Mary (1542-1586), Queen of Scots, Updated, pp.275-340.

1542.

QUEEN MARY, at the age of 7 days, [began] her reign. She was born at the palace of Linlithgow, and was crowned in August following, this same year.

James, Earl of Arran, Lord Hamilton, is declared tutor and Regent to the infant Queen; and calls immediately a parliament at Edinburgh, the 13th day of March, Cardinal David [Beaton], Archbishop of St. Andrews, opposes his election, and alleges tutors testamenters left by King James V., but in vain.

This year, Cardinal [Beaton], Keeper of the Privy Seal, is made Lord Chancellor, and the great seal is delivered to him; and John [Hamilton], Abbot of Paisley, made Keeper of the Privy Seal.

1543.

Arran, the Regent, this year, in the month of January 1543, [deals] with the King’s palaces of Holyroodhouse, Linlithgow and Falkland, with his [treasure] and jewels; calls each officer to an [account], displaces some, and retains others.

The Queen mother keeps herself private at Linlithgow, with the infant Queen, her daughter; and next to her mother, her custody is committed by the estates to the Lord [Alexander] Livingston.

King Henry VIII., of England, deals seriously with the Scottish noblemen that were captives in England, and with [Archibald Douglas] the Earl of Angus, that was in exile, that the infant Queen might be married to his young son [James]; they, desirous of their liberty, promise very fair, so that they are set at liberty, and dismissed home; and with the banished Earl of Angus, and his brother George [Douglas of Pittendreich], who brought letters from King Henry to the Regent, that the act of their exile might be repealed.

The noblemen that returned from England, report what had passed between them and King Henry. He calls a parliament at Edinburgh, the 15 day of December, this same year, to advise [about] the business; but fearing that Cardinal [Beaton] would oppose the business, him first they imprison in Dalkeith castle, and thereafter confines him to his own castle of St. Andrews. In this parliament was the institution of the College of Justice, and payment of the contribution granted to them, ratified.

This same year, in Scotland, began the gospel to display its beams, and Guillamus, a Dominican friar, translates the New Testament in the vulgar tongue, and publicly preaches against the Pope’s authority; he is winked at by the Regent, and supported by these noblemen that returned from England.

Sir Ralph Sadler is sent by King Henry VIII., ambassador to Scotland, to sew the marriage at the meeting of the estates; which was concluded to marry the young Queen to Edward, Prince of Wales, only son to King Henry VIII., of England, and a settled peace [between] the two kingdoms for 10 years.

[William Cunningham] the Earl of Glencairn, Sir George Douglas, Sir William Hamilton [of Sanquhar] and Sir James Learmonth [of Dairsie], knights, are sent ambassadors to England for [signing] the league and contracts; which done, they return home.

Things thus concluded with England, the Cardinal is set at liberty; also [Archibald Douglas] the Earl of Angus, Sir George Douglas, his brother, [John Lyon] the Lord Glamis and Sir James Hamilton’s eldest son [James], are recalled from exile, and restored to their dignities and revenues by parliament, this same year.

John Hamilton, Abbot of Paisley, the Regent’s brother, who had been long abroad in France following his studies, returns home through England, and is made very welcome by King Henry, and dismissed with rich [gifts]; and after his homecoming, by his brother the Regent, is made Lord Treasurer of the kingdom.

About this same time, returns home from exile, out of Italy, James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, Lord Hailles, and [Lord High] Admiral of Scotland.

This year, also, [Francis I.] the French King sues [Matthew Stewart] the Earl of Lennox, to dissuade the Scots from that contracted marriage with England, and that they would not break their ancient league with France.

Discords arise [between] the Regent [James Stuart] and Lennox; the Regent is for England, and would willingly deliver the infant Queen; but Lennox, head of the French party, raises a great faction, and opposes him.

In August, this year, [David Beaton] the Cardinal of St. Andrews, with the Earls of Lennox [Matthew Stewart], Huntly [George Gordon], Menteith [William Graham] and Montrose [William Graham], and diverse others of the nobility and barons, with advice of the Queen mother, conveys her, and the young Queen her daughter, to Stirling castle, from Linlithgow, and commits their safe custody to the Lords [John] Erskine, [William] Ruthven, [Malcolm] Fleming and [Alexander] Livingstone, who were of their own faction, and inclined much to the French side.

The Governor [James Hamilton], about this same time, by his brother’s means and policy, does possess himself of Edinburgh castle; and gives the keeping of it to [James] Hamilton of Stonehouse.

In September, this same year, the infant Queen is solemnly crowned at Stirling castle; all these that favoured England were present at the coronation; but [Matthew Stewart] the Earl of Lennox departed the town, and would not be present, neither yet any that had breathed the French air.

King Henry VIII., of England, requires that the young Queen may be delivered to him according to promise; but for this time [received] a delay under a future assurance.

60,000 crowns sent, this year, by the French King to the Regent, with a ship [laden] with all sorts of ammunition, to aid him against England, is intercepted by the Earl of Lennox, who does his best to displant the Governor, but at Edinburgh, by the mediation of Cardinal [Beaton] and the Earl of Huntly, they are reconciled. But Lennox, being of a very facile nature, does anew violate his faith given, and from Edinburgh, by night, covertly retires himself to Glasgow, and fortifies the place; against whom the Regent, with his army, takes the fields, and utterly defeats Lennox, and his Glasgow castle rendered to him.

 

1544.

In the begining of this year, 1544, [Archibald Douglas] the Earl of Angus and the Lord [Robert] Maxwell, are, by the Regent, sent prisoners to Hamilton castle; but shortly thereafter Angus was removed from thence to the castle of Blackness.

About this same time, Lennox [Matthew Stewart], seeing himself so far [outstripped] by the Regent, and his two chief supports, Angus and Maxwell, detained close prisoners; he turns his coat, and sends one Thomas Bishop (Lennox’s secretary) [privately] to Henry [VIII.], the English King, with offers to assist the King in his demands. The King of England, the more to assure and endear Lennox to him, promises him his niece, Lady Margaret Douglas, in marriage; and sends his brother, [Robert Stewart] the Bishop of Caithness, the Earl of Glencairn [William Cunningham], and the Lord [Thomas] Wharton to Carlisle to treat with him.

The Queen mother, with the Cardinal, with all such as favoured France’s support, adhere to the Regent.

The Regent, this year, calls a meeting of the estates at Stirling, wherein the Earl of Lennox is convicted of lèse-majesté (treason), and banished [from] the realm.

The French King hearing of Lennox’s defection to the English, imprisons John Stewart, Lord Aubigney, captain of the Scottish guards in France, and deprives him of all his offices; he was brother to the Earl of Lennox.

[Girolamo Quirino] the Patriarch of Venice, the Pope’s Legate, that lately before had come to Scotland, is, this year, honourably received by the Regent, and sumptuously feasted by [James Stewart] the Earl of Moray; and at his departure transfers his legantine power, a latere, on Cardinal [David Beaton]. He dissuades the Regent, Queen mother and their adherents, as they tendered the [care] of the Catholic religion, and his holiness’ blessing, no way to condescend to the marriage with England. And the Partriarch, after his return to Italy, informs the Pope and whole college of Cardinals, of the singular good will and humanity of the Scots, as also of their affection to the Roman church.

This same year, likewise, King Henry VIII. sends a navy of 200 sail to the Scots firth, under the command of [Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset and] the Earl of Hertford: they land at Leith, and require the young Queen to be delivered to them. The Governor returns them a flat denial, and [provisions] Edinburgh castle; the English land and march to Edinburgh, where they join with 1000 horse sent from Berwick to assist them; they lay siege to the castle, and within 3 or 4 days has 500 men killed [of] them by the valour of [James] Hamilton of Stonehouse, the captain thereof, and his garrison. The great ordnance from the castle walls so plagued the English, that they set the town [on] fire at their departure, which burns for 4 days; then do they fire the towns of Leith and Musselburgh. The Regent having raised an army, pursues them at the heels; the foot he forces to their ships, and the horsemen to Berwick, with the loss of 220, and some prisoners.

The Earl of Lennox flees to England, and before his departure would have delivered up Dumbarton castle to the English, who, for that end, had entered the west, and had approached near to Dumbarton, under the conduct of Sir Peter Crussy, Sir Ralph Wingfield and Sir John Winter, knights; but by the prudence and valour of [George] Stirling [of Glorat], the captain, and other good patriots, that then followed Lennox, yet more than him loved their country, he to his great shame and ignominy was disappointed; and the English, that by his treachery had for a good number entered, were turned out headlong.

This year, also, the Islanders and Highlanders raised some broils; but by the care and industry of the Earls of Huntly [George Gordon] and Argyll [Archibald Campbell], they were reduced to their obedience. The ringleaders having, by the hand of justice, lost their heads, made the country enjoy domestic peace.

Sir George Meldrum of Fyvie, is this year sent [as] ambassador to King Henry of England, to Boulogne, in France, with whom he concludes a peace; which, notwithstanding of King Henry’s oath, he shortly breaks.

This year the Regent, with a well appointed army, marches to the borders, to defend them from the often invasions and incursions of the English.

