QUEINE MAREY, at the age of 7 dayes, begude her rainge. Sho was borne at the palace of Linlithgow, and was crouned in Agust follouing, this same zeire.
James, Earle of Arran, Lord Hamiltone, is declared tutor and Regent to the infant Queine; and calls imediatly a parliament at Edinbrughe, the 13 day of Marche. Cardinall Dauid Bettone, Archbis: of St. Andrewes, opposis his electione, and alledges tutors testamenters left be K. James the 5t, bot in waine.
This zeire, Cardinal Bettone, Keiper of the Priuey Seall, is made Lord Chanceler, and the grate seall is deliuered to him; and Johne, Abbot of Pasley, made Keiper of the Priuey Seall.
Arrane, the Regent, this zeire, in the mounth of Januarij 1543, intrometts with the Kings palaces of Holyrudhousse, Linlithgow and Falkland, with his thesaur and jewells; calls each officer to ane accompt, displaces some, and retains others.
The Queine mother keipes herselue priuat at Linlithgow, with the infant Queine, her daughter; and nixt to her mother, her custodey is committed by the estaits to the Lord Leuingstone.
K. Henrey the 8, of Engand, dealls seriously with the Scotts noblemen that wer captiues in England, and with the Earle of Angus, that was in exyle, that the infant Queine might be married to his younge sone Eduard; they, desyrous of ther libertey, promiss verey faire, so that they are sett at libertey, and dismissed home; and with the banished Earle of Angus, and his brother George, quho brought letters from K. Henrey to the Regent, that the acte of ther exiyle might be repealled.
The noblemen that returned from England, report quhat had past betuix them and K. Henrey. He calls a parliament at Edinbrughe, the 15 day of December, this same zeire, to adwysse anent the bussines; bot fearing that Cardinall Bettone wold opposse the bussines, him first they imprissone in Dalkeith castle, and therafter confynes him to his auen castell of St. Andrewes. In this parliament was the institutione of the Colledge of Justice, and payment of the contributione granted to them, ratified.
This same zeire, in Scotland, begane the gospell to display its beames, and Guillamus, a Dominican friar, translates the New Testiment in the wulgar tounge, and publickly preaches aganist the Popes authoritey; he is wincked at by the Regent, and supported by thesse noblemen that returned from England.
Sr Ralphe Sadler is sent by K. Henrey the 8, ambassador to Scotland, to sew the marriage at the meitting of the estaits; wich was concludit to marey the zoung Queine to Eduard, Prince of Walles, only sone to K. Henrey the 8, of England, and a settled peace betuix the tuo kingdomes for 10 zeires.
The Earle of Glencairne, Sr George Douglas, Sr Wiliam Hamiltone and Sr James Lermonth, knights, are sent ambassadors to England for subscriuing the leauge and contractes; wich done, they returne home.
Thinges thus concludit with England, the Cardinall is sett at libertey; also the Earle of Angus, Sr George Douglas, his brother, the Lord Glamis and Sr James Hamiltones eldest sone, are recalled from exyle, and restored to ther dignities and rewenewes by parliament, this same zeire.
Jhone Hamiltone, Abbot of Pasley, the Regents brother, quho had beine longe abrode in France follouing hes studies, returns home throughe England, and is made werey welcome by King Henrey, and dismissed with rich propyns; and after his home coming, by his brother the Regent, is made Lord Theasurer of the kingdome.
About this same tyme, returns home from exyle, out of Italey, James Hepburne, Earle of Bothwell, Lord Hailles, and Grate Admirall of Scotland.
This zeire, also, the Frenche King seues the Earle of Lennox, to dissuade the Scotts from that contracted marriage with England, and that they wold not brecke ther ancient leauge with France.
Discords arrisse betuix the Regent and Lennox; the Regent is for England, and wold willinglie deliuer the infant Queine; bot Lennox, head of the Frenche partey, raisses a grate factione, and opposes him.
In Agust, this zeire, the Cardinall of St. Andrewes, with the Earles of Lennox, Huntley, Menteith and Montrois, and diuers others of the nobilitey and barrons, with adwysse of the Queine mother, conwayes her, and the young Queine her daughter, to Streueling castle, from Linlithgow, and committs ther saue custodey to the Lords Erskyne, Ruthuen, Fleming and Lewingstone, quho wer of ther auen factione, and enclyned muche to the Frenche syde.
The Gouernour, about this same tyme, by his brothers meines and policey, does posses himselue of Edinbrughe castle; and giues the keipning of it to Hamilton of Stainehousse.
In September, this same zeire, the infant Queine is solemley crouned at Streueling castle; all thesse that fauored England wer present at the coronatione; bot the Earle of Lennox depairted the toune, and wold not be present, nather zet aney that had breathed the Frenche aire.
K. Henrey the 8, of England, requyres that the young Queine may be deliuered to him according to promisse; bot for this tyme resanuid a delay wnder a futture assurance.
60,000 crouns sent, this zeire, by the Frenche King to the Regent, with a shipe ladit with all sortes of amunitione, to aide him aganist England, is intercepted by the Earle of Lennox, quho does his best to displant the Gouernoure; bot at Edinbrughe, by the mediatione of Cardinall Bettone and the Earle of Huntley, they are reconceilled. Bot Lennox, beinng of a werey facile nature, does anew wiolat his faith giuen, and from Edinbrugh, by night, couertley reteires himselue to Glasgow, and fortifies the place; aganist quhom the Regent, with his armey, takes the feildes, and wterlie defaittes Lennox, and hes Glasgow castle randred to him.
In the begining of this zeire, 1544, the Earle of Angus and the Lord Maxswoll, are, by the Regent, sent prissoners to Hamilton castle; bot shortlie therafter Angus was remoued from thence to the castell of Blacknesse.
About this same tyme, Lennox, seinng himselue so farr out stripit by the Regent, and his tuo cheiffe supports, Angus and Maxswoll, detained closse prissoners; he turns hes coate, and sendes one Thomas Bischope priuiley to Henrey, the Englishe King, with offers to assist the King in his demands. The King of England, the more to assure and endeere Lennox to him, promisses him his neice, Ladey Margarett Douglas, in marriage; and sendes his brother, the Bischope of Cathnes, the Earle of Glencairne, and the Lord Whartone to Carleill to treat with him.
The Queine mother, with the Cardinall, with all suche as fauored France supporte, adheare to the Regent.
The Regent, this zeire, calls a meitting of the estaits at Streuelinge, quherin the Earle of Lennox is convicte of lessemaiestie, and banisht the realme.
The Frenche K. heiring of Lennoxs defectione to the Englishe, imprissons Jhone Steuarte, Lord Obigney, capitane of the Scotts guards in France, and depriues him of all his offices; he was brother to the Earle of Lennox.
The Patriarche of Venice, the Popes Legat, that laitlie befor had come to Scotland, is, this zeire, honorablie receauid by the Regent, and sumptuosley feasted by the Earle of Murray; and at his deperture transferrs his legantine power, a latere, one Cardinall Betton. He dissuads the Regent, Queine mother and ther adherents, as they tendred the weill of the Catholic religione, and his hollines blissing, nowayes to condescend to the marriage with England. And the Patriarche, after hes returne to Italey, informes the Pope and quholl colledge of Cardinalls, of the singular good will and humanitey of the Scotts, as also of ther affectione to the Roman churche.
This same zeire, lykwayes, King Henrey the 8 sends a nauey of 200 sayle to the Scotts fyrthe, wnder the command of the Earle of Hereford: they land at Leith, and requyre the young Queine to be deliuered to them. The Gouernour returns them a flat deniall, and wictualls Edinbrugh castle; the Englishe land and marche to Edinbrughe, quher they ioyne with a 1000 horsse sent from Beruicke to assist them; they lay seidge to the castle, and within 3 or 4 dayes hes 500 men killed to them by the wallor of Hamilton of Stainehous, the capitane therof, and his garissone. The grate ordinance from the castell walles so plauged the Englishe, that they sett the toune a fyre at ther departur, wich burns for 4 dayes; then doe they fyre the touns of Leith and Mucelbrughe. The Regent hauing raissed ane armey, persewes them at the heilles; the foote he forces to ther shipes, and the horssemen to Beruick, with the losse of 220, and some prissoners.
The Earle of Lennox fleies to England, and befor his departure wold haue deliuered vpe Dunbrittone castle to the Englishe, quho, for that end, had entred the west, and had approched neire to Dunbriton, wnder the conduct of Sr Peiter Crussey, Sr Ralphe Wingfeild and Sr Johne Winter, knights; bot by the prudence and walor of Stirlinge, the capitane, and wthers good patriotts, that then folloued Lennox, zet more then him loued ther country, he to his grate shame and ignominey was disappoynted; and the Englishe, that by his treacherey had for a good number entred, wer turned out head longes.
This zeire, also, the Ilanders and Heighlanders raissed some broyles; bot by the caire and industrey of the Earles of Huntley and Argyle, they wer reduced to ther obedience. The ringleiders hauing, by the hand of justice, lost ther heads, made the countrey to enioy domestiq: peace.
Sr George Meldrum of Fyuie, is this zeire sent ambassador to K. Henrey of England, to Bollyne, in France, with quhom he concludes a peace; wich, notwithstanding of K. Henries othe, he shortley breckes.
This zeire the Regent, with a weill appoynted armey, marches to the borders, to defend them from the often invasions and incursions of the Englishe.
