22nd of April

Saints Epipodius and Alexander, martyrs at Lyons, 2nd century. Saints Soter and Caius, Popes, martyrs, 2nd and 3rd centuries. St Leonides, father of Oringen, 202. Saints Azades, Tharba, and others, martyrs in Persia, 341. St Rufus, or Rufin, anchoret at Glendalough, near Dublin. St Theodorus of Siceon, Bishop and Confessor, 613. St Opportuna, Abbess of Monteuil, 770.

Born. – Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, 1724, Königsberg; James Grahame, poet, 1765, Glasgow.
Died. – Antoine de Jussieu, eminent French botanist, 1758; Chrétien Gillaume de Malsherbes, advocate, beheaded, 1794, Paris.

On this Day in Other Sources.

Two of these documents have been printed before,1 but from imperfect and faulty copies. They are now given from the originals:-

“Hec Inquisitio facta apud Kandrochid xxii die mensis Aprilis, anno Domini millesimo quadringentesimo xxviii., coram Johanne de Spens de Perth, ballivo de Glendochirde, de et super autoritate et privilegijs cujusdam Relinquie Sancti Felani, que wlgariter dicitur Coygerach, per istos subscriptos (etc.), Qui juranti magno sacramento dicunt, Quod lator ipsius reliquie de Coygerach, qui Jore vulgariter dicitur, habere debet annuatim et hereditarie a quolibet inhabitante parochiam de Glendochirde, habente vel laborante mercatam terre, sive libere sive pro firma, dimidiam bollan farine, et de quolibet in dicta parochia habente dimidiam mercatam terre ut predicitur, libere vel pro firma, modium farine, et de quolibet in ista parochia habente quadraginta denariatas terre, dimidiam modij farine. Et si quivis alius inhabitans dictam parochiam magis quam mercatam terre haberet nihil magis solveret quam ordinatum fuit de una mercata terre. Et quod officium gerendi dictam reliquian dabatur cuidam progenitori Finlai Jore latoris presentium hereditarie, per successorem Sancti Felani, cui officio idem Finlaius est verus et legittimus heres. Et quod ipsa privilegia usa fuerunt et habita in tempore Regis Roberti Bruys et in tempore omnium regum a tunc usque in hodiernum diem. Pro quibus commodis et privilegijs, prefati jurati dicunt quod si contigerit aliqua bona vel catalla rapta esse vel furanta ab aliquo dictam parochiam de Glendochirde inhabitante, et is a quo ipso bona vel catalla rapta essent vel furata, propter dubium sue persone vel inimicitias hostium, eadem bona vel catalla prosequi non auderet, tunc unum servum suum vel hominem mitteret as eundem Jore de le Coygerach, cum quatuor denariis vel pare sotularum, cum victu prime noctis, et tunc idem Jore abinde suis proprijs expensis prosequetur dicta catalla ubicunque exinde sectum querere poterit infra regnum Scotie. Et hec universa per dictam inquisitionem fuerunt inventa, anno, die, loco et mense prenominatis. In cujus rei testimonium sigillum Johanis de Spens ballivi antedicti presentibus est appensum, anno, die, et loco supradictis.”*

– Sketches, pp.341-394.

1 Miscellany of the Spalding Club, III. 239.
* “This investigation was made at Kandrochid the [22] month of April, [1428]., Before John de Spens Perth, the bailiff of Glendochirde of and upon the authority and privileges of a certain left for St. Felan, who commonly called Coygerach through those written (etc. .), who swear a great oath say that the bearer of the relics of Coygerach that Jore is commonly said, should be annually and is inherited from any dwelling district of Glendochirde, for that person or struggling merchants of the earth, whether free or for a safe half bollan meal, and in any of the aforementioned parish has half the merchants of the earth as aforementioned, free or for a safe bushels of flour, and of anyone in the parish who has forty pence of land, half modii meal. And if any other person living in the parish had nothing more than merchants of the earth rather than breaking it was determined from the merchants of the earth. He was given the job of carrying the said reliquian a progenitor Finlai Jore hereditary bearer of this letter, the successor of St. Felan, whose office Finlaius same is true and lawful heir. And that use the prerogatives of King Robert the Bruce and live in the moment and at the time of the kings from then until the present day. For the advantages and privileges, said the jury say that if the result of any goods or chattels of a rape or stealing from any of the parish of Glendochirde inhabitants, and from whom the goods or chattels are removed or stolen because of the problem of his person or hated enemy, the same goods or chattels of the follow up did not dare, for then the one servant, or his man to send as the same Jore de le Coygerach, since there are four pence, or pare shoes, with all food of the first of the night, and then the same thing Jore from there to his own, of his own expense, it pursues its said chattels, wherever they from that time he cut you will be seen below kingdom of Scotland. This was all by this search were discovered in the year, day, month and instead named above. In witness whereof is appended to the aforementioned officials and lyrical de Spens, year, time, and place.” [GoogleTranslated for an idea of content.]