Sir Ralph Evers, with a great army, enters the borders, and with fire and sword wastes Teviotdale. The Governor draws him to battle at Ancrum Muir, (his army being but small) [between] whom it was courageously fought on both sides, for a long time; until that Sir Ralph, the English general, being killed dead, and his best men lying in heaps about him, the Scots put all the remnant to a rout, and obtained an entire victory. The Earl of Angus [Archibald Douglas] did so gallantly and valiantly behave himself in this battle, that all suspicion of his favouring the English was quite extinguished.

 

1545.

This year, 1545, dies Robert Cairncross, Bishop of Ross; and to him succeeds David Panter, secretary to the Regent.

In April, this year, dies William Stewart, Bishop of Aberdeen; and to him succeeds William Gordon, [Chancellor of the diocese] of Moray, uncle to George [Gordon], Earl of Huntly.

King Henry VIII., of England, this year, by his ambassador, incites the Flemings, by sea, to war against the Scots, and promises them the uttermost of his assistance; which they little regard.

The French King sends 5000 soldiers, under the command of George Montgomery of Largs, to Scotland.

King Henry of England, this same year, again sends a powerful army to invade Scotland, under the command of [Edward Seymour] the Earl of Hertford, who enters the Scottish borders, and burns Kelso; but being opposed by the Regent, with his French soldiers, returns without more doing to England. The Regent calls up their rear soundly, and sells them Kelso at a very dear rate; makes an inroad as far as [Newcastle-upon-Tyne] in England, and returns laden with spoil, and leaves the French regiments in garrison on the borders.

[Francis I.] the French King this same year, honours with his own order of St. Michael, the Regent, the Earls of Angus, Huntly and Argyll, and by the King of Arms of the order, does solemnly invest them with the robes and collar of the same, at the palace of Holyroodhouse.

About this time, the captain of Dumbarton castle, who had all this while kept the same for the banished Earl of Lennox, renders the same in the Regents hands, who used the captain honourably.

The Regent restores [Robert Stewart] the Bishop of Caithness, Lennox’s brother, to his bishopric, being put from that he enjoyed in England.

The Scots in the west, make defection from the English friendship, after the rendering of Dumbarton castle to the Regent; and King Henry VIII., (that inhumane tyrant) causes [to be] hang[ed] their hostages at Carlisle, which act of his made the Lord [Robert] Maxwell, [James Gordon of] Lochinvar and [John] Johnstone, with fire and sword, invade the west borders of England, and from thence to return with a full hand.

In March, this same year, Master George Wishart [of Pitarrow] was burned for profession of the gospel, by Cardinal [Beaton] at St. Andrews.

 

1546.

The [30th of May], this year, 1546, David [Beaton], the proud Cardinal and Archbishop of St. Andrews, is stabbed in his own castle at St. Andrews, by Norman Leslie [Master of Rothes], son to George [Leslie], Earl of Rothes, John Leslie his uncle, William Kirkcaldy of Grange, and their [accomplices]. They were shortly thereafter declared traitors. They keep St. Andrews castle, and the Regent besieges it in vain; the Cardinal’s killers being aided by King Henry of England.

This year, John [Hamilton], Abbot of Paisley, is by his brother, the Regent, made Archbishop of St. Andrews; and the abbey of Arbroath taken from James [Beaton], the Cardinal’s cousin, in whose favours in the former year he had [resigned] the same; and the said abbey was given to George Douglas, [bastard] son to the Earl of Angus.

 

1547.

The [25th of January], this year, 1547, dies Henry VIII. of England; and to him succeeds his son Edward, about the age of 9 years. During his minority, by his father’s testament, his uncle [Edward Seymour], [Duke] of Somerset, was left, and now declared, protector of his person and realms.

The second of April, this year, Francis, the first of that name, King of France, departs this life; and to him succeeds his son Henry, who immediately after his accession to the crown, sends Monsieur [Henri Cleutin] D’Oysel, his ambassador to Scotland, for renewing [of] the ancient league [between] the two crowns, which he performed.

George [Leslie], Earl of Rothes, having this year returned from Denmark, is challenged for art and part, at least accessory to the death of David [Beaton] the Cardinal; and is cleared of the same by an assize of his peers.

This year, the Lord Regent raises a good army, and invades the west borders of England; besieges the castle of [Langhope], takes it, and levels it with the ground; and returns home with a great booty.

[Piero] Strozzi, [brother to Leone] Prior of Capua, is this year sent by the French King with 16 galleys to Scotland; he arrives at St. Andrews, and enters the town, in spite of all the opposition [those] of the  castle could make. The Regent now blocks up the castle both by sea and land; and shortly thereafter has it rendered to him, on condition to have their lives saved, if so it should please the French King; so that on the 5th day of August, the castle being rendered, the [brother to the] Prior of Capua ships himself, and with him 15 prisoners for France, with the best of all the moveables of the castle.

This year, also, the protector of England, [Edward Seymour] the Duke of Somerset, with a great army invades Scotland both by sea and land; whereupon the Scottish Regent puts out the fiery cross, and levies a reasonable army, according to the shortness of the time. Both armies [engage in battle] near Musselburgh, where many on both sides were killed. At last the English, by the multitude of their men, and the treachery of [George Gordon] the Earl of Huntly, had the victory, which they basely and insolently used; for they killed the Masters of Buchan [John Stewart], [Robert] Erskine and [Robert] Graham, (who had rendered themselves on quarter promised) in cold blood. In this battle, commonly called [Pinkie Cleugh], the Scots lost 8000 men of all sorts; amongst which were the eldest sons (then called the Masters) of [Malcolm] Fleming, [James] Ogilvy, [John] Livingstone, [William] Ruthven, [Andrew Stewart] Avondale, [Henry Stewart] Methven and [Ninian] Ross, with old [James Gordon] Lochinvar; and near 1000 prisoners taken, among whom were there [George Gordon] the Earl of Huntly, Lord Chancellor of the realm, and [John Hay] the Lord Yester. But the Regent, immediately before the battle, by the counsel of the Earls of Angus [Archibald Douglas], Argyll [Archibald Campbell], Rothes [George Leslie] and Cassilis [Gilbert Kennedy], sends the young Queen, with her mother, with charge, as they will be answerable upon all highest pain, to be safely kept by the Lords [John] Erskine and [Alexander] Livingstone, in the Isle of Inchmahome. From the place of the battle, the English army marches to Leith, but hearing that the Lord Regent was gathering a new army, they fire some thatch houses in Leith, (which was immediately extinguished) and depart; and in their return home take Home castle, and regain the castle of Roxburgh, in such sort that it was [defensible].

This same year, also, the English navy, by sea, take the castle of [Broughty], at the mouth of the river Tay, near the town of Dundee, and levies a garrison of 300 soldiers in it, under the command of Andrew Dudley.

The English make incursions on the west borders of Scotland, and are beaten, with the loss of their best men, by the Lairds of Cockpool and Johnston, under the command of the lord [Robert] Maxwell; their greatest booty being sore skins.

This year, the Regent calls a convention of the estates at Stirling, wherein it was resolved unanimously to crave the aid of France; which resolution of the estates moved the Queen mother and Monsieur [Henri Cleutin] D’Oysel, earnestly to solicit that the young Queen might be sent over to France, where she could not choose but [to] be safe under the protection of so good a friend as was the French King. This advice, as most conducing for the good of the Scots commonwealth, is ratified in parliament, and ambassadors chosen to go to France.

Upon the relation of this, and the advice from the Queen mother and Monsieur D’Oysel, the French King makes great preparation for an army to be sent to aid the Scots, whereof [Edward Seymour] the Protector of England being advertised, deals with [George Gordon] the Earl of Huntly, then a prisoner in England, that the Scots Queen may be given in marriage to King Edward VI.; but the Earl answers, that he will never be of that mind, that she should be given in marriage to any until she be of [perfect] age. The Protector of England had now almost swallowed in imagination the possession of the kingdom of Scotland; but God disappointed all his counsels, and turned the business [another] way, for he raised up intestine wars in England against the Protector himself.

This same year, the English take Haddington, and fortify it; but no sooner heard they of the approach of the French and Italian soldiers to cast anchor in the Firth, but they quit Haddington, and pack for England as give chase: but being ashamed of their own [panicked] fear, they return and [provision] the town, with full resolution to bide a siege before they quit it.

The French arrive at Leith, land their men, and are welcomed by the Regent, and conveyed to Edinburgh. They were 5000 old beaten soldiers, French, Italians and Germans.

[André de Montalembert seigneur D’Essé] was general;

[Francois d’Andelot] commanded the French foot;

[Piero] Strozzi commanded the Italians;

The [Count Rimgrave] commanded the Germans;

[Dunoon] was general of the ordnance.

And there were the commanders in chief of the French forces that came this year to the aid of Scotland against the English.

 

1548.

The French army makes haste to besiege Haddington, and the Regent accompanies them with 12,000 foot, and 2000 horse; the first night they encamp at Musselburgh, and the next day in sight of the enemy. They skirmish with the English, and kill many of them; none of the French being killed of note, save only one captain, [Villeneuve of a musket shot]; thus [began] the year of our redemption, 1548.

The English being beaten within the walls of Haddington, immediately the army begins to make their approaches, and plants their batteries; and in three days makes [an assaultable] breach in the wall: but the Frenchmen being more furious than wise, [D’Essé] retracts the assault for a time.

At this time, in a monastery [nearby], the Regent had called a convention of the estates, wherein the perpetual league with France is ratified, and the young Queen betrothed to Francis, the [Dauphin] of France, and ordained to be sent thither within few months; and so the French ambassadors made faith for King Henry [II.] their master, in presence of the estates of the realm.

