for their maintenance 80 chalders of white and rye [flour], 66 of barley, and 80 of oats.
There was in May this year, 1209, an interview between King William and John, King of England, at Newcastle, for 8 days, without any great conclusion, save only the in the following year, 1210, King William did resign all his lands in England in the hands of King John, for new investiture of them, to be given to Prince Alexander, his eldest son; for which the said Prince did homage to the King of England, John, at London. At this same time he was knighted by King John, and created Earl of Huntingdon, the 13th of February, and the 14th year of his age, in 1210.
This same year the town of Perth was wholly taken away with the great inundation of the rivers Tay and Almond; from which King William, with his Grace the Prince, and his brother David, Earl of Huntingdon, very narrowly escaped by boat; for all which there was, notwithstanding, a son of King William’s and his nurse drowned, the 22nd of November, 1210.
This same year, John, king of England, subdued almost all of Ireland; he killed many churchmen, and all the monks of the Cistercian order that he could apprehend, them he either killed or put out their eyes.
About Easter this same year, died at Cramond, in Midlothian, Richard, Bishop of Dunkeld, and was interred at the abbey of St. Columba’s, in the Isle of Inchcolm; and in June thereafter, was Sir Thomas [de] Colville apprehended [unjustly] at Edinburgh, and committed by the King to close prison for his rebellion.
This year, also, died, Jonathon, Bishop of Dunblane, and was interred at Inchaffray Abbey. In July thereafter, Gilbert, Earl of Strathearn, divided his earldom in 3 equal portions; one he gave to the Bishopric of Dunblane, another to the monastery of St. John the Evangelist, and monks of Inchaffray, and the 3rd portion he reserved [for] himself and his heirs.
In the year 1211, King William, levies an army, and in person goes to Ross against the rebel Guthred [mac Uilleim], where he built two castles, leaving Máel Coluim, Earl of Fife, Governor of Moray; he sends the Earls of Atholl and Buchan, with Sir Thomas de Lundin, Knight, to search out the rebel, whom the said Thomas took prisoner, (in great conflict of the rebels, 600 of them being killed,) and presented bound to William Comyn, Earl of Buchan, Great Justiciar of Scotland, who overtook the King in his journey south, at Kincardine, and there solemnly did cause boule and hung the rebel mac Uilleim.
This same year, also, was William del Bois, by King William, made Lord Chancellor of Scotland; and John [de Leicester], Archdeacon of Lothian, was elected Bishop of Dunkeld.
This year, 1213, died Reinald [Macer], Bishop of Ross, after whose death Mr Andrew de Moravia was elected Bishop but he, by licence from the Pope, did resign and renounce his election; and in his [place] succeeded King William’s chaplain [Robert Capellanus]. And on [the] 5th of August this same year, Adam, Abbot of Melrose, was elected Bishop of Caithness; and was consecrated in the following year, by William [de] Malveisin, [Arch]bishop of St. Andrews.
The 2nd of December this year, King William departed this life, at Stirling, the 49th year of his reign, and 74 of his age; and was solemnly interred at the monastery of St. Thomas of Arbroath, under the high altar, built and founded by himself.
28 thoughts on “William I., the Lion (1165-1214), King of Scotland, Updated, pp.19-38.”