Sr Ralphe Eiuers, with a grate armey, enters the borders, and with fyre and suord wasts Teifidaill. The Gouernour drawes him to batell at Ancrum Mure, (his armey beinng bot small) betuix quhom it was couragiously foughten one bothe sydes, for a longe tyme; wntil that Sr Ralphe, the Englishe generall, being killed dead, and hes best men layinng in heapes about him, the Scottes put all the remnant to a route, and obteined ane inteire victorey. The Earle of Angus did so gallantly and valiantley behaue himselue in this batell, that all suspitione of hes fauoring the Englishe was quyte extingusshed.
This zeire, 1454, deyes Robert Cairnecrosse, Bischope of Rosse; and to him succeides Dauid Panter, secretarey to the Regent.
In Appryle, this zeire, deyes William Steuarte, Bischope of Aberdeine; and to him succeides William Gordon, chanter of Murray, wnckell to George, Earl of Huntley.
K. Henrey the 8, of England, this zeire, by his ambassador, inceitts the Fleiminges, by sea, to warre aganist the Scotts, and promisses them the wtermost of his assistance; wiche they litle regaird.
The Frenche King sends 5000 shouldiours, wnder the command of George Montgomerey of Largges, to Scotland.
K. Henrey of England, this same zeire, againe sends a pouerfull armey to inwade Scotland, wnder the command of the Earle of Harteford, quho enters the Scotts borders, and burns Kelso; bot beinng opposed by the Regent, with his Frenche shouldiours, returns without more doinng to England. The Regent calls wpe ther reire soundlie, and sells them Kelso at a werey deire raite; makes ane inrode als fare as Tyne in England, and returns laden with spoyle, and leaues the Frenche regiments in garisone one the borders.
The Frenche K. this same zeir, honors with his auen order of St. Michell, the Regent, the Earles of Angus, Huntley and Argyle, and by the King of Armes of the order, does solemley invest them with the robes and collar of the same, at the palace of Holyrudhousse.
About this tyme, the capitane of Dunbrittone castle, quho had all this quhyle keipt the same for the banisht Earle of Lennox, randers the same in the Regents hands, quho wssed the capitane honorablie.
The Regent restors the Bischope of Cathnes, Lennoxs brother, to his bischopricke, being put from that he enioyed in England.
The Scotts in the west, makes defection from the Englishe frindschipe, after the randring of Dunbrittone castle to the Regent; and K. Henrey the 8, (that inhumane tyrant) causses hanng ther hostages at Carleill, wich acte of his made the Lord Maxswoll, Lochinwar and Jhonstone, with fyre and suord, inwade the west borders of England, and from thence to returne with a full hand.
In Marche, this same zeire, Master George Witcharte was burned for professione of the gospel, by Cardinall Bettone at St. Andrewes.
The 3d of the kalends of Junij, this zeire, 1546, Dauid Bettone, the proud Cardinall and Archbischope of St. Andrewes, is stabed in his auen castle at St. Andrewes, by Norman Lesley, sone to George, Earle of Rothes, Jhone Lesley his wnckell, William Kirkcaldey of Grainge, and ther complices. They wer shortley therafter declared traitors. They keepe St. Andrews castle, and the Regent beseidges it in waine; the Cardinalls killers being aided by K. Henrey of England.
This zeire, Johne, Abbot of Pasley, is by his brother, the Regent, made Archbischope of St. Andrewes; and the abbey of Aberbrothe takin from James Betton, the Cardinalls cusin, in quhosse fauors in the former zeire he had demitted the same; and the said abbey was giuen to George Douglas, basse sone to the Earle of Angus.
The 8 of the kalends of Februarij, this zeire, 1547, deyes Henrey the 8 of England; and to him succides his sone Eduard, about the age of 9 zeires. During his minoritey, by his fathers testament, his wnckell Symer, Earle of Somersett, was left, and now declared, protector of his persone and realmes.
The second of Appryle, this zeire, Francis, the first of that name, King of France, departes this lyffe; and to him succeids his sone Henrey, quho immediatley after his accesse to the croune, sends Monseur D’Osell, his ambassador to Scotland, for reneuing the ancient league betuix the tuo crouns, wich he performed.
George, Earle of Rothes, hauing this zeire returned from Denmarke, is challenged for airt and pairt, at least accessorey to the death of Dauid Bettone the Cardinall; and his cleired of the same by ane assyse of his peeires.
This zeire, the Lord Regent raisses a gude armey, and inwades the west borders of England; beseidges the castle of Langvpe, takes it, and leuells it with the ground; and returns home with a grate buttey.
Peiter Strozzi, Prior of Capua, is this zeire sent by the Frenche King with 16 gallayes to Scotland; he arriues at St. Andrewes, and enters the toune, in despyte of all the oppositione thesse of the castle could make. The Regent now blocks vpe the castle both by sea and land; and shortly therafter hes it randred to him, one conditione to haue ther liues saued, if so it should pleis the Frenche King: so that one the 5 day of Aguste, the castle being randered, the Prior of Capua shippes himselue, and with him 15 prissoners for France, with the best of all the moueables of the castle.
This zeir, also, the protector of England, the Duck of Somersett, with a grate armey inwads Scotland both by sea and land; quherwpone the Scotts Regent putts out the fyrrie crosse, and lewies a resonable armey, accordinng to the shortnes of the tyme. Both armeyes rancounter neir Mussilbrughe, quher maney one both sydes wer killed. At last the Englishe, by the multitude of ther men, and the trecherey of the Earle of Huntley, had the wictorey, wich they bassley and insolentley wssed; for they killed the Masters of Buchan, Erskyne and Grhame, (quho had randred themselues one quarter promissed) in cold blod. In this batell, comonley called Pinkey, the Scotts lost 8000 men of all sortes; amongest wich ware the eldest sones (then called the Masters) off Fleiming, Ogiluey, Liuingstone, Ruthuen, Auendaill, Methuen and Rosse, with old Lochinwar; and neire 1000 prissoners taken, amongest quhome wer ther the Earle of Huntley, Lord Chanceler of the realme, and the Lord Zestar. Bot the Regent, imediatley befor the batell, by the counsell of the Earles of Angus, Argyle, Rothes and Cassiles, sends the zounge Queine, with her mother, with charge, as they will be ansuerable vpone all heighest pane, to be sauelie keipt by the Lords Erskyne and Leuingstone, in the Ile of Inchemahome. From the place of the batell, the Englishe armey marches to Leithe, bot heirinng that the Lord Regent was gathring a new armey, they fyre some thatche housses in Leithe, (wich was immediatley extinguished) and depairt; and in ther returne home take Home castle, and regaine the castell of Roxbrughe, in such sorte that it was fensable.
This same zeire, also, the Englishe nauey, by sea, take the castell of Brughtay, at the mouthe of the riuer Tay, neire the toune of Dundie, and lewes a garissone of 300 shouldiours in it, wnder the command of Androw Dudley.
The Englishe make incursions one the west borders of Scotland, and are beattin, with the losse of ther best men, by the Lairdes of Cockpule and Jhonstone, wnder the command of the Lord Maxswoll; ther gratest bootie being sore skins.
This zeire, the Regente calls a conventione of the estaits at Streuelinge, quherin it was resolued wnanimously to craue the ayde of France; wich resolutione of the estaits moued the Queine mother and Monseur D’Osell, earnistly to sollicit that the younge Queine might be sent ouer to France, quher shoe could not choysse bot be saue wnder the protectione of so good a frind as was the Frenche King. This adwice, as most conducing for the good of the Scotts comonwealthe, is ratified in parliament, and ambassadors chossen to goe to France.
Wpone the relatione of this, and the adwyce from the Queine mother and Monseur D’Osell, the Frenche King makes grate preparatione for ane armey to be sent to ayde the Scotts, quherof the Protector of England beinng adwertissed, dealls with the Earle of Huntley, then a prissoner in England, that the Scotts Queine may be giuen in marriage to K. Eduard 6; bot the Earle anssuers, that he will neuere be of that mynd, that shoe should be giuen in marriage to aney wntill shoe be of perfyte age. The Protector of England had now almost suallowed in imaginatione the possesione of the kingdome of Scotland; bot God disappoynted all his counsells, and turned the bussines ane other way, for he raissed vpe intestine varrs in England aganist the Protector himselue.
This same zeire, the Englishe take Hadingtoune, and fortifie it; bot no souner hard they of the approche of the Frenche and Italian shouldiours to cast ancor in the Fyrthe, bot they quyte Hadingtone, and packe for England as giue chessed: bot being ashamed of ther auen paniq: feare, they returne and victuall the toune, with full resolutione to byde a seidge befor they quyte it.
The French arriue at Leithe, lands ther men, and are velcomed by the Regent, and conwayed to Edinbrughe. They wer 5000 olde beattin shouldiours, Frenche, Italians and Germans.
De Dessey was generall;
Dandelot commandit the Frenche footte;
Strozzi commandit the Italians;
The Reinegraue commandit the Germans;
Dunow was generall of the ordinance.
And thir were the commanders in cheiffe of the Frenche forces that came this zeir to the aide of Scotland aganist the Englishe.
The Frenche armey makes haist to beseidge Hadingtone, and the Regent accompanies them with 12,000 footte, and 2000 horsse; the first night they encampe at Mussilbrughe, and the nixt day in sight of the enimey. They skirmishe with the Englishe, and kill maney of them; none of the Frenche being killed of not, saue onley one capitane, Villenewfe; thus begud the zeire of our redemptione, 1548.