This year, Monsieur de Villegagnon, with his galleys, sails from Leith to Dumbarton, where the young Queen was; and [Lord de Brezé] having provided all things necessary for her voyage, she ships in at Dumbarton, and lands at Brest, in Brittany, safely. To accompany her, went the Lords [John] Erskine and [James] Fleming, to whose faith and care she was committed. There went also with her the Lady [Barbara] Fleming [née Hamilton], her aunt, with 12 young ladies, and 200 gentlemen and servants.

[Edward Seymour] the Protector, this same year, sends from Berwick 2000 horse, with new supplies of ammunition to the English besieged in Haddington; but the Lord [George] Home, being informed of their design, lays an [ambush] for them, and kills and takes above 1000 of them, and routs the rest.

This defeat of the English horse highly incenses the Protector’s wrath, so that with all speed he levies a great army by land, under the command of [Francis Talbot] the Earl of [Shrewsbury], to raise the siege of Haddington; as also a great navy by sea, commanded by the Lord Clinton. The land army of England marches near the French, [between] whom there was daily skirmishes; but hearing of the near approach of the Regent and the Earl of Argyll, with a good army, they speedily return for England. But the [Baron Edward] Clinton, riding at anchor with his ships, lands some 5000 men on the coast of Fife, to spoil the country; but before they did much harm, they were [engaged in battle] by [Sir John] the Laird of Wemyss, and the Barons of Fife, all well horsed, who rode them flat down with their horses; and having killed above 700 of them, forced the remnant to save themselves by wading in sea to the necks, before they could gain their flat-bottomed boats. Having purchased no better booty there than their back full of strokes and wet skins, the good entertainment the English did receive in Fife at this time, saved it in all the progress of this war from any further trouble.

About this same time, [Peter Negre] and [Julián Romero de Ibarrola], with two companies of Spanish foot, left on the borders by the Earl of [Shrewsbury] at his departure, spoil some parts of Teviotdale and Liddesdale.

This year there happened a great uproar in Edinburgh [between] the Scots and French soldiers, wherein [James Hamilton of Stenhouse] the Provost of Edinburgh and his son [of the same name], were killed. This business had almost given the enemy a fair advantage, had not the French general, [D’Essé], caused [the] hang[ing of] the raisers of this tumult, and presently with his infantry depart the town; and thinking to take Haddington by a stratagem, marches from Musselburgh about 11 at night, kills the English sentries, enters the ports and cries victory. The English [take up] arms, and with great loss to the French, forces them to make a full retreat; [D’Essé] lamenting the loss of so brave an opportunity for supplanting the English, by his own temerity, and lack of mature counsel and order in the performance of so gallant an exploit.

The Regent sends the Laird of [Kinnaird, Robert Carnegie,] ambassador to the Protector of England, to deal for [George Gordon] the Earl of Huntly’s ransom and liberty, and that [Elizabeth Keith] his Lady might have access to him; the Protector condescended to give his Lady access, but would not hear of ransom of liberty, until the war was ended; but he was sent from London to Morpeth with a sure guard, in hope to meet his Lady. But by a strategem, he escapes the hands of his keepers, and safely wins the Scottish border, by two swift horses, laid for him with a guide sent [to] him by George Kerr [of Heton],  and safely arrives at Edinburgh, and is welcomed by the Queen mother and Regent, and entered to the place of Lord Chancellor of Scotland, and Lieutenant of Aberdeen, Banff and Elginshires.

This year, also, the Scots regain from the English Home castle, after which the [Count Rimgrave] returns to France.

About this same time, there arrives at Dumbarton 4 fresh regiments of soldiers from France, with all sorts of ammunition, and money to pay the army.

Robert Lauder of [The Bass], with the French garrison of Dunbar castle, takes the English provision going from Berwick to Haddington; kills many soldiers, and takes the Governor of Haddington, named [Sir James] Wilford, (who had come to aid them) prisoner.

Near this same time, the French chase the English out of Jedburgh, and recover Ferniehirst castle.

This same year, the French invade England, and return with 300 prisoners, and a great booty; and in their retreat, they demolish Ford castle, in England.

At this same time, the English navy of 25 ships of war, arrive in the Forth, and they fortify Inchkeith, and leave 5 companies of soldiers to defend it; but the French general, [D’Essé], forces the English to render it to him, and commit themselves and whole ammunition and baggage to his disposal, but life and arms.

Monsieur [Paul de Thermes], a knight of the French order, arrives, this year, at Dumbarton, with a 100 curasiers, 200 lances, and 1000 French foot, and marches to Edinburgh, where he receives orders for his future employment for the [good] of the Scottish republic against the common enemy.

In July, this year, Monsieur [D’Essé] returns to France, and commits the command to [Paul de Thermes], who fortifies at Aberlady; and hearing that [Julián] Romero’s Spanish and [German] forces were at Coldingham, he advances against them, fights and kills the most of them, and takes the rest prisoners. Romero, their leader, escapes to Berwick.

 

1549.

This year 1549, begins with the Scots taking of Fast castle from the English.

Civil broils arise this year, in England, between the nobility and the Protector.

The plague of pestilence, this year, in Haddington, and in few days devoured more than half of the English garrison there, which moved them to quit the town, and return for England.

 

1550.

In the beginning of the year 1550, James [Halyburton] Provost of Dundee, by the animation of the French general, [Paul de Thermes], recovers from the English, by strength of hand, Broughty castle.

This same year, there was a peace treated and concluded at Boulogne, [between] the Scots, French and English; [David Panter], Bishop of Ross, for the Scots, [Gaspard de Coligny, Seigneur de Châtillon] for the French, and for the English [John Russell] the Earl of Bedford. This peace was published the 12th day of April. The young Lord [John] Erskine, and Henry [Sinclair], Dean of Glasgow, [go as] ambassadors to England, and see the peace signed and sworn; and from thence to Flanders, where they likewise conclude a peace.

The English, this year, abandon all their holds in Scotland, and return home; and the French and [German] soldiers return to France. So that this year Scotland was liberated and freed of all foreigners and strangers.

In May, this year, the Queen mother goes to France, and is conveyed [there] by the Earls of Huntly [George Gordon], with his Countess [Elizabeth Keith] and mother [Margaret Stewart], Marischal [William Keith], Sutherland [John Gordon] and Cassilis [Gilbert Kennedy].

This same year, the Earl of Huntly, before his going to France, caused [the] strik[ing off of] the head from [Laird] William Macintosh, at Strathbogie, for practicing against the said Earl’s life, he then being the Queen’s lieutenant in the north.

 

1551.

This year, 1551, the Queen mother being in France, shows the reason of her there going, was for suiting the government of Scotland, to which demand the French King is moved to assent, conditionally, that the Regent be pleased to [resign] his regency willingly. The Queen mother, to make the Regent the more willingly [to resign] in her favours, moves the French King to ratify the duchy of Châtellerault, in France, to [James Hamilton] the Duke and his heirs male; and to make [James Hamilton] the Earl of Arran, his son, captain of the Scots guards, which attended the French King’s person. She moved him, likewise, to give the earldom of Moray, in commendator, to the Regents, the earldom of Rothes to Andrew Leslie, that had married [Grizel Hamilton] the Regent’s kinswoman, and the earldom of Morton to [James Douglas] George Douglas’ son.

About this time, [Laird of Kinnaird] Sir Robert [Carnegie], one of the Senators of the College of Justice, is sent by the Regent [as] ambassador to France, to render the French King hearty thanks for his aid against the English. During his abode there, [William Parr] the Marquis of Northampton, comes from King Edward VI., of England, to Henry [II.] the French King, to demand [Elisabeth of Valois] his daughter in marriage to King Edward [VI.].

The Queen mother prepares for her return to Scotland, through England, (having received a safe conduct,) where she is nobly and kindly [treated]. With her King Edward deals effectually for the marriage of her daughter, the young Queen of Scotland; and lays the whole cause of the last war on the Protector. At last she returns to Scotland by land, and the Earl of Huntly by sea; and no sooner is she arrived at home, but presently composes all differences among the nobility.

At this same time, Robert [Wauchope], Archbishop of [Armagh], in Ireland, returns from Rome, and dies at Paris, the 19th day of November, this same year.

 

1552.

This year, 1552, the Regent, to make the country the better reap the fruits of peace, causes [the] repair [of] all such [towers], castles and villages, which the fury of  war had formerly defaced; he takes a progress through the whole realm, keeps justice courts, and punishes rebels and malefactors.

A provincial synod of the clergy kept this year at Linlithgow, wherein the acts of the Council of Trent are commanded to be observed. At this synod, David Panter, the Regent’s secretary, is consecrated Bishop of Ross.

The Regent, in his survey of the borders, this year, in the month of June, for their good service to their country, honoured with knighthood, the Lairds of

Cessford [Walter Ker],

Buccleuch [Walter Scott],

Coldenknowes [John Hume],

Ferniehirst [John Ker],

Greenhead [Gilbert Ker], and

Andrew Kerr of Littledean.

The Queen mother practises all she can to conclitiate the minds of the nobility to her; and causes Panter, Bishop of Ross, deal with the Regent willingly to [resign], which he takes in very civil part; whereupon factions begin to arise. But he is told, in plain terms, that the Queen, at her age of 12 years, had chosen, in France, for her curators, King Henry II., Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, and [Francis] the Duke of Guise; and that they had laid the whole burden of government on the Queen mother.

The Queen mother, with [those] that favoured her course, goes to Stirling castle; and such as opposed her, and liked the Regent’s government better, at this time dispersed libels and invectives against the government of women, showing that the same was repugnant to the ancient laws of Scotland.

This year, while the differences about government were in debate [between] the Queen mother and Regent, the Kers kill [Walter Scott] the Laird of Buccleuch; and the Lord Ruthven’s youngest son [John Ruthven] kills John Charteris, Laird of Kinfauns, in Perthshire.

About this same time [11th of June], likewise, in Edinburgh, in the Regent’s own house, the Lord [Robert] Sempill stabs to death [William Crichton] the Lord Sanquhar; for which he [would have] lost his head, if the earnest entreaty of his friends, and satisfaction to the Crichtons had not been given.

 

1553.

This year, 1553, King Edward VI., of England, departs this life, the 6th day of July; and to him succeeds his sister Mary, who reestablished the Popish religion in England: and the rebellions against her at her entry to the crown, she pacified with the heads of the intenders.

 

1554.

In the beginning of the year 1554, Norman Leslie, that had killed David [Beaton], the Cardinal, returns to Scotland; but for fear of the Regent, departs to France, and by the French King is made colonel of the Scots Lanciers. He behaved himself nobly and bravely, and was killed in Picardy, warring against the enemy.

The 10th of April, this year, there was a convention of the estates [held] at Edinburgh, wherein the Regent resigns his authority, and the Queen mother is declared Regent; [who] no sooner advanced to the government, but incontinent she changes the prime officers of the state.

 [George Gordon] Huntly is made Lord Chancellor;

[Gilbert Kennedy] Cassilis, Treasurer;

Mr James MacGill [of Nether Rankeilour], [Lord] Clerk Register;

[Donald Campbell] Abbot of Coupar, Privy Seal;

Monsieur [Yves de Rubay], Vice Chancellor, and Keeper of the Great Seal;

[Bartholomew] Villemore, a Frenchman, Comptroller; and

[Monsieur de] Bontot, [another] Frenchman, Governor of the Orkney Isles.

This change of statesmen, and preferring of the French, moved the nobility to great indignation against the Queen Regent.

This year, also, the Queen Regent, by her ambassadors, Sir Robert [Carnegie] of Kinnaird, and Sir John Bellenden of Auchinoul, knights, composes all differences [between] Scotland and England [about] fishing on the borders, and other controversies; for Queen Mary, of England, met by her ambassadors, Sir Thomas [Cornwallis] and Sir Robert Bowes, knights.

The convention of the estates ended, the Queen Regent sends [George Gordon] the Earl of Huntly to suppress that audacious rebel, John [of Moidart], (one of the Clan Chattan,) and his followers, with an army; but the Earl returns without effecting [anything] for repressing the rebels; this expedition of his making them rather more bold and presumptious. Whereat the Queen is above measure enraged; and immediately she causes [the] cit[ing of] the Earl to [appear in court] and answer to that libelled against him. He [appears], and is committed prisoner to Edinburgh castle; his enemies taking [the] occasion, (on his restraint,) aggravates all his actions, and accuses him as the prime author of all these troubles in the north, and that for his beheading of the Laird of Macintosh; whereupon the earldom of Moray is taken from him, and given to [James Stewart] the Lord Abernethy; and the government of Orkney and Shetland, with the baillie of Strathdee, and administration of the earldom of Marr, which he had, are all taken from him, and retained by the Queen Regent in her own hand.

 

1555.

This year, 1555, Henry Sinclair, Dean of Glasgow, one of the senators of the College of Justice, a learned [lawyer], returns from France, and in a brief and methodical way, orders the form of process before the Lords of Session.

This same year, [Claude] the Duke of Aumale, brother to the Queen Regent, being one of the French King’s hostages in England, comes to Scotland and visits his sister, accompanied by one Sir Thomas Stukley, an English knight; and shortly returns again.

A parliament [was held] by the Queen Regent, at Edinburgh, the 20th of the month of June, this year. In it was the revocation of the Queen ratified, and ordained to be published, which was [signed] with her hand, at Fontainebleau, in France, the 25th day of April, this same year, that none eat flesh in Lent, but [by] license; that procuratories, and instruments of resignation, be sealed and [signed]; that all notaries, in time coming be examined and admitted by the Lords of Session, and their protocols marked; that no staple commodity, such as wool, be carried into England; that the wood of Falkland be cut, and [enclosed] again; that no goldsmith, under the pain of death, make any silver work under the goodness of 11 penny fine; and lastly, that none speak evil of the Queen Regent’s grace, or of Frenchmen, the Christian King’s subjects: with diverse other acts of less public concernment.

The 8th of August, this year, Philip II., King of Spain, is married to Mary, Queen of England.

This year, also, John [Stewart], Earl of Atholl, is sent by the Queen Regent against the rebel, John [of Moidart], who takes him, and brings him bound to the Queen. She pardons him his life, conditionally he should forever dwell confined in the town of Perth; but he [is] no sooner dismissed, but incontinent thereafter takes himself to the mountains, and [teaches] the Queen Regent to hold the fox better by the ear, while she had him in her hands.

 

1556.

A parliament [held] by the Queen Regent, this year, at Edinburgh, wherein, on the French King’s recommendation, the Lairds of Grange [James Kirkcaldy], Brunstone [Alexander Crichton], and Mr Henry Balnaves [of Hallhill], have the act of their [forfeiture repealed], from March 1556. The parliament was, until the 14th day of December in the following year, 1557, adjourned.

In this parliament, the Queen Regent, by the advice of her French counsel, demands a certain taxation for defence of the borders, with this specious pretence, that noblemen and gentlemen may stay at home always, but when the country should be invaded with a great army; and now with the demanded money she would levy soldiers to continue there for the defence of the borders. The Barons absolutely refuse, and answer, that Scottish Kings thought it ever their greatest honour and surest treasure, to be called Reges Scottorum, and not Reges Scotiæ, King of Scots and not of Scotland; and that their treasure did never consist of their subjects means and fortunes, but hearts.

[William Chisholm] the Bishop of Dunblane, [Richard Maitland] the Laird of [Lethington], and Mr James MacGill, clerk register, stayed some months at Duns, with [Cuthbert] Tunstall, Bishop of [Durham], and the English commissioners, [about] certain controversies [between] the two kingdoms, which they composed, and fully ended.

The Queen Regent, this year, takes her progress as far north as Inverness; holds justice courts, punishes rebels and outlawes,and forces the chief of each clan to be answerable for these of his name. The Laird of Grant [John] brings in the heads of some of his kindred, whom he could not bring in alive, and presents then to justice. She fines [George Sinclair] the Earl of Caithness in a good round sum of money, because he had not presented some of his friends and followers to justice; and sends [John Gordon] the Earl of Sutherland with an army against [Iye Du] Mackay of Strathnaver by land, and [Hugh] Kennedy with a navy by sea, who brought him prisoner to Edinburgh castle, where he lay for a long time thereafter.

 

1557.

In February, this year, 1557, [Osep Napea] the Moscovian ambassador, in his journey to England, was [shipwrecked] on the coast of Scotland [at Pitsligo Bay]; he was kindly received and entertained by the Queen Regent, and conveyed by the Lord [Alexander] Home with 500 gentlemen to Berwick.

This year, in July, Hother Tranbern comes [as] ambassador from the Lady Anna, Duchess of Oldenburg, [West Friesland] and [Delmenhorst], to Scotland, and concludes a peace with this crown for 100 years.

War bursts forth, this year, in the borders of Flanders, [between] the French and Spanish Kings; Queen Mary, of England, sends aid to her husband, King Philip.

This year, in May, the Scottish and English commissioners meet at Carlisle, for repairing mutual damages on the borders. The Scottish commissioners were:

Robert [Reid], Bishop of Orkney;

Henry [Sinclair], Dean of Glasgow;

Sir Robert [Carnegie, Laird of Kinnaird]; and the

[William Maxwell] Lord Herries, Warden of the West [Marches].

For the English were commissioners,

[Cuthbert] Tunstall, Bishop of [Durham];

[Gregory Fiennes] Lord Dacres; and the

Lord [Thomas] Wharton.

[Henry II.] the French King, this year, solicits the Scots to war against England, and shows the estates that [Mary I.] the Queen of England had [proclaimed] war against him.

Monsieur [Henri Cleutin] D’Oysel and [Captain] Charlebus, with their French companies, fortify the town of Haymouth; and, at this time, the Queen Regent recalls the Scottish commissioners from Carlisle.

[George Gordon] the Earl of Huntly, this year, is made Lieutenant of the Borders, and enters the west borders of England with fire and sword, as the Lord [Alexander] Home did the east.

About which time, likewise, the Queen Regent raises a great army to invade England, and the nobility flatly refuses to invade it, with all the army; whereat the Queen is much displaced, and presently disbands her forces: and now begins the hatred of the nobility and gentry against the Queen Regent, which for a long time had lurked among the ashes of discontent to burst forth in a flame.