The Englishe being beattin vithin the valls of Hadingtone, imediatley the armey begins to make ther approches, and plants ther battries; and in three dayes makes a saultable breache in the wall: bot the Frenchemen being more furious than wysse, De Dessey retractes the assaulte for a tyme.
At this tyme, in a monastarey hard by, the Regent had called a conventione of the estaits, quherin the perpetuall leauge with France is ratified, and the young Queine betrothed to Francis, the Dolphin of France, and ordanid to be sent thither within few mounthes; and so the Frenche ambassadors made faith for King Henrey ther master, in presence of the estaits of the realme.
This zeire, Monseur de Villagagnon, with his galleyes, sayles from Leith to Dunbrittone, quher the young Queine was; and De Bresse hauing prowydit all thinges necessarey for her woyage, sho ships in at Dunbrittone, and lands at Brest, in Brittanie, sauely. To accompaney her, went the Lordes Erskyne and Fleiminge, to quhosse faith and caire sho was committed. Ther went also with her the Ladey Fleiminge, her aunt, with 12 zoung ladeyes, and 200 gentlemen and seruants.
The Protector, this same zeir, sends from Beruick 2000 horsse, with new supleis of ammunitione to the Englishe beseidged in Hadingtone; bot the Lord Home, being informed of ther desainge, layes ane ambuscad for them, and kills and takes aboue 1000 of them, and routts the rest.
This defait of the Englishe horsse heighlie incennsis the Protectors wrath, so that with all speeid he leuies ane grate armey by land, wnder the command of the Earle of Salisburrey, to raisse the seidge of Hadingtone; as also a grate nauey by sea, commandit by the Lord Clinton. The land armey of England marches neire the Frenche, betuix quhom ther was daylie skirmishes; bot heirinng of the neire approche of the Regent and the Earle of Argyle, with a good armey, they speidiley returne for England. Bot the Lord Clintone, ryding at anchor with his shipes, lands some 5000 men one the coste of Fyffe, to spoyle the countrey; bot befor they did much harme, they wer rancountred by the Laird of Weymes, and the Barrons of Fyffe, all weill horssed, quho road them flat doune with ther horsses; and hauing killed aboue 700 of them, forced the remnant to saue themselues by wadding in sea to the neckes, befor they could gaine ther flat bottomed boates. Hauing purched no better boutey ther than ther back full of strokes and watt skins, the good intertainment the Englishe did receaue in Fyffe at this tyme, saued it in all the progresse of this warre from aney furder trouble.
About this same tyme, Petrus Niger and Julius de Romero, with tuo companies of Spanishe footte, lefte one the borders by the Earle of Salisburrey at his deperture, spoyle some pairtes of Teifidaill and Lidisdaill.
This zeir ther hapned a grate vprore in Edinbrughe betuix the Scotts and Frenche shouldiours, quherin the Prouest of Edinbrughe and his sone William Steuarte, wer killed. This bussines had almost giuen the enimey a faire aduantage, had not the French generall, De Dessey, caussed hang the raissers of this tumult, and presentley with his infantrey depairt the toune; and thinking to take Hadingtone by a strategeme, marches from Mussilbrughe abut 11 at night, kills the Englishe centries, enters the portes and crayes victorey. The Englishe till armes, and with grate losse to the Frenche, forces them to make a foule retrait; De Dessey lamenting the losse of so braue ane opportunitey for supplanting the Englishe, by his auen temeritey, and laicke of mature counsaill and order in the performance of so gallant ane exploit.
The Regent sends the Laird of Carnegey ambassador to the Protector of England, to deall for the Earle of Huntleys ransome and libertey, and that hes Ladey might haue accesse to him; the Protector condescendit to giue his Ladey accesse, bot wold not heire of ransome of libertey, wntill the warr was endit; bot he was sent from London to Morpethe with a sure guard, in houpe to meitt his Ladey. Bot by a strategeme, he escapes the handes of his keipers, and saueley wins the Scotts border, by tuo suifte horsses, layed for him with a gyde sent him by George Ker, and sauely arriues at Edinbrughe, and is welcomed by the Queine mother and Regent, and entered to the place of Lord Chanceler of Scotland, and Leiuetenant of Aberdeine, Bamffe and Elgyne shyres.
This zeire, also, the Scotts regane from the Englishe Home castle, after wich the Reinegraue returns to France.
About this same tyme, ther arriues at Dunbrittone 4 freshe regiments of shouldiours from France, with all sortes of ammunitione, and money to pay the armey.
Robert Lauder of Basse, with the Frenche garisone of Dumbar castle, takes the Englishe prowisione going from Berwick to Hadingtone; killes maney shouldiours, and takes the Gouernour of Hadingtone, named Wilford, (quho had come to aide them) prissoner.
Neire this same tyme, the Frenche chesse the Englishe out of Jedbrughe, and recouer Pherneyhirst castle.
This same zeire, the Frenche inwade England, and returne vith 300 prissoners, and a grate buttey; and in ther retrait, they demolishe Furd castle, in England.
At this same tyme, the Englishe nauey of 25 shipes of warre, arriue in the Fyrthe, and they fortifie Inchekeith, and leaue 5 companies of shouldiours to defend it; bot the Frenche generall, De Dessey, forces the Englishe to rander it to him, and comitt themselues and haill ammunitione and baggage to his disposall, bot lyffe and armes.
Monseur de Term’s, a knight of the Frenche order, arriues, this zeir, at Dunbrittone, with a 100 currassiers, 200 lances, and 1000 Frenche foote, and marches to Edinbrughe, quher he receaues orders for his future imployment for the weill of the Scotts republick aganist the comon enimey.
In Julay, this zeire, Monseur De Dessey returns to France, and committs the command to De Term’s, quho fortifies at Aberladey; and heiring that Romeros Spanishe and Alman forces were at Coldinghame, he aduances aganist them, fights and kills the most of them, and takes the rest prissoners. Romero, ther leader, escapes to Beruick.
The zeire 1549, begins with the Scotts taking of Fastcastle from the Englishe.
Ciuill broyles arrysse this zeire, in England, betuix the nobilitey and the Protector.
The plauge of pestilence, this zeir, in Hadingtone, and in few dayes deuored more then the halffe of the English garisone ther, wich moued them to quyte the toune, and returne for England.
In the begnining of the zeire 1550, James Halyburtone, Prouest of Dundie, by the animatione of the Frenche generall, de Termes, recouers from the Englishe, by strenth of hand, Brughtay castle.
This same zeire, ther was a peace tratted and concludit at Bolloyne, betuix the Scotts, Frenche and Englishe; Panter, Bischope of Rosse, for the Scotts, Chattelone for the French, and for the Englishe the Earle of Bedford. This peace was publisht the 12 day of Appryle. The young Lord Erskyne, and Henrey St. Claire, Dean of Glasgow, goes ambassadors to England, and seeis the peace signed and suorne; and from thence to Flanders, quher they lykwayes conclude a peace.
The Englishe, this zeir, abandon all ther holdes in Scotland, and returne home; and the Frenche and Almaine shouldiours returne to France. So that this zeire Scotland was liberat and freed of all forrainers and strangers.
In Maij, this zeire, the Queine mother goes to France, and is conuayed thither by the Earles of Huntley, with his Countesse and mother, Marishall, Sutherland and Cassiles.
This same zeire, the Earle of Huntley, befor his going to France, causses stricke the head from William Mackintoche, at Strathbolgie, for practizing aganist the said Earles lyffe, he then being the Queins leiuetenant in the north.
This zeire, 1551, the Queine mother beinng in France, showes the reassone of her ther going, was for suitting the gouerniment of Scotland, to wich demand the French King is moued to assent, conditionalley, that the Regent be pleassed to dimitt his regencey willingley. The Queine mother, to make the Regent the more willinglie dimitt in her fauors, moues the Frenche King to ratifie the dutchie of Castle Herauld, in France, to the Ducke and his heires mailes; and to make the Earle of Arrane, his sone, capitane of the Scotts gaurdes, wich attendit the Frenche Kings persone. Shoe moued him, lykwayes, to giue the earldome of Murray, in commendatu, to the Regents, the earledome of Rothes to Androw Lesley, that had married the Regents kinswoman, and the earldome of Morton to George Douglas sone.
About this tyme, Sr Robert Carnegey, one of the Senators of the Colledge of Justice, is sent by the Regent ambassador to France, to rander the Frenche King hartlie thanks for his aide aganist the Englishe. During his abode ther, the Marquis of Northamptone comes from K. Eduard 6, of England, to Henrey the Frenche King, to demand his daughter in marriage to K. Eduard.
The Queine mother prepares for her returne to Scotland, throughe England, (hauing receauid a saue conduct,) quher shoe is noblie and kyndlie intretted. With her K. Eduard dealls effectually for the marriage of her daughter, the young Queine of Scotland; and layes the quholl causse of the last warre one the Protector. At last shoe returns to Scotland by land, and the Earle of Huntley by sea; and no souner is sho arriued at home, bot presentley composes all differences amongest the nobilitey.
At ths same tyme, Robert Wachope, Archbis: of Armach, in Irland, returns from Rome, and deyes at Paris, the 19 day of Nouember, this same zeire.
This zeire, 1552, the Regent, to make the country the better reape the fruitts of peace, causses repaire all such tours, castells and villages, wich the furrey of warre had formerlie defaced; he takes a progresse throughe the quholl realme, keipes justice courtes, and punishes rebells and malefactors.
A prouinciall synode of the clergey keipt this zeire at Linlithgow, quherein the actes of the Counsaill of Trent are commandit to be obserued. At this synod, Dauid Pantar, the Regents secretary, is consecrat Bischope of Rosse.
The Regent, in his surway of the borders, this zeire, in the mounthe of Junij, for ther good seruice to ther countrey, honored with knighthood, the Lairdes of
Androw Ker of Littledeane.
The Queine mother practisses all sho can to conciliat the myndes of the nobilitie to her; and causses Panter, Bischope of Ross, deall with the Regent willinglie to demitt, wich he takes in werey ciuill pairt; quhervpone factions begnis to arrysse. Bot he is told, in plaine tearmes, that the Queine, at her age of 12 zeirs, had chosen, in France, for her curators, K. Henrey the 2d, Charles, Cardinall of Lorraine, and the Ducke of Guisse; and that they had layed the haill burden of gouerniment on the Queine mother.
The Queine mother, with thesse that fauored her courses, goes to Streueling castle; and such as opposed her, and lyked the Regents gouerniment better, at this tyme dispersed lybells and invectiues aganist the gouerniment of woomen, shewing that the same was repugnant to the ancient lawes of Scotland.
This zeire, quhill the differences anent gouerniment wer in debait betuix the Queine mother and Regent, the Kers kill the Laird of Buccleuche; and the Lord Ruthens zoungest sone kills Jhone Chartreis, Laird of Kinfauns, in Perthsyre.
Abot this same tyme, lykwayes, in Edinbrugh, in the Regents auen housse, the Lord Semple stabs to death the Lord Sanquhare; for wich he had lost his head, if the earnist intrettey of his frindes, and satisfactione to the Chrightons had not bein giuen.
This zeire, 1553, K. Eduard the 6, of England, depairts this lyffe, the 6 day of Julay; and to him succeids his sister Marey, who reestablisht the Popishe religion in England: and the rebellions aganist her at her entrey to the croune, sho pacified with the heads of the intenders.
In the begining of the zeire 1554, Norman Lesley, that had killed Dauid Bettone, the Cardinall, returns to Scotland; bot for feare of the Regent, depairts to France, and by the Frenche King is made colonel of the Scotts Lanciers. He behaued himselue noblie and brauelie, and was killed in Pickardey, warring aganist the enimey.
The 10 of Appryle, this zeire, ther was a conuentione of the estaits holdin at Edinbrughe, quherin the Regent reseinges his authoritie, and the Queine mother is declared Regent; quha no souner aduanced to the gouerniment, bot incontinent sho changes the pryme officers of the stait.
Huntley is made Lord Chanceler;
Mr James Macgill, Clerke Register;
Abbot of Couper, Priuey Seall;
Monseur de Rubic, Wice Chanceler, and Keiper of the Grate Seall;
Villemore, a Frenchman, Comptroller; and
Bontot, ane other Frencheman, Gouernour of the Orcades Iles.
This change of staittsmen, and preferring of the Frenche, moued the nobilitey to grate indignatione aganist the Queine Regent.
This zeire, also, the Queine Regent, by her ambassadors, Sr Robert Canegey of Kynaird, and Sr Johne Bellinden of Achnoule, knights, composses all differences betuix Scotland and England anent fishing one the borders, and wthers contrawersies; for Queine Marey, of England, mett by her ambassadors, Sr Thomas Cornwallace and Sr Robert Bowis, knights.
The conventione of the estaits endit, the Queine Regent sends the Earle of Huntley to suppresse that audacious rebell, Jhone Mudyard, (one of the Clanchattan,) and his followers, with ane armey; bot the Earle returns without effecting aney thing for repressing the rebells; this expeditione of his making them rather mor bold and presumptuos. Quherat the Queine is aboue meassure inraged; and imediatley shoe causses citte the Earle to compeir and anssuer to that libellit aganist him. He compeirs, and is committed prissoner to Edinbrughe castle; his enimies taking occasione, (one his restraint,) aggrauats all his actions, and accusis him as the pryme author of all thesse troubles in the northe, and that for his beheading of the Laird of Mackintoche; quhervpone the earledome of Murray is takin from him, and giuen to the Lord Abernethey; and the gouerniment of Orknay and Schetland, with the balzirie of Strathdie, and administratione of the earldome of Marr, wich he had, are all takin from him, and retained by the Q. Regent in her auen hand.
This zeire, 1555, Henrey St. Claire, Deane of Glasgow, one of the senators of the Colledge of Justice, a learnid lauer, returns from France, and in a breiffe and methodicall way, orders the forme of process befor the Lordes of Sessione.
This same zeire, the Duck of Aumale, brother to the Queine Regent, being one of the French Kings hostages in England, comes to Scotland and wisitts his sister, accompanied by one Sr Thomas Stuckley, ane Englishe knight; and shortley returnes againe.
A parliament haldin by the Queine Regent, at Edinbrughe, the 20 of the mounthe of Junij, this zeire. In it was the reuocatione of the Queine ratified, and ordaned to be pubished, wiche was subscriued with her hand, at Fontaine-Bleau, in France, the 25 day of Appryle, ths same zeire; that none eatte fleche in Lent, bot licience; that procuratories, and instruments of resignatione, be sealled and subscriued; that all notars, in tyme coming be examined and admitted by the Lordes of Sessione, and ther protucalls marked; that no staple commoditie, such as wooll, be carried wnto England; that the woodde of Falkland be cutte, and hained againe; that no goldsmith, wnder the paine of deathe, make aney siluer worke wnder the goodnes of 11 penney fyne; and lastlie, that none speake eiuell of the Queine Regents grace, or of Frenchmen, the Christian Kinges subiects: with diuers others actes of lesse publicke concernment.
The 8 of Agust, this zeire, Philipe the 2d, King of Spaine, is married to Marey, Queine of England.
This zeire, also, Johne, Earle of Athole, is sent by the Queine Regent aganist the rebell, Jhone Mudyard, quho takes him, and bringes him bound to the Queine. Shoe pardons him his lyffe, conditionaly he should for euer duell confyned in the toune of Perth; bot he no souner dissmissed, bot incontinent therafter betakes himselue to the montans, and learnis the Queine Regent to hold the foxe better by the eare, quhill shoe had him in hir hands.
A parliament holdin by the Queine Regent, this zeire, at Edinbrughe, quherin, one the French Kings recommendatione, the Lairds of Grange, Brunstone, and Mr Henrey Balnauis, haue the acte of ther forfaultrey repelled, from Marche 1556. The parliament was, till the 14 day of December in the following zeire, 1557, adiorned.
In this parliament, the Queine Regent, by the adwysse of her Frenche counsaill, demands a certaine taxatione for defence of the borders, with this specious pretence, that noblemen and gentlemen may stay at home alwayes, bot quhen the countrey should be inwadit with a grate armey; and now with the demandit money shoe wold leuey shouldiours to continew ther for defence of the borders. The Barrons absolutley refusse, and anssuers, that Scotts Kinges thought it euer ther gratest honor and surest tressure, to be called Reges Scottorum, and not Reges Scotiæ, King of Scotts and not of Scotland; and that ther thesaure did neuer consist of ther subiects meins and fortuns, bot heartes.
The Bischope of Dunblaine, the Laird of Lidingtone, and Mr James Mackgill, clerck register, stayed some mvnnthes at Duns, with Tunstall, Bischope of Dunelme, and the Englishe commissioners, anent certaine contrawersies betuix the tuo kingdomes, wich they composed, and fulley endit.
The Queine Regent, this zeire, takes her progresse als farr north as Innernesse; holdes justice courtes, punishes rebells and outlawes, and forces the cheiffe of eache clan to be anssuerable for thesse of his name. The Laird of Grante bringes in the heads of some of his kindred, quhome he could not bringe in aliue, and presents them to justice. Sho fynnes the Earle of Cathnes in a good round soume of money, becausse he had not presented some of his frindes and followers to justice; and sendes the Earle of Sutherland with ane armey aganist Mackey of Srathnauerne by land, and Jhone Kennedey with a nauey by sea, quho brought him prissoner to Edinbrughe castle, quher he lay for a longe tyme therafter.
In Februarij, this zeire, 1557, the Moscouian ambassador, in his iorney to England, was shipebroken one the coaste of Scotland; he was kyndlie receaued and intertained by the Queine Regent, and conwayed by the Lord Home with 500 gentlemen to Beruick.
This zeire, in Julay, Hother Tranberne comes ambassador from the Ladey Anna, Duchesse of Oldenbrughe, Vestfrisland and Delmahurst, to Scotland, and concludes a peace with this croune for 100 zeires.
Varre bursts furthe, this zeire, in the borders of Flanders, betuix the French and Spanishe Kinges; Queine Marey, of England, sends aide to her husband, King Philipe.
This zeire, in Maij, the Scotts and Englishe commissioners meitt at Carleill, for reparing mutuall damnages one the borders. The Scotts commissioners wer:
Robert Read, Bis: of Orknay;
Henrey St. Clair, Deane of Glasgow;
Sr Robert Carnegey; and the
Lord Harries, Warden of the West Borders.