The parliament adjourned until the 14th day of December, this year, sits down at Edinburgh, wherein, after the heavy complaints of the Queen Regent [were heard], and they in a manner slighted, and some few laws for procedure in civil business before the Session were enacted, the parliament without more ado broke up.

 

1558.

In the beginning of this year, 1558, diverse ministers and professors of the gospel return from Germany and Geneva; and with them the greatest of the nobility and gentry that favoured the gospel, begin to consult how to abolish popery, and expel the French.

King Philip, of Spain, this year, takes St. Quentin, which moves the French King to hasten the [Dauphin]‘s marriage with Queen Mary of Scotland.

The Queen Regent calls a parliament at Edinburgh, the 29th day of November, this year, wherein the French ambassador presents his master’s letter to the estates, which being read, and the priviliges of Scotsmen within the realm of France, ratified in parliament, with the act of naturalisation of each, [reciprocally], of Scots in France, and French in Scotland, without more the parliament breaks up.

This parliament appoints 8 commissioners to be present at the Queen’s marriage with the [Dauphin] of France, viz.

James [Beaton], Archbishop of St. Andrews;

Robert [Reid], Bishop of Orkney, President of the Session;

George [Leslie], Earl of Rothes;

Gilbert [Kennedy], Earl of Cassilis;

George, Lord Seton;

James, Lord Fleming;

James [Stewart], Prior of St. Andrews, brother to the Queen;

John Erskine of Dun, Provost of Montrose.

They are welcomed by the French King; and immediately after their arrival, the contract of marriage sealed and sworn, and the marriage solemnised [between] the [Dauphin], Francis of France, and Mary, Queen of Scots, in the church of Notre Dame at Paris, by [Charles de Bourbon] the Archbishop of Rouen.

The Duke of Guise, this year, takes Calais from the English, which they had possessed some 200 years.

Charles [V.], the [Holy Roman] Emperor, this year, also resigns the empire to his brother Ferdinand.

The Scots make daily incursions in the English borders. D’Oysel and his French are not so cunning in the managing of the border war as the Scots, which made them often get well paid skins.

This year, Paul Methven, [William] Harlaw and John Douglas, a Carmelite, preach the gospel privately in gentlemen’s houses.

The 1st of September, this year, the Roman clergy kept a synod at Edinburgh; the first day of the sitting down of which, the priests had a solemn procession, wherein they carried a great log of wood or idol, by them called St. Giles. The commons and others that favoured the gospel, make a great tumult, and soundly beat all the priests of Baal, and breaks all their idol [of] St. Giles in pieces.

The Queen Regent, to compose these popular tumults in Edinburgh, especially against her gods; and fearing greater, she causes the Lord [George] Seton, a [bigoted] idolator, supply the place of Provost of Edinburgh.

James Stewart, Prior of St. Andrews, seeks the earldom of Moray from the Queen, his sister, but receives a flat denial.

This year, 4 of the 8 commissioners sent to France to assist at the solemnities of Queen Mary’s marriage, being on their return home, die almost suddenly, at Dieppe, not without suspicion of poison.

Robert [Reid], Bishop of Orkney, President of the College of Justice, dies at Dieppe, the [6th of September], this year.

George [Leslie], Earl of Rothes, dies within 2 days [of] him, there likewise.

Gilbert [Kennedy], Earl of Cassilis, dies there also, the 18th day of October.

The Lord [James] Fleming, younger than any of the rest, did bear it out longer, and out of hope to recover of it, he caused himself to be transported to Paris, where, notwithstanding, he died the 5th of January, in the following year. The other 4 commissioners returned home, and landed in safety, at Montrose, in October, this same year.

In the month of August, this year, Archibald [Campbell], Earl of Argyll, Great Justiciar of Scotland, and Knight of the Order of St. Michael, departs this life.

And, in September following, this same year, dies [John Hepburn] the Bishop of Brechin, to whose sea succeeded [Donald Campbell] the Abbot of Coupar; and Andrew Durie, Bishop of Galloway, to whose sea succeeded Alexander Gordon, Archbishop of Athens.

At this same time, dies James Stewart, eldest [bastard] son to King James V., Abbot of Kelso and Melrose; and to accompany him in death, whom he so dearly loved in his [lifetime] dies also that notable adulterer, David Panter, Bishop of Ross, some time secretary to the Regent, James [Hamilton], Duke of Châtellerault, Earl of Arran.

The Queen Regent gives the two abbeys of Kelso and Melrose to the Cardinal [Louis] of Guise.

A fearful comet appeared, this year, which not only (as the sequel proved) portended change in government, but in religion likewise. Many were the monsters and prodigies that Scotland produced this year; but these I leave to be looked on [by] the writers of the time.

The 5th day of December, this year, Mary, Queen of England, that idolatrous and bloody Princess, to the great joy of all good christians, departs this life, and to her succeeds her sister, famous and religious Elizabeth.

No sooner is Elizabeth crowned, but presently, by parliament, advances Christ’s gospel, and abolishes the Pope’s supremacy, with all the trumpery of the Romish whore, in England.

The Queen Regent calls the estates of the kingdom to Edinburgh, this year, the 9th of December, to whom the [Dauphin] of France proposes a suit, to wit, that the estates would, during his marriage with their Queen, allow him the conjunct title of Francis and Mary, King and Queen of Scotland, &c. The estates, with some caveats and restrictions, granted the demand, and sent the Earl of Argyll, and James [Stewart], Prior of St. Andrews, their commissioners to France, to crown Francis with all solemnity; and to accompany them, was [Sir Robert Forman] Lyon King of Arms, and 2 heralds to attend him, for the same purpose sent likewise.

King Henry II., the French King, causes Queen Mary, his daughter-in-law, this year, assume, among her other titles, these of England and Ireland also. This he did partly out of vain ostentation, and partly out of splean to Elizabeth, Queen of England.

 

1559.

In the beginning of the year 1559, the clergy keep a solemn synod at Edinburgh, to advise [about] the most assured [proposals] they could, to uphold their tottering hierarchy; to them the professors of the gospel gave in some articles, whereat the bishops and clergy fumed and raged at; but instead of answering them, they published a number of articles, indeed blasphemies, against Christ, his Evangel and professors of the same. They likewise, in this synod, make some feckless acts for reformation of their idle-bellied monks and adulterous clergy, which moved diverse churchmen at this same time [to] embrace the gospel.

At this same time, the Queen Regent causes [to be] summoned John Knox, John Willock and John Douglas, with some others, preachers of the gospel, to [appear in court] before her and her counsel, which they do not, and so, are declared rebels.

[John Erskine] the Laird of Dun, sent by the professors of the gospel to the Queen Regent, humbly to entreat her that she would be pleased to recall that rigid decree against the preachers of the gospel, which she altogether refused to do; but John Knox, preceiving the Queen Regent’s obstinacy and malice against them, incites the people to the abolishing of the Pope’s authority, and the down pulling of monasteries and religious houses, by him called the nests and cages of unclean birds.

With this work of reformation, then begin they at Perth, and pulls down altars, images, and such other popish trinkets [everywhere], and demolishes [Perth Priory] the stately fabric of the Carthusians, built by King James I.; then pull they down the monsteries of the Dominican, Carmelite and Franciscan friars, in this same town; at which time, the professors of the Evangel assumed to themselves the name of the Congregation.

The Queen Regent hearing their news, comes all enraged to Perth, and with her, D’Oysel and his French soldiers. She commands [James Hamilton] the Duke of Châtellerault, with the Earls of Argyll [Archibald Campbell], Atholl [John Stewart] and Marischal [William Keith], to attend her from Stirling to Perth. To her train joined the Archbishops of St. Andrews [John Hamilton] and Glasgow [James Beaton], the Bishop of Dunkeld [Robert Crichton] and Dunblane [William Chisholm], with [James Stewart] the Prior of St. Andrews, and the Abbots of Coupar [Donald Campbell] and Dunfermline [George Durie]. She was received honourably into the town by the Lord [Patrick] Ruthven, then Provost; but when she saw that they were all fled whom she thought to have taken revenge on, then goes she to consult what was next to be done.

The Earl of Argyll and James Stewart, Prior of St. Andrews, join themselves with the congregation, which they no sooner did, but presently begin they to demolish the monasteries and religious houses in Fife, and keep their meetings and consultations at Coupar.

The Queen Regent hearing what the congregation had done in Fife, she fortifies Perth, and plants a garrison of 600 Scots foot therein, under the command of James Stewart of Cardonald, and James Cullen, and departs with her French soldiers to Falkland, where she cites the Earl of Argyll and Prior of St. Andrews to [appear in court] before her there, which they refuse to do; and she, to constrain them, sends D’Oysel and his French to bring them [by] force. When the French approaches near Cupar Muir, there they see the congregation standing well armed and in good order, ready to give them battle; but the Duke of Châtellerault and Earl Marischal, deals seriously [between] them, and Argyll and the Prior, to retire to St. Andrews, and D’Oysel back to Falkland, and with all persuades the Queen Regent to take [another] course, for that would not do her turn, since in effect all the commons were against her, but rather to return to Edinburgh, and there to call a convention of the estates, to cure (as they called them) these almost incurable and disperate deceases of the commonwealth.

About this same time, also, [Alexander Cunningham] the Earl of Glencairn and the Lord [Robert] Boyd, with many of the barons and gentlemen in the west, professors of the gospel, join themselves to the congregation, and presently marches and lays siege to the town of Perth, and after some few days has it rendered to them.

The Queen Regent sends the Earl of Huntly to deal with the congregation to submit to the estates; they refuse, without free liberty of the gospel.

After which answer, returned by the Earl of Huntly, the congregation goes to the stately monastery of Scone, and pulls it down, and solemnly burns all the Roman trash, [such] as images, altars and the like.

Then proceed they forward to Stirling, Cambuskenneth and Linlithgow, and there demolish and pull down all whatsoever carried any symbol of the Roman whore.

The congregation from Linlithgow march they to Edinburgh, and the Queen Regent deals earnestly with the citizens of Edinburgh to oppose their entry, which they altogether refuse. The Queen hearing their answer, and fearing they would lay hold on her person, she, with D’Oysel and her French soldiers, retire to Dunbar castle.

Then enters the congregation [into] Edinburgh, and there removes and demolishes all badges of popery and superstition; and solemnly renounces all obedience to the Queen Regent or her government, unless she will abolish popery and superstition out of the realm, and return the French soldiers home again, who had for many years so miserably oppressed the country since their first footing here, without any respect of persons, or fear of divine justice.

[William Maxwell] the Lord [Herries] escapes out of Edinburgh castle, where he was a prisoner, and joins himself to the congregation.

The Queen Regent advertises the French King, Henry [II.], of the Scottish affairs, and by her letters solicits him to send some regiments of foot, and troops of horse, to repress the professors of the gospel.

This year, in July, there was a peace treated and concluded [between] the French and Spanish Kings.

The 10 of July, this year, Henry [II.], the French King, departs this life; and to him succeeds his son Francis [II.].

The Queen Regent sends her French soldiers against the professors of the gospel, then at Edinburgh; they oppose the French with a good army. The Earl of Huntly reconciles them for the present, and 10 articles are drawn up, the first of which was, that the congregation should depart Edinburgh.

The Queen Regent returns to Edinburgh, and in the beginning of September, this year, receives letters by Monsieur [Philibert du Croc], the French ambassador, showing that she might, with all possible speed expect from France, forces under the command of [René of Guise the] Marquis [d’Elbeuf]; and by the same ambassador, King Francis and Queen Mary wrote particularly to James [Stewart], Prior of St. Andrews answers to these letters.

[Octavio Bosso], [along with] the Marquis of Elboeuf, in the latter end of September, this year, arrives at Leith, with some regiments of French foot.

At this same time, diverse French noblemen and gentlemen, with others also, for love of the gospel, join with the congregation; whereupon the French fortify the town of Leith.

[James Hamilton] the Earl of Arran conveys himself quietly from the French country to Geneva, and from thence through England home, and joins with the congregation.

The congregation supplicates the Queen Regent, that she would command the French to desist from the fortifying of Leith; but in vain.

The Queen Regent, with some Scottish bishops, and the Lord [George] Seton, and her Frenchmen, enter Leith.

The congregation makes preparation to besiege the town of Leith; and then does [Richard Maitland the Laird of] Lethington, the Secretary, join himself to the professors of the gospel.

About the middle of October, this year, more French land at Leith, under the command of Monsieur de Martigne, being some ten companies; but without any more provision than formerly had come.

The congregation sends to Queen Elizabeth, of England, to implore her aid against the papists and French. With her they conclude a league, offensive and defensive, during all the days of the life of King Francis II., and a year after his death. For Queen Elizabeth there treated [with Thomas Howard] the Duke of Norfolk; and for the protestants of Scotland,

Colin [Campbell], Earl of Argyll;

[William Maxwell] Lord Herries, Warden of the West Marches;

James [Stewart], Prior of St. Andrews;

[Richard Maitland] Laird of Lethington; and

Sir Robert [Carnegie Laird of Kinnaird].

There was given by them to Queen Elizabeth, for observation of this league, as pledges,

David Hamilton, the Duke’s youngest son;

Colin Campbell, a cousin of the Earl of Argyll;

Robert Douglas, a son of the Laird of Lochleven, and brother to the Prior; and

John Ruthven, a son of the Lord Ruthven.

In December, this same year, likewise, the congregation demolish all the monuments of idolatry in Glasgow, and possess themselves of the Bishops castle; but hearing of the approach of the French, they remove.

 

1560.

In March, this year, 1560, the English navy arrive in the Forth; whereupon the French that were in Fife, or [elsewhere to the] north [of the] Forth, by Stirling bridge, runs to their holds of Leith and Inchkeith, which they had fortified and [provisioned].

At this same time the congregation demolish the monasteries of the Carmelites and Dominicans, in the town of Aberdeen, and burn and break their altars and images, &c. with other monuments of idolatry there.

Captain [William] Wynter, with 16 English ships of war, lies in Leith’s [path], and keeps the French that were in Inchkeith from all kinds of provision, and blocks up the town of Leith by sea; which moved the Queen Regent to deal with the French ambassador at the English court, to move Queen Elizabeth to recall her navy from the Forth, but all in vain.

[Thomas Howard] the Duke of Norfolk, with 8000 English foot, comes to Berwick to aid the congregation; they march towards Leith, and skirmish with the French; but before they approached Leith, the Queen Regent and her French that were in Edinburgh castle, enclose themselves in Leith.

The Lord [William] Grey [of Wilton], general of the English army, sends Sir George Howard and Sir James Crofts, to the Queen Regent, assuring her, that if she would dismiss all her French forces out of Scotland, they would, without more ado, return for England; which they entreated her to do for the public quiet. She answered, that without the French she would do nothing; and demanded a convenient time to consult with them for that effect.

The English besiege Leith, and to them joins 12,000 Scottish protestants, commanded by the Duke of Châtellerault, and the Earls of

     Arran [James Hamilton],

     Argyll [Archibald Campbell],

     Rothes [Andrew Leslie],

     Glencairn [Alexander Cunningham],

     [John] Lindsay;

Lords [Robert] Boyd,

     [Patrick] Ruthven,

     Ochiltree [Andrew Stewart],

     [James] Ogilvie,

     Herries [William Maxwell];

and [James Stewart] the Prior of St. Andrews; above 120 barons and their followers.

Queen Regent deals with [George Gordon] the Earl of Huntly to mediate a peace; he does his best, but loses his labour, unless the French were sent packing home.

In the month of May, the French make a sally out of Leith, and skirmish; but with great loss are forced to make a full retreat; the English ladder the walls, and give an assault, but are repulsed by the French.

About the latter end of May, this year, the French are sore distressed for lack of [provisions], and are forced to eat all their horses.

Tumults arise in France, which did impede the French aid from coming to Scotland to the Queen Regent against those of the religion.

Near this time, the queen Regent departs this life in Edinburgh castle. Before her death, she sent for diverse [members] of the nobility, and exhorted them to that which she would never condescend to herself, to wit, peace; and desires that after her death, her corpse be interred in the monastery of St. Peter, at [Reims], in [Champagne], whereof her sister was prioress.

This year there arose some tumults [between] the Earls of Huntly and Atholl, and their friends, which, by the mediation of some of the nobility, was pacified.

This year, a peace is concluded [between] the Scottish, English and French. The articles concluded on were:

Firstly, That the French King and Scottish Queen should not carry the arms of England and Ireland on any [of] the household stuff, or entitle themselves in their letters and patents.

Secondly, That the kingdom of Scotland shall be governed by 12 Scots noblemen; 7 of them to be chosen by the Queen, and 5 by the country.

Thirdly, That all injuries be [in the] past and put in oblivion, [between] the 15th of March 1558, and the first of August 1560.

Fouthly, That all that had been during the troubles injured in their title, dignities and goodnes, be restored, and that no Frenchman [stay] in Scotland hereafter.

Fifthly, That if the nobility pleased, they should slight the fortifications of Leith, and those against Dunbar castle, that were [being built].

Sixthly, That all Frenchmen depart Scotland home to France within 20 days, except two companies of foot to keep Inchkeith and Dunbar castle, and they, notwithstanding, to be subject to the Scottish counsel.

In all these articles, they did not meddle with religion, for diverse respects; but the chief was, that as yet the Scots [were] not resolved whether to embrace the reformation of England, or that of Geneva.

The French return to France in English ships.

A parliament [held] at Edinburgh this year, (no mention of it being in printed statutes of this Queen,) wherein the act of oblivion was made, according to the 3rd article of the treaty. From this parliament the Earls of Morton [James Douglas] and Glencairn [Alexander Cunningham], with Secretary Lethington [Richard Maitland], are sent ambassadors to Queen Elizabeth, to thank her for her aid against the French, and to recommend the marriage of [James Hamilton] the Earl of Arran to her; to the last of which she gave no answer at all.

The nobility [promote], this year, the reformation, according to that of Geneva, established by [John Calvin] and his associates.

The first of the month of December, this same year, dies Francis, second of that name, King of France and of Scotland, at Orleans.

 

1561.

Queen Mary, now a widow after her husband, the French King’s death, comes to Reims, in January, 1561, and puts off the rest of the winter there. In the spring she visits her cousins of Guise, and [Charles] the Cardinal of Lorraine.

In May, this year, James [Stewart], Prior of St. Andrews, goes to France to pacify the Queen which in some sort he performed; he was attended there [by] the Earls of Bothwell [James Hepburn] and Eglinton [Hugh Montgomerie] with diverse others of the Scottish nobility.