For the Englishe wer commissioners,
Tonstall, Bischope of Dunelme;
Lord Dackers; and the
The Frenche King, this zeire, sollicittes the Scotts to warre aganist England, and shewes the estaits that the Queine of England had denunced warr aganist him.
Monseur D’Osell and Charlebusse, with ther Frenche companies, fortifie the toune of Heymouthe; and, at this tyme, the Queine Regent recalls the Scotts commissioners from Carleill.
The Earle of Huntley, this zeir, is made Leiuetenant of the Borders, and enters the west borders of England with fyre and suord, as the Lord Home did the east.
About wich tyme, lykwayes, the Queine Regent raisses a grate armey to inwade England, and the nobilitey flatlie refusses to inwade it, with all the armey; quherat the Queine is muche displaced, and presentlie disbandes her forces: and now begins the hattered of the nobilitey and gentrey aganist the Queine Regent, wiche for a longe tyme had lurked amongest the ashes of discontent to burst furthe in a flame.
The parliament adiorned till the 14 day of December, this zeire, sitts doune at Edinbrughe, quherin, after the heuey complaints of the Queine Regent was hard, and they in a maner slighted, and some few lawes for procedure in ciuell busines befor the Sessione wer enacted, the parl: without more adoe broke vpe.
In the begining of this zeire, 1558, diuers ministers and professors of the gospell returne from Germaney and Geneua; and with them the gratest of the nobilitie and gentrey that fauored the gospell, begins to consult how to abolishe popery, and expell the Frenche.
K. Philipe, of Spaine, this zeire, takes St. Quintine, wich moues the French King to haistin the Dolphins marriage with Queine Marey of Scotland.
The Queine Regent calls a parliament at Edinbrughe, the 29 day of Nouember, this zeire, quherin the French ambassador presents his masters letter to the estaites, wich being read, and the priuilidges of Scottsmen within the realme of France, ratified in parliament, with the acte of naturalizatione of eache, hinc inde, of Scotts in France, and French in Scotland, without more the parliament breaks vpe.
This parliament appoyntes 8 commissioners to be present at the Queins marriage with the Dolphine of France, viz.
James Bettone, Archbis: of St. Andrews;
Rob: Read, Bis: of Orknay, Pres: of the Session;
George, Earle of Rothes;
Gilbert, Earle of Cassiles;
George, Lord Settone;
James, Lord Fleiminge;
Ja: Prior of St. Andrews, brother to the Q.;
Jo: Erskyne of Dun, Prouest of Montrois.
They are welcomed by the Frenche King; and imediatley after ther arriuall, the contracte of marriage seallid and suorne, and the marriage solemnized betuix the Dolphine, Francis of France, and Marey, Queine of Scotts, in the churche of Nosteredame at Paris, by the Archbischope of Rowan.
The Duck of Guisse, this zeire, takes Calais from the Englishe, wich they had possesed some 200 zeires.
Charles the 5, the Emperour, this zeire, also, reseings the empyre to his brother Ferdinand.
The Scotts make daylie incurssions in the Englishe borders. D’Osell and his Frenche are not so cuninge in the managing of the border warre as the Scotts, wich made them often gett weill payed skins.
This zeire, Paull Methuen, Harlaw and Johne Douglas, a Carmelite, preache the gospell priuatley in gentlemens housses.
The 1 of September, this zeire, the Roman clergey keipt a synode at Edinbrughe; the first day of the sitting doune of wich, the prists had a soleme processione, quherin they caried a grate loge of wood or idoll, by them called St. Geilles. The comons and others that fauored the gospell, makes a grate tumult, and soudlie beatts all the preists of Baall, and brecks all ther idoll St. Geill in peices.
The Queine Regent, to composse thesse popular tumults in Edinbrugh, especialley aganist her gods; and fearing gratter, sho causses the Lord Settone, a bigod idolater, supleie the place of Prouest of Edinbrughe.
James Steuarte, Prior of St. Andrewes, seikes the earledome of Murray from the Queine, his sister, bot receaues a flat deniall.
This zeire, 4 of the 8 commissioners sent to France to assist at the solemnities of Q. Mareys marriage, being one ther returne home, deyes almost suddentley, at Diepe, not without suspitione of poysone.
Robert Read, Bischope of Orknay, President of the Colledge of Justice, deyes at Diepe, the 8 of the ides of September, this zeire.
George, Earle of Rothes, deyes within 2 dayes to him, ther lykwayes.
Gilbert, Earle of Cassiles, deyes ther also, the 18 day of October.
The Lord Fleiminge, younger than aney of the rest, did bear it out longer, and out of houpe to recouer of it, he caussed himselue to be transported to Paris, quher, notwithstanding, he deyed the 5 of Januarij, in the following zeire. The wther 4 commissioners returned home, and landit in sauetey, at Montrois, in October, this same zeire.
In the mounthe of Aguste, this zeire, Archbald, Earle of Argyle, Grate Justiciar of Scotland, and Knight of the Order of St Michaell, departs this lyffe.
And, in September following, this same zeire, deyes the Bischope of Brechin, to quhasse sea succeidit the Abot of Couper; and Androw Durie, Bischope of Galloway, to quhosse sea succidit Alexander Gordon, Archbischope of Athens.
At this same tyme, deyes James Steuarte, eldest basse sone to K. James the 5, Abbot of Kelso and Melrosse; and to accompaney him in death, quhom he so deirly loued in his lyffe time, deyes also that notable adulterer, Dauid Panter, Bischope of Ross, some tyme secretarey to the Regent, James, Duck of Castleherauld, Earle of Arrane.
The Queine Regent giues the tuo abbeyes of Kelso and Melrosse to the Cardinall of Guisse.
A fearfull comett appeired, this zeire, wich not onlie (as the sequell proued) protendit change in gouerniment, bot in religione lykwayes. Maney wer the monsters and prodigies that Scotland produced this zeire; bot thesse I leaue to be looked one in the wretters of the tyme.
The 5 day of December, this zeire, Marey, Queine of England, that idolatrous and bloodie Princesse, to the grate ioy of all good christians, departis this lyffe; and to hir succeides hir sister, famous and religious Elizabeth.
No souner is Elizabeth crouned, bot presentley, by parliament, aduances Christs gospell, and abolishes the Popes supremacey, with all the trumprey of the Romishe whoore, in England.
The Queine Regent calls the estaits of the kingdome to Edinbrughe, this zeire, the 9 of December, to quhome the Dolphine of France proposes a suitt, to wit, that the estaits wold, during his marriage with ther Queine, allow him the coniuncte tytill of Francis and Marey, King and Queine of Scotland, &c. The estaits, with some caueatts and restrictions, granted the demand, and sent the Earle of Argyle, and James, Prior of St. Andrewes, ther commissioners to France, to croune Francis with all solemtey; and to accompaney them, was Lyone K. of Armes, and 2 heralds to attend him, for the same purpois sent lykwayes.
K. Henrey the 2d, the Frenche King, causses Queine Marey, his daughter in law, this zeire, assume, amongest her other tytills, thesse of England and Irland also. This he did partlie out of waine ostentatione, and partley out of spleane to Elizabethe, Quein of England.
In the begining of the zeire 1559, the clergie keip a soleme synod at Edinbrughe, to adwysse anent the most assurid propes they could, to vpehold ther tottring hierarchie; to them the professors of the gospell gaue in some artickells, quherat the bischopes and clergie fumed and raged at; bot instead of anssuering them, they publisht a number of artickells, indeid blasphemies, aganist Christe, his Euangell and professors of the same. They lykwayes, in this synod, make some fectles actes for reformation of ther idell bellied mounkes and adoulterous clergey, wich moued diuers churchemen at this same tyme embrace the gospell.
At this same tyme, the Queine Regent causses sumond Johne Knox, Johne Willocke and Johne Douglas, with some otheres, prechears of the gospell, to compeir befor her and her counsaill, wich they doe not, and so, are declared rebells.
The Laird of Dun, sent by the professors of the gospell to the Queine Regent, humbley to intreat her that show wold be pleassed to recall that rigid decree aganist the preachers of the gospell, wich shoe altogider refussed to doe; bot Johne Knox, perceauing the Queine Regents obstinacey and malice againest them, incittes the peopell to the abolishing of the Popes authoritey, and the doune pulling of monasteries and religious housses, by him called the nests and caiges of wncleane birdes.
With this worke of reformatione, then begin they at Perth, and pulls doune altars, images, and such other popishe trinketts eurey quher, and demolishes the staitley fabrick of the Carthusians, bulte by K. James the 1; then pull they doune the monasteries of the Dominican, Carmelite and Franciscan friars, in this same toune; at wich tyme, the professors of the Euangell assumed to themselues the name of the Congregation.
The Queine Regent heiring thir newes, comes all inragged to Perth, and with her, D’Osell and his Frenche shouldiours. Sho commands the Ducke of Castleherauld, with the Earles of Argyle, Athole and Marishall, to attend her from Streueling to Perth. To her traine ioyned the Archbischopes of St. Andrewes and Glasgow, the Bis: of Dunkelden and Dumblaine, with the Prior of St. Andrewes, and the Abbots of Couper and Dumfermlinge. Shoe was receauid honorabley into the toune by the Lord Ruthuen, then Prouest; bot quhen sho saw that they were all fled quhom sho thought to haue takin reuenge one, then goes sho to consult quhat was nixt to be done.