A public dispute, this year, [between] John Willock a preacher of the gospel, and one [John] Black, a Dominican friar, for 2 days; wherein Willock defends the protestant tenets as agreeable to the word of God.

Queen Mary falls sick of a fever, in Lorraine, this year; but recovers, and comes to Paris, and prepare for her journey to Scotland.

Elizabeth, Queen of England, sends [Francis Russell] the Earl of Bedford ambassador to her, who gives him with [Nicholas Throckmorton], the ledger then of England in France, who dealt with her, among other things, to ratify the treaty of Edinburgh: which she put off until her arrival in Scotland. She desires of Queen Elizabeth free passage through England home to Scotland, which is absolutely refused to her, unless the foresaid treaty were ratified and approved.

Queen Mary ships at Calais, [on] the 18th of September, this year, and shortly thereafter safely arrives at Leith.

The Queen being safely landed, is welcomed by the [consent] of the nobility from all parts of the realm.

D’Oysel being sent ambassador from the French King to Scotland, to Queen Mary, is detained in England [by] Queen Elizabeth, who, upon a just fear of this eager Frenchman’s raising of new [stirs] again in Scotland, as he had been a violent instrument in the former, she thought good to detain him awhile, until she saw what business the Queen’s arrival home to Scotland would produce, either for or against the protestant party.

The Queen calls the nobility to Edinburgh. In this convention, no churchman was admitted; and it was ordered, that touching religion, nothing should be meddled with, but all things to remain in that same state they were in, the day the Queen landed at Leith from France.

In this convention, or meeting of the estates, from which the clergy was excluded, there was an act passed, likewise, nominating twelve persons to be on the Queen’s privy council, without whose advice she should conclude no great business in the state;

James [Hamilton], Duke of Châtellerault,

[George Gordon] Earl of Huntly, Lord Chancellor,

[Archibald Campbell] Earl of Argyll, 

[George Hay] Earl of Erroll,

[John Stewart] Earl of Atholl,

[William Keith] Earl Marischal,

[Alexander Cunningham] Earl of Glencairn,

[John Maxwell] Earl of Morton,

[William Graham] Earl of Montrose,

[Henry Sinclair] Bishop of Ross,

Lord [John] Erskine,

James [Stewart] Prior of St. Andrews.

 

1562.

In the beginning of this year, 1562, James Stewart, Prior of St. Andrews, is by his sister created Earl of Moray.

At which time the Earls of Arran [James Hamilton] and Bothwell [James Hepburn] were committed to prison.

George [Gordon], Earl of Huntly, Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is killed this year, and his second son [John Gordon] beheaded, and his eldest son [George Gordon] sentenced likewise to lose the head; but by the Queen’s clemency, the rigour of that sentence was moderated to perpetual prison in Dunbar castle.

At this same time, also, [John Gordon] the Earl of Sutherland was banished [from] the realm, and John Hamilton, Archbishop of St. Andrews, imprisoned; and all this was done (as the Queen herself set down under her own hand) by the power of her brother James [Stewart], Earl of Moray, with the Queen, to weaken the popish faction; ere she knew either [of] his designs, or what [she] was doing, she [undid] her best friends, and [those] that stood most for the Pope’s authority and Romish religion in Scotland.

Margaret [Douglas], Countess of Lennox, niece to King Henry VIII., by Queen Elizabeth’s command, was committed prisoner to Richard Sackwell, and her husband, [Matthew Stewart] the Earl of Lennox, was committed to [William Cordell] the Master of the Rolls, for alleging intelligence with Mary the Scots’ Queen.

This year, Queen Elizabeth sends Henry Sidney to Queen Mary, to delay the interview until the next year, that the French wars grew colder.

 

1563.

To begin this year, 1563, and make the same memorable, [Francis] the Duke of Guise, Queen Mary’s uncle, is killed [by Jean de Poltrot de Méré], whose death moved that the Queen’s [estate] out of France, was not paid; and the Duke of [Châtellerault] was also deprived of his duchy, and the Scots were displaced from the captainship of the guard.

[Charles] the Cardinal of Lorraine, fearing that Queen Mary should cleave to the amity of England, and leave France, by [Monsieur du] Croc, proposes to her the marriage of Charles of Austria, son to the [Holy Roman] Emperor Ferdinand, with the county of Tyrol for her dowrie.

In the month of June, this same year, Queen Mary holds her ninth parliament at Edinburgh, wherein the act of oblivion was ratified, and the privilege of those worthy to enjoy it, was committed to

James, Duke of Châtellerault, Lord Hamilton;

Archibald, Earl of Argyll, Lord Campbell and Lorne, Justice General;

James [Stewart], Earl of Moray, Lord Abernethy and [Strathearn];

James [Douglas], Earl of Morton, Lord Dalkeith, Chancellor of Scotland;

William, Earl Marischal, Lord Keith;

Alexander [Cunningham], Earl of Glencairn, Lord Kilmaurs;

John, Lord Erskine;

Patrick, Lord Ruthven;

Henry [Sinclair], Bishop of Ross, President of the College of Justice;

Mark [Kerr], Commendator of Newbattle;

Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington, Privy Seal;

Mr James MacGill, Clerk Register;

Sir John Bellenden of Auchinoul, knight, Justice Clerk;

William Maitland of Lethington, younger, Secretary;

Mr Robert Richardson, Commendator of St. Mary’s Isle, Treasurer;

Sir John Wishart of Pitarrow, knight, Comptroller;

Mr John Spence of Condie, Advocate to her Majesty;

Mr Thomas [MacCalzean], Commissioner for the burgh of Edinburgh;

Mr James Haliburton, Tutor of Pitcur, and Provost of Dundee;

John Erskine of Dun, Provost of Montrose;

or to any six of them, 3 of the said Earls and Lords being always 3 of the six to make the [company].

In this parliament, likewise, there passed a law, that 5 or six of the principal barons be called by their commissioners before […] peace, war or taxation, were granted or concluded; and in this parliament, also, the privileges of the royal burghs were ratified.

In August, this same year, likewise, Queen Elizabeth, by [Thomas] Randolph, her ambassador, proposes again to Mary, Queen of Scots, the marriage of Robert Dudley, which she scorned.

 

1564.

This year, 1564, Queen Elizabeth, creates Robert Dudley, Master of her Horse, whom, in her secret purpose, she had appointed husband for the Queen of Scots; and that he might be more worthy of that match, she creates him [Baron of] Denbigh, and Earl of Leicester, to him and his heirs male, lawfully [born]; for whose sake, also, she had before created his eldest brother Ambrose, [Viscount Lisle] and Earl of Warwick, to him and his heirs male lawfully [born], and to Robert, his brother, and to his heirs male failing [those] of Ambrose.

Dudley, to deserve well of Queen Mary, whom he suited in marriage, accused [Nicholas] Bacon, Keeper of the Great Seal to the Queen, that he had dealt in the matter of succession, against the Queen of Scotland, and that he was privy to [John Hales’] pamphlet [‘A Declaration of the Succession of the Crowne Imperiall of Ingland’], who endeavoured to prove the right of the crown of England to belong to the family of Suffolk.

This year, Queen Mary sends for [Matthew Stewart] the Earl of Lennox to come to Scotland, and repeals the act of his exile, and restores to him lands and revenues; and the Queen does resolve to marry his son Henry, Earl Darnley.

At Berwick, in November, this year, there talked together about the marriage with [Robert Dudley] Leicester, Moray [James Stewart] and Lethington [Richard Maitland], for the Queen of Scots, and for Queen Elizabeth, the Earl of Bedford [Francis Russell] and [Thomas] Randolph, who promised, that if she would marry the Earl of Leicester, that she would declare her her daughter adoptive, or sister, by authority of parliament; but the Scots commissioners scorned so unequal and base a motion of so mean a match to so great a Princess.

Queen Elizabeth commands her ambassadors to do their [utmost] endeavour to [promote] the marriage with Leicester, and if that could not be, yet at least to hinder that of Darnley’s.

Darnley’s marriage [is] secretly favoured by Dudley, yea, by Queen Elizabeth herself, as the wisest and best sighted thought.

 

1565.

The 29th of February, this year, 1565, [Henry Stewart, Lord] Darnley, with much ado, obtained leave to come to Scotland, and to stay for 33 months, under [the] colour that he might be present at the restoring of his father, and so he came to Edinburgh in this month; and no sooner is he arrived, but, incontinent, falls the Queen in love with him, and presently dispatches one to Rome for a dispensation (they being within degrees forbidden to marry by the popish law); and [Richard Maitland, Laird of] Lethington is sent to Queen Elizabeth, to entreat her consent to marry with Darnley.

Queen Elizabeth, after much debate with her counsel [about] the Scottish ambassador’s design, she sends Nicholas Throckmorton to Scotland, ambassador to Queen Mary, with all earnestness to urge a present conclusion of the marriage with Leicester, threatening her to relinquish that intended marriage with her cousin Darnley.

Queen Mary knights Darnley, and that same day solemnly creates him Lord of Ardmannoch, Earl of Ross, and Duke of Rothesay; and in the 5 months after his arrival in Scotland, takes him to be her husband and companion in the kingdom: which marriage was with great triumph solemnised in the abbey church of Holyroodhouse, the 29th day of July, this same year, on which day, by Lyon King of Arms [Sir Robert Forman], he was proclaimed KING.

In the beginning of the month of October this year, Queen Elizabeth sent one [John] Tamworth, a gentleman of her privy chamber, to Queen Mary, to warn her not to violate the peace, as also to expostulate with her for her hasty marriage with a native subject of England, and with all to desire that Lennox and Darnley might be sent back again into England, according to the league, and that the Earl of Moray, her brother, might be again admitted to her wanted favour. Queen Mary, smelling Tamworth’s message, did not admit him to her presence, but answered him by articles in writing; and thus Tamworth returned home (as he thought not respected, as he thought according to his place). The reason why the Queen gave him not presence truly was, that in some words uttered to some of the ministers of estate here, he had touched Queen Mary’s reputation with some base and slanderous words, and had not vouchsafed to give her husband the title of King.

 

1566.

This year, 1566, the 9th day of March, David [Rizzio], an Italian, secretary to the Queen for the French tongue, was forcibly drawn out of the parlour where the Queen was at supper, to [another] room, and stabbed by some noblemen, animated to that homicide by the King, the Queen’s husband; his corpse was interred in the [churchyard] of Holyroodhouse abbey. The Queen being great with child, did all she could to have saved his life; yea, when strength could not do, she bitterly wept, but to no end, he was so quickly dispatched.

The 19th day of June, this same year, Queen Mary was brought to bed, in Edinburgh castle, of a son, who was christened in the chapel royal of Stirling, the 22nd of August, this same year, by the name of Charles James; his [godfathers] were Charles IX., the French King, and [Emmanuel Philibert], Duke of Savoy; his [godmother] was Elizabeth, Queen of England. Immediately after he was christened, the Lyon King of Arms proclaimed him, James, by the grace of God, Lord of Renfrew and the Isles, Earl of Carrick, Duke of Rothesay, and Prince of Scotland.

The estates of England, in a parliament [held] at London, this year, moves Queen Elizabeth, (if she would be so pleased,) to make choice of a husband to herself, and marry, and to nominate and set down the name of his successor. But by no means could she be drawn to either of the two. Yet that it might appear to the world whom she thought to be her most rightful successor, she did imprison [William] Thornton, the reader of the law in Lincoln’s Inn at London, at this same time, of whom Queen Mary of Scotland had complained, that in his lecture he had called in question, and made doubt of her right of succession.

[Francis Russell] the Earl of Bedford, the English ambassador, when the Prince’s christening was ended, dealt with Queen Mary, that these domestic contentions [between] her and her husband might be forgotten; for (said he) some wicked and malicious sworn enemies to them both, had most craftily disjointed that sweet society and conjugal band, which once was and still ought to be [between] them. Also he dealt with her, that the treaty of Edinburgh might be ratified, which she altogether refused to do, in respect, that there were diverse points in that treaty, that might be derogatory to her right, and the right of her children after Queen Elizabeth’s death, to the succession of the English crown; yet she promised to send commissioners to England, who should talk about the confirmation thereof, changing some words, namely, that she should forbear to use the title and arms of England, while Queen Elizabeth lived and her children.

 

1567.

Upon the 10th day of February, this year, 1567, King Henry, the Queen’s husband, was, within his own palace of Kirk o’ Field, in Edinburgh, strangled; his dead body cast out in a back court; and the house wherein he and his servants had been murdered, blown up with gun powder; his corpse the next day, without any funeral solemnity, [was] interred in the abbey church of Holyroodhouse. The murder of this innocent Prince was known to be James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, Lord Hailes, Great Admiral of Scotland, by those that best understood how matters went about the court; but the popish affected, that applauded the Queen’s wicked courses, spread a rumour, and laid the crime on the Earls of Morton and Moray*, and their confederates, which the Queen mainly laboured to do, by her answers to the ambassadors of foreign princes.

In the month of May, this same year, Queen Mary took to husband, and married James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell**, whom she, some few days preceding, the more to honour him, and fit him to be a match for a Queen, and the partner of a royal bed, created, with all requisite solemnity, Marquis of Fife and Duke of Orkney.

About the 11th of June, this same year, the most part of the nobility [rise up] in arms against the Queen, for the murder of her husband, and her marriage with his murderer, Bothwell; and with displayed banner marched against them to Borthwick castle, where they then were all that stood for her arms; and at Carberry hill did the two armies [engage in battle], where the Queen’s army was [defeated] and routed, and she herself taken prisoner, on the 15th day of the same month. She was brought to Edinburgh, and lodged in [Simon Preston] the Laird of Craigmillar’s house, the provost of the town. From this battle fled the now Duke of Orkney, with all his company; and immediately departed the kingdom, and never returned [there] again.

Upon the 17th day of June, this year, the Queen was committed to prison in Lochleven castle, in Fife; and the English ambassador Nicholas Throckmorton, as also the French ambassadors, [Nicolas de Neufville] Villeroy and [Philibert du] Croc, were denied access to her. Notwithstanding that all the kingdom was in effect incensed against her, yet could not her subjects condescend among themselves what course to take with her. Some would have her restored to liberty upon the conditions, that the murderers of the King should be punished according to law; the Prince’s safety provided for, Bothwell divorced, and religion established.

Others would [forever] have her banished into France or into England, so that the French King or English Queen did give their words that she should resign the kingdom, and transfer all her authority onto her son, and certain noblemen. A third there were, of [the] opinion that she should be publicly arraigned and judicially condemned to perpetual prison, and her son crowned.

The last sort differed from all the former, and would have had her deprived both of life and kingdom, and that by a public execution.

Queen Mary, by her letters of resignation, containing therein a procuratory, [simply] resigns and [gives over] her crown and realm in favour of her son, a child of 13 months old, wherein she appoints [James Stewart] the Earl of Moray Regent during the minority of her son; which if he refused to accept, she did name governors for him,

James [Hamilton], Duke of Châtellerault;

Mathew [Stewart], Earl of Lennox;

Colin [Campbell], Earl of Argyll;

John [Stewart], Earl of Atholl;

James [Douglas], Earl of Morton;

Alexander [Cunningham], Earl of Glencairn;

John [Erskine], Earl of Mar.

Upon the 29th day of July, 5 days after Queen Mary’s resignation of realm, her son, Prince James, a child of 13 months old, was solemnly crowned, at Stirling castle, King; John Knox made the coronation sermon: the Hamiltons putting in a protestation, that his coronation should be no prejudice [to] the Duke of [Châtellerault] in his right of succession against the family of Lennox. Queen Elizabeth, of England, did inhibit her ambassador to assist or yet be present at the coronation, that she might be thought and reputed [by] the world in no sort to countenance or allow Queen Mary’s abdication, by the presence of Throckmorton, her ambassador.

So ends the reign of Queen Mary, at her son’s coronation, although she lived 18 years thereafter a captive in England; and at last was executed there, [on] the [8th of February], at [Fotheringay] castle, in the 46th year of her age and reign, in [the year] 1586.

Mary Steuart

 

* George Chalmers, in his ‘Life of Mary, Queen of Scots‘, shows on numerous occasions how the three Earls; Morton, Bothwell, and Moray (with Maitland), were in league together to undo Mary, but specifically in his chapter entitled ‘From James’s Birth till Darnley’s Murder‘:
It was, at the end of September 1566, when Darnley behaved so absurdly, at Holyrood-house, that Murray, and Maitland, condemned him to the bowstring. The long exposition of the Privy Council to the Queen-mother of France, before mentioned, is a proof of this resolution. Murray, with a view to that object, drew Bothwell into their concert, before he set out for Liddisdale. Maitland gave notice to Morton, who then was expatriated, in the north of England; and who was assured, that his own relief was interwoven, in the success of their projected purpose. Now, it must always be remembered, that no plot could have been entered into, in Scotland, during that age, without the assent of Murray, so superior was his influence and power: Nor, could Maitland have written, on such a topick, to Morton, without Murray’s knowledge. It was the practice of the Scotish statesmen of that period, whenever they looked forward to some danger, which might require the protection of Secretary Cecil, to write him letters of acknowledgment, for the past, with a view to the future. But, the whole detail of the plot was not finally settled till the Queen having refused, to be divorced, from Darnley, when proposed by Maitland, and urged by Bothwell, in presence of Murray, was included, as one of the victims of their villainy.”
** As to her marriage with Bothwell, Chalmers says in ‘From Mary’s Arrival in England, till the End of Elizabeth’s Enquiry‘:
“Murray, however, was soon after content, to give in a formal answer to the Queen’s charge. He now retold the old story, mixed up, with fictions, and falsities, which heightened the tale against the Queen, and concealed what would have convicted his partizans of the odious guilt of the King’s murder. Bothwell, said they, was the chief murderer of Darnley; concealing that he acted, merely, as their own cat’s-paw: They charged her, secondly, with marrying the murderer, which evinced her privity of the crime; concealing that, they themselves had enabled Bothwell to seize her, on the high way; to carry her forcibly to his castle of Dunbar; and therein to coerce her, to marry him. Murray, also, defended himself, by saying, that the Queen had, voluntarily, resigned her sceptre, because she felt it too weighty, for her hand; but, we have seen what violence was put upon her, in Lochleven castle, and what tumult was used, to compel the officer, to affix the Privy Seal to the several instruments of resignation.”

2 thoughts on “Mary (1542-1586), Queen of Scots, Updated, pp.275-340.

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