The Earle of Argyle and James Steuarte, Prior of St. Andrewes, ioyne themselues with the congregatione, wich they no souner did, bot presently begin they to demolishe the monastaries and religious housses in Fyffe, and keipes ther meittinges and consultations at Coupar.
The Queine Regent heiring quhat the congregatione had done in Fyffe, sho fortifies Perth, and plants a garissone of 600 Scotts foote therin, vnder the command of James Steuart of Cardonell, and James Cullene, and depairts with her Frenche shouldiours to Falkland, quher shoe ceittes the Earle of Argyle and Prior of St. Andrews to compeire befor hir ther, wich they refusse to doe; and shoe, to constraine them, sends D’Oysell and his Frenche to bring them per force. Quhen the Frenche approches neir Couper Mure, ther they see the congregatione standing weill armed and in good order, redey to giue them batell; bot the Ducke of Castleherauld and Earle of Marishall, dealls seriously betuix them, and Argyle and the Prior, to reteir to St. Andrewes, and D’Oysell back to Falkland, and with all persuades the Queine Regent to take ane other coursse, for that wold not doe her turne, since in effecte all the comons wer aganiste her, bot rather to returne to Edinbrughe, and ther to call a conventione of the estaits, to cure (as they called them) thesse almost incurable and disperat deceasses of the commonwealthe.
About this same tyme, also, the Earle of Glencairne and the Lord Boyd, with maney of the barrons and gentlemen in the west, professors of the gospell, ioyne themselues to the congregatione, and presentley marches and layes seidge to the toune of Perthe, and after some few dayes hes it randred to them.
The Queine Regent sends the Earle of Huntley to deall with the congregatione to submitt to the estaits; they refuse, without free libertey of the gospell.
After wich anssuer, returned by the Earle of Huntley, the congregatione goes to the staitly monastarey of Scone, and pulls it doune, and solemley burns all the Roman trashe, as images, altars and the lyke.
Then proceid they fordward to Streueling, Cambuskenethe and Linlithgow, and ther demolishe and pull doune all quhatsoeuer carried aney symboll of the Roman whoore.
The congregatione from Linlithgow marche they to Edinbrughe, and the Queine Regent dealls earnistly with the citicens of Edinbrughe to opposse ther entrey, wich they altogider refusse. The Queine heiring ther anssuer, and fearing they wold lay hold one her persone, sho, with D’Oysell and her Frenche shouldiers, reteir to Dumbar castle.
Then enters the congregatione Edinbrughe, and ther remoues and demolishes all badges of popery and superstitione; and solemley renunces all obedience to the Queine Regent or her gouerniment, wnless shoe will abolish poprie and superstitione out of the realme, and returne the French shouldiours home againe, quho had for maney zeires so miserabley oppressed the countrey since ther first footting heire, without aney respecte of persons, or feare of diuyne justice.
The Lord Harries escapes out of Edinbrughe castle, quher he was a prissoner, and ioynes himselue to the congregatione.
The Queine Regent adwertisses the Frenche King, Henrey, of the Scottes affaires, and by her letters sollicitts him to send some regiments of footte, and troupes of horsse, to represse the professors of the gospell.
This zeire, in Julay, ther was a peace treatted and concludit betuix the Frenche and Spanishe Kinges.
The 10 of Julay, this zeire, Henrey 2d, the Frenche King, depairts this lyffe; and to him succeides his sone Francis.
The Queine Regent sendes hir Frenche shouldiours aganist the professors of the gospell, then at Edinbrughe; they opposse the Frenche with a good armey. The Earle of Huntley reconceills them for the present, and 10 artickells are drawen vpe, the firste of wich was, that the congregation should depairt Edinbrughe.
The Queine Regent returnes to Edinbrughe, and in the begining of September, this zeire, receaues letters by Monseur De Crocke, the French ambassadore, shewing that sho might, with all possible speid expecte from France, forces wnder the command of Marque de Elbuiffe; and by the same ambassador, K. Francis and Queine Marey wreat particularlie to James, Prior of St. Andrewes ansuers to thesse letters.
Octauius, brother to the Marques of Elbuiffe, in the letter end of September, this zeire, arrives at Leithe, with some regiments of Frenche footte.
At this same tyme, diuers Frenche noblemen and gentlemen, with other also, for loue of the gospell, ioyne with the congregatione; quherwpone the French fortifie the toune of Leithe.
The Earle of Arrane conwayes himselue quyetly from the French countrey to Geneua, and from thence through England home, and ioyns with the congregatione.
The congregatione supplicatts the Queine Regent, that shoe wolde command the Frenche to desist from the fortifuing of Leithe; bot in waine.
The Queine Regent, with some Scotts Bischopes, and the Lord Settone, and her Frenchmen, enter Leithe.
The congregatione makes preparatione to beseidge the toune of Leithe; and then does Lidingtone, the Secretarey, ioyne himselue to the professors of the gospell.
About the midle of October, this zeire, more Frenche land at Leith, wnder the command of Monseur de Martigney, beinng some ten companies; bot without aney more prowissione then formerlie had come.
The congregatione sends to Queine Elizabethe, of England, to implore her ayde aganist the papists and Frenche. With her they conclude a leauge, offensiue and defensiue, during all the dayes of the lyffe of King Francis the Second, and a zeire after his deathe. For Queine Elizabeth ther treatted the Duck of Northfolk; and for the protestants of Scotland,
Collin, Earle of Argyle;
Lord Harries, Warden of the West Mar:
James, Prior of St. Andrewes;
Laird of Lidingtone; and
Sr Robert Carnegey.
Ther was giuen by them to Queine Elizabeth, for obseruatione of this leaugue, as pledges,
Dauid Hamilton, the Ducke youngest sone;
Collin Campbell, a cousin of the Earle of Argyles;
Robert Douglas, a sone of the Laird of Lochleuins, and brother to the Prior; and
John Ruthuen, a sone of the Lord Ruthuens.
In December, this same zeire, lykwayes, the congregatione demolishe all the monuments of idolatrie in Glasgow, and possese themselues of the Bischopes castle; bot heiring of the approche of the Frenche, they remoue.
In Marche, this zeire, 1560, the Englishe nauey arriue in the Firthe; quhervpone the Frenche that wer in Fyffe, ore els quher be north Forthe, by Streueling bridge, runs to ther holdes of Leithe and Inchekeithe, wich they had fortified and wictualled.
At this same tyme the congregation demolishe the monasteries of the Carmelites and Dominicans, in the toune of Aberdeine, and burne and brecke ther altars and images, &c. with other monuments of idolatrie ther.
Capitane Vinter, with 16 Englishe shipes of warre, layes in Leithe roade, and keepes the Frenche that wer in Inchkeith from all kynd of prouisione, and blockes vpe the toune of Leith by sea; wich moued the Queine Regent to deall with the Frenche ambassador at the Englishe courte, to moue Queine Elizabeth to recall her nauey from the Firthe, bot all in waine.
The Duck of Northfolke, with 8000 Englishe footte, comes to Beruicke to ayde the congregatione; they marche towardes Leithe, and skirmishe with the Frenche; bot befor they approched Leithe, the Queine Regent and her Frenche that wer in Edinbrughe castle, inclosse themselues in Leithe.
The Lord Gray, generall of the Englishe armey, sends Sr George Haward and Sr James Croftes, to the Queine Regent, assuring her, that giue shoe wold dismisse all her Frenche forces out of Scotland, they would, without more adoe, returne for England; wich they intreatted her to doe for the publick quyeit. Sho ansuered, that without the Frenche shoe wold doe nothing; and demandit a convenient time to consult with them for that effecte.
The Englishe beseidge Leith, and to them ioyns 12,000 Scotts protestantes, commandit by the Duck of Castle Heraulde, and the Earles of
and the Prior of St. Andrewes; with aboue 120 barrons and ther followers.
Queine Regent dealls withe the Earle of Huntley to mediat a peace; he does his best, bot losses his labor, wnles the French wer sent packing home.
In the mounthe of Maij, the French make a saley out of Leithe, and skirmishe; bot with grate losse are forced to make a foule retrait; the Englishe ladder the walls, and giues ane assaulte, bot are repulsed by the Frenche.
About the latter end of Maij, this zeir, the Frenche are sore distressed for lack of victualls, and are forced to eate all ther horses.
Tumults arysse in France, wich did imped the Frenche aide from coming to Scotland to the Q. Regent aganist thesse of the religione.
Neir this tyme, the Queine Regent depairtis this lyffe in Edinbrughe castle, Befor her death, sho sent for diuersse of the nobilitie, and exhorted them to that wich sho wold neuer condescend to herselue, to witt, peace; and desyres that after her death, her corpes be interrid inthe monastarey of St. Peiter, at Rehemes, in Champaine, quherof her sister was prioresse.
This zeire ther arrosse some tumults betuix the Earles of Huntley and Athole, and ther frinds, wich, by the mediatione of some of the nobilitie, wes pacified.
This zeire, a peace is concludit betuix the Scotts, Englishe and French. The artickells concludit one wer:
First, That the Frenche King and Scotts Queine should not carey the armes of England and Irland one aney the houshold stuffe, ore intytill themselues in ther letters and patents.
Secondlie, That the kingdome of Scotland shall be gouerned by 12 Scotts noblemen; 7 of them to be chosen by the Queine, and 5 by the countrey.
Thridlie, That all iniuries be past and put in obliuione, betuix the 15 of Marche 1558, and the first of Agust 1560.
Fourtlie, That all that had beine during the troubles iniured in their tytills, dignities and goodes, be restored, and that no Frenchman beare in Scotland heirafter.
Fyfftlie, That if the nobilitie pleased, they should slight the fortifications of Leith, and thesse aganist Dumbar castle, that wer a bulding.
Sextlie, That all Frenchmen depairt Scotland home to France within 20 dayes, excepte tuo companies of footte to keipe Inchekeithe and Dumbar castle, and they, notwithstanding, to be subiecte to the Scotts counsaill.
In all thesse artickells, they did not medele with religion, for diuers respects; bot the cheiffe was, that as zet the Scotts was not resolued wither to embrace the reformatione of England, or thate of Geneua.
The Frenche returne to France in Englishe shipes.
A parliament holdin at Edinbrugh this zeire, (no mentione of it being in printed statutes of this Queine,) quherin the acte of obliuione was made, according to the 3d artickell of the trettey. From this parliament the Earles of Mortone and Glencairne, with Secretarey Lidingtone, are sent ambassadors to Queine Elizabeth, to thanke her for hir aide againste the Frenche, and to recommend the marriage of the Earle of Arrane to her; to the last of wiche sho gaue no anssuer at all.
The nobiltie promoue, this zeire, the reformatione, according to that of Geneua, established by Galwine and his associats.
The first of the mounthe of December, this same zeire, deyes Francis, second of that name, King of France and of Scotland, at Orleans.
Queine Marey, now a widow after hir husband, the French Kinges death, comes to Rheimes, in Januarij, 1561, and putts off the rest of the winter ther. In the springe sho wisitts hir cousins of Guisse, and the Cardinall of Loraine.
In Maij, this zeire, James, Prior of St. Andrewes, goes to France to pacifie the Queine wich in some sorte he performed; he was attendid ther with the Earles of Bothuell and Eglintone, with diuers others of the Scottes nobilitie.
A publicke dispute, this zeire, betuix Johne Willocke a preacher of the gospell, and one Blacke, a Dominican friar, for 2 dayes; quherin Willocks defends the protestant tenetts as aggriable to the word of God.
Queine Marey falls seike of a feuer, in Loraine, this zeire; but recovers, and comes to Paris, and prepars for her iorney to Scotland.
Elizabeth, Queine of England, sends the Earle of Bedford ambassador to her, quho giues him with Throgmortone, the leidger then of England in France, quho dealt with her, amongest other thinges, to ratifie the trettey of Edinbrughe: wich sho putt off till her arriuall in Scotland. Shoe desyres of Q. Elizabethe free passage throughe England home to Scotland, wich is absolutlies refussed to her, wnles the forsaid trettey wer ratified and approuen.
Queine Marey shipes at Calais, the 18 of September, this zeire, and shortlie therafter sauelie arriues at Leithe.
The Queine being sauelie landit, is welcomed by the concursse of the nobilitie from all pairts of the realme.
D’Oysell being sent ambassadore from the Frenche Kinge to Scotland, to Queine Marey, is detained in England be Queine Elizabethe, quha, vpone a just feare of this eagger Frenchemans raissinng of new sturrs againe in Scotland, as he had beine a violent instrument in the former, sho thought good to detaine him a quhyle, till shoe saw quhat bussines the Queins arriuall home to Scotland wold produce, ather for or aganist the protestant partey.
The Queine calls the nobilite to Edinbrughe. In this conventione, no churcheman was admitted; and it was ordered, that tuoching religione, nothing should be medled with, bot all thinges to remaine in that same estait they wer in, the day the Queine landit at Leith from France.
In this conventione, or meitting of the estaits, from wich the clergie was excludit, ther was ane acte paste, lykwayes, nominating tuelffe persons to be one the Queins priuey counsaill, without quhosse adwysse shoe should conclude no grate bussines in the staite;
James, Duck of Castleherauld,
E. of Huntley, L. Chanceler,
E. of Argyle,
E. of Errole,
Earle of Athole,
Earle of Marishall,
Earle of Glencairne,
Earle of Morton,
Earle of Montrois,
Bischope of Ross,
Ja: Prior of St. Andrewes.
In the begining of this zeire, 1562, James Steuart, Prior of St. Andrewes, is by his sister created Earle of Murray.
At wich tyme the Earles of Arrane and Bothwell wer committed to prisone.
George, Earle of Huntley, Lord Chanceler of Scotland, is killed this zeire, and his second sone beheadit, and his eldest sone sentenced lykwayes to losse the head; bot by the Queins clemencie, the rigor of that sentence was moderated to perpetuall prisone in Dumbar castle.
At this same tyme, also, the Earle of Sutherland was banisht the realme, and Johne Hamiltone, Archbischope of St. Andrewes, imprissoned; and all this was done (as the Queine herselue sett doune wnder her auen hand) by the pouer of her brother James, Earle of Murray, with the Queine, to weakin the popishe factione; ere sho knew ather his deseinges, or quhat herselue was doinng, shoe wndoed her best frindes, and thesse that stood most for the Popes authoritie and Romishe religione in Scotland.
Margarett, Countesse of Lennox, neice to K. Henrey the 8, by Queine Elizabeth command, wes comitted prisoner to Richard Sackweill, and her husband, the Earle of Lennox, was committed to the Master of the Rolls, for alledgit intelligence with Marey the Scotts Queine.
This zeire, Queine Elizabeth sendes Henrey Sidney to Queine Marey, to delay the interweiw vntill the nixt zeire, that the Frenche warrs grew colder.
To begin this zeire, 1563, and make the same memorable, the Duck of Guisse, Queine Mareyes wnckell, is killed, quhosse death moued that the Queins joynter out of France, was not payed; and the Duck of Chatele Roy was also depriued of his dutchey, and the Scotts wer displaced from the captaine shipe of the guard.
The Cardinall of Loraine, fearing that Queine Marey should cleiue to the amitey of England, and leaue France, by Crocus, proposis to her the marriage of Charles of Austria, sone to the Emperour Ferdinand, with the countey of Tyrole for her dourie.
In the mounthe of Junij, this same zeir, Queine Marey holds her nynth parliament at Edinbrughe, quherin the acte of obliuione was ratified, and the preuilidge of thesse worthey to enioy it, was comitted to
James, Duck of Castleherauld, Lord Hamitone;
Archbald, Earle of Argyle, Lord Campbell and Lorne, Justice Generall;
James, Earle of Murray, Lord Abernethey and Strathnarne;
James, Earle of Mortone, Lord Dalkeith, Chanceler of Scotland;
William, Earle Marishall, Lord Keith;
Alexander, Earle of Glencairne, Lord Kilmawers;
John, Lord Erskyne;
Patrick, Lord Ruthuen;
Henrey, Bis: of Rosse, President of the Colledge of Justice;
Marcke, Comendator of Neubotle;
Sr Richard Maitland of Lethingtone, Priuey Seall;
Mr James Mackegill, Clerck Register;
Sr Johne Bellinden of Auchnoull, knight, Justice Clercke;
William Maitland of Lethingtone, younger, Secretarey;
Mr Robert Richardsone, Commendator of S. Marey Ile, Theasurer;
Sr Johne Witchart of Pittarow, knight, Comptroller;
Mr Jhone Spens of Condie, Aduocat to her Maiestie;
Mr Thomas Mackcalzeane, Comissioner for the brughe of Edinbrughe;
Mr James Halibrunton, Tutor of Pitcur, and Prouest of Dundie;
Johne Erskyne of Dune, Prouest of Montrosse;
or to aney sex of them, 3 of the saides Earles and Lordes beinng allwayes 3 of the sex to make the coram.
In this parliament, lykwayes, ther past ane law, that 5 or sex of the principall barrones be called by ther commissioners befor that ather peace, warre or taxatione, wer granted ore concludit; and in this parliament, also, the preuilidges of the royall burrowes wer ratified.
In Agust, this same zeire, lykwayes, Queine Elizabeth, by Randolphe, her ambassador, proposses againe to Marey, Queine of Scotts, the marriage of Robert Dudlay, wich shoe scorned.
This zeir, 1564, Queine Elizabeth creattes Robert Dudley, Master of her Horsse, quhom, in her secret purpois, sho had appoynted husband for the Queine of Scotts; and that he might be more worthey of that matche, shoe creattes him Lord Denbighe, and Earle of Leichester, to him and his heires maill, lawfully begottin; for quhosse saike, also, sho had befor created his eldest brother Ambrosse, Lord Lislie and Earle of Waruicke, to him and his heires mailles laufully to be gottin, and to Robert, his brother, and to his heires mailes failling thesse of Ambrosse.
Dudley, to deserue weill of Queine Marey, quhom he sutted in marriage, accussed Bacon, Keeper of the Grate Sewall to the Queine, that he had delte in the matter of successione, aganist the Queine of Scotland, and that he was priuey to Hailles pamphlet, quho endeuored to proue the right of the croune of England to belonge to the familey of Suffolk.
This zeire, Queine Marey sends for the Earle of Lennox to come to Scotland, and repealls the acte of his exyle, and restores to him landes and reuenewes; and the Queine does resolue to marrey his sone Henrey, Earle Darnley.
At Beruick, in Nouenber, this zeir, ther talked togidder aboute the marriage with Leicester, Murray and Lidingtone, for the Queine of Scottes, and for Queine Elizabethe, the Earle of Bedford and Randolphe, quho promissed, if that shoe wold marrey the Earle of Leicester, that sho wold declare her her daughter adoptiue, or sister, by authoritie of parliament; bot the Scotts commissioners scorned so vnæquall and basse a motione of so meine a matche to so grate a Princes.
Queine Elizabeth commands her ambassadors to doe ther vtermost endeuor to promoue the marriage with Leicester, and if that could not be, zet at least to hinder that of Darnleyes.
Darnleyes marriage secretly fauored by Dudley, zea, by Queine Elizabeth herselue, as the wyssest and best sighted thought.
The 29 of Februarij, this zeire, 1565, Darnley, with much adoe, obteined leiue to come to Scotland, and to stay for 3 mounthes, wnder color that he might be present at the restoring of his father, and so he cam to Edinbrughe in this mounthe; and no souner is he arriued, bot, incontinent, falls the Queine in loue with him, and presently dispatches one to Rome for a dispensatione (they being within degres forbidin to marrey by the popische law); and Lidingetone is sent to Queine Elizabethe, to intreat her consent to marrey with Darnley.
Queine Elizabeth, after much debait with her counsell anent the Scotts ambassadors desyne, shoe sends Nicolas Throgmortone to Scotland, ambassador to Queine Marey, with all earnistnesse to wrge a present conclusione of the marriage with Leicester, thretning her to relinquishe that intendit marriage withe her cousin Darnley.
Queine Marey knights Darnley, and that same day solemley creatts him Lord of Ardmanoche, Earle of Ross, and Ducke of Rothesay; and in the 5 mounth after hes arriuell in Scotland, takes him to be her husband and companion in the kingdome: wich marriage was with grate triumphe solemnized in the abbey churche of Holyrudhousse, the 29 day of Julay, this same zeire, one wich day, by Lyone King of Armes, he was proclaimed KING.
In the begining of the mounth of October this zeire, Queine Elizabeth sent one Tamworthe, a gentleman of her priuey chamber, to Q. Marey, to warne her not to wiolat the peace, as also to expostulat with her for her hastie marriage with a natiue subiecte of England, and with all to desyre that Lennox and Darnley might be sent back againe wnto England, according to the leauge, and that the Earle of Murray, her brother, might be againe addmitted to her wounted fauor. Q. Marey, smelling Tamworths message, did not admitt him to her presence, bot anssuered him by artickells in wretting; and thus Tamworthe returned home (as he thought not respected, as he thought according to his place). The reassone quhay the Queine gaue him not presence treulie was, that in some wordes wttered to some of the ministers of estait heir, he had tuoched Queine Maryes reputatione with some basse and sclanderous wordes, and had not woschaffed to giue her husband the tytill of King.
This zeire, 1566, the 9 day of Marche, Dauid Risius, ane Italiane, secretarey to the Queine for the Frenche tounge, was forcibly drauen out of the parlor quher the Queine was at supper, to ane vtter roume, and stabbed by some noblemen, animat to that homicide by the King, the Queins husband; his corpes was interred in the churchzaird of Holyrudhousse abbey. The Queine being grate with chyld, did all shoe could to haue saued his lyffe; zea, quhen strenth could not doe, shoe bitterly weipte, bot to no ende, he was so quickly dispatched.
The 19 day of Junij, this same zeire, Queine Marey was brought to bed, in Edinbrughe castell, of a sone, quho was christned in the chapell royall of Streuelinge, the 22 of Aguste, this same zeire, by the name of Charles James; his good fathers wer Charles the 9, the Frenche King, and Amadeus, Duck of Sauoy; his good mother was Elizabeth, Queine of England. Immediately after he was christned, the Lyone King of Armes proclaimed him, James, by the grace of God, Lord of Renfrow and the Iles, Earle of Carricke, Ducke of Rothesay, and Prince of Scotland.
The estaits of England, in a parliament haldin at London, this zeir, mowes Q. Elizabeth, (if shoe wold be so pleassed,) to make choysse of a husband to herselue, and marrey, and to nominat and sett doune the name of his successor. Bot by no meins could shoe be drawin to ather of the tuo. Zet that it might appeir to the world quhom shoe thought to be her most rightfull successor, shoe did imprissone Thornton, the reader of the law in Lincolns Inne at London, at this same tyme, of quhome Queine Marey of Scotland had complained, that in his lecture he had called in questione, and made doubte of her right of successione.
The Earle of Bedford, the Englishe ambassador, when the Prince christning was endit, delt with Q. Marey, that thesse domesticall contentions betuix her and her husband might be forgottin; for (said he) some wicked and malitious suorne eminies to them bothe, had most craftily disioynted that sueit society and coniugall band, wich once was and still aught to be betuix them. Also he delt with her, that the trettie of Edinburghe might be ratified, wich shoe altogider refussed to doe, in respecte, that ther wer diuers poyntes in that trettey, that might be derogatorey to her right, and the right of her children after Q. Elizabeths death, to the succession of the Englishe croune; zet sho promissed to send commissioners to England, quho should talke aboute the confirmatione therof, changing some wordes, namely, that shoe should forbeare to wsse the tytill and armes of England, quhilst Q. Elizabeth liued and her children.
Vpone the 10 day of Februarij, this zeire, 1567, King Henrey, the Queins husband, was, within his auen palace of Kirkafeild, in Edinbrughe, strangled; his dead bodey cast out in a back courte; and the housse quherin he and hes seruants had beine murthered, blowin vpe with gun powder; his corpes the nixt day, without aney funerall solemitey, wer interrid in the abbey churche of Holyrudhousse. The murther of this innocent Prince was knowen to be James Hepburne, Earle of Bothuell, Lord Hailles, Grate Admirall of Scotland, by thosse that best wnderstoode how matters went aboute the courte; bot the popishe affected, that applauded the Queins wicked courses, spred a rumor, and layed the cryme one the Earles of Mortone and Murray, and ther confederatts, wich the Queine mainley labored to doe, by her ansuers to the ambassadors of forraine princes.
In the mounthe of Maij, this same zeire, Queine Marey tooke to husband, and married James Hepburne, Earle of Bothuell, quhome shoe, some few dayes præceiding, the more to honor him, and fitt him to be a matche for a Queine, and the partner of a royall bed, created, with all requisitt solemitey, Marquesse of Fyffe and Duck of Orknay.
About the 11 of Junij, this same zeire, the most pairt of the nobilitie raisse in armes aganist the Queine, for the murther of her husband, and her marriage with his murtherer, Bothuell; and with displayed baner marched against them to Borthwick castle, quher they then wer all that stood for her armes; and at Carberrey hill did the tuo armies rancounter, quher the Queins armey was defait and routit, and shoe herselue takin prissoner, one the 15 day of the same mounthe. Shoe was brought to Edinbrughe, and lodged in the Laird of Craigmillers housse, then prouest of the toune. From this batell fled the now Duck of Orknay, with all his company; and immediatly depairted the kingdome, and neuer returned thither againe.
Vpone the 17 day of Junii, this zeire, the Queine was committed to prissone in Lochleuin castle, in Fyffe; and the Englishe ambassador Nicolas Throgmorton, as also the Frenche ambassadors, Vulleroy and Crocus, wer denayed accesse to her. Notwithstanding that all the kingdome was in effecte incensed aganist her, zet could not her subiectes condiscend amongest themselues quhat coursse to take with her. Some wold haue her restored to libertiey vpone thesse conditions, that the murtherers of the King should be punished according to law; the Princes saftie prowydit for, Bothuell diuorced, and religione establisht.
Others wold for euer haue her banisht wnto France or wnto England, so that the Frenche King or Englishe Queine did giue ther wordis that shoe should reseinge the kingdome, and transfer all her authoritey wnto her sone, and certaine noblemen. A thrid ther wer, of oppinione that shoe should be publickly arrained and judicially condemned to perpetuall prissone, and her sone crouned.
The last sorte diffred from all the former, and wold haue had her depriued bothe of lyffe and kingdome, and that by a publick executione.
Queine Marey, by her letters of resignatione, contaning therin a procuratorey, simpliciter reseings and ouer giues her croune and realme in fauors of her sone, a chylde of 13 mounths olde, quherin sho appoynts the Earl of Murray Regent during the minoritie of her sone; wich if he refussed to accept, shoe did name gouernours for him,
James, Duck of Castleherauld;
Mathew, Earle of Lennox;
Coline, Earle of Argyle;
Johne, Earle of Athole;
James, Earle of Morton;
Alexander, Earle of Glencairne;
Johne, Earle of Marr.
Vpone the 29 day of Julay, 5 dayes after Queine Mareys resignatione of realme, her sone, Prince James, a chyld of 13 mounthes olde, was solemley crouned, at Streueling castle, Kinge; Jhone Knox made the coronatione sermon: the Hamiltons putting in a protestatione, that his coronatione should be no preiudice wnto the Duck of Chasteuleroy in his right of successione aganist the familey of Lennox. Queine Elizabeth, of England, did inhibit her ambassador to assist or zet be present at the coronatione, that shoe might be thought and reputted be the worlde in no sorte to countenance or allow Q. Mareys abdicatione, by the presence of Throgmorton, her ambassador.
So ends the rainge of Queine Marey, at her sones coronation, altho sho liued 18 zeires therafter a captiue in England; and at last was execute ther, the 6 of the ids of Februarij, at Fodringhay castle, in the 46 zeire of her age and rainge, in Ao 1586.