The Restoration brought still more troublous times, and Glasgow again had its share of the suffering. Among other acts of oppression the citizens were disarmed by an order of the Privy Council requiring them to bring in their weapons, accompanied by a warning that “all who neglects to doe the samyn sall be looked upon as dissaffected to the present government and punished accordinglie.”1 But the people complained loudly of being deprived of their accustomed arms in times so unsettled, and so great did the outcry become that two years later the magistrates made an attempt to get the arms back. Their minute bears that “taking to their consideratioune the great danger sundrie of our nighbours may fall in regard of the last proclamatioune emittit anent the inbringing of armes, and that many of our nighbors and com-burgesses may not now frielie trauell abrodd as they wont to doe without carieing of some armes, it is therfor concludit that the Provest sall ryd to Edinbrughe and petitioune the Lords of his Majesties Privie Counsall for granting liberty to our honest nighbors for carieing armes when they goe abroad.” It does not appear what success the provost had in his mission. Probably none, for it was well known that the city was at that time far from being well affected to the Stewart dynasty, and the covenanting leanings of so many of the citizens gave great offence. The laws against such were rigidly enforced, and soldiers were quartered on those of the inhabitants who were suspected of having entertained the “outed” ministers, or of frequenting conventicles.

– Old Glasgow, pp.162-175.

1 Minute of Council, 22d April, 1665.

On the 22nd of April [1707] the ancient Parliament of Scotland adjourned, to assemble no more. On that occasion the Chancellor Seafield made use of a brutal jest,* for which, says Sir Walter Scott, his countrymen should have destroyed him on the spot.

Old and New Edinburgh, pp.157-166.

* “There is an end of an auld sang.”

    Article XXII. was duly reached but no Hamilton appeared to table the protest. the premier peer, the guardian of Scottish honour, could not come to the House that day, so severe were his grace’s sufferings from – toothache! So his grace explained by messenger. His dupes hastened to his lodgings, and upbraided him with ‘double-dealing.’ He thereupon accompanied them to the House, and then, in the most innocent manner, asked who had been chosen to move the protest. He would, if absolutely necessary, second it.

    When too late, the patriotic minority beheld the snake in the grass manifestly uncoiled before their eyes. But they were undeceived too late. The grand opportunity of secession was lost, and the vital article of the treaty passed.

    After a formal vote, the minority, enraged at the high treason of their leader, ceased to struggle with the inevitable. they retired, and on the 16th of January, 1707, the Lord High Commissioner gave the Royal Assent to the Treaty of Union and Scotland, in many respects the most distinctly marked political organism in Europe, ceased to be a nation.

    The benediction was fittingly pronounced by hyena Lord Seafield, the Chancellor, in the heartless words, ‘There’s an end o’ an auld sang.’

    How different the ‘sang’ which the great Wizard of the North puts into the mouth of ‘the Bruce of Bannockburn,’ in the ‘Lord of the Isles:’-

‘O, Scotland! shall it e’er be mine

To wreak thy wrongs in battle line;

To raise my victor head an see

Thy hills, thy dales, thy people free? –

That glance of bliss alone I crave,

Betwixt my labours and the grave.’


– Reynolds’s Newspaper, Sunday 5th August, 1888.

– Treaty of Union Articles, How the Duke of Hamilton Helped Scotland into a Worse Situation.

Apr. 22 [1715]. – A celebrated total eclipse of the sun, which happened about nine o’clock in the morning of this day, made a great impression in Scotland, as in other parts of Europe, over which the entire shadow passed. The darkness lasted upwards of three minutes, during which the usual phenomena were observed among the lower animals.

-Domestic Annals, pp.390-397.

A band of young artisans and idlers, most of them under twenty years of age, but so numerous and so well organised as to set the regular police of the city at defiance, sallied forth, about eleven o’clock, into the streets, then crowded as usual at that festive season, and proceeded with bludgeons to knock down and rob every person of decent appearance who fell in their way – the least symptom on the part of the victims to resist, or protect their property, proving only a provocation to fresh outrages. These desperadoes had full possession of the streets till two in the morning, for the police, who at that period were wretchedly insufficient, were routed and dispersed from the commencement of the murderous riot.

One watchman, who did his duty in a resolute manner, was killed on the spot; a great number of persons were robbed, and a greater number dangerously, some mortally, wounded. When the police recovered from their surprise, assisted by several gentlemen, a number of the rioters were arrested, some with stolen articles in their possession, and the chief ringleaders were soon after discovered and taken into custody.

Four were tried and convicted; and three of these young lads were sentenced to be hanged. The magistrates had them executed on the 22nd of April, 1812, on a gallows erected at the head of the Stamp Office Close, in order to mark more impressively the detestation of their crimes, and because that place had been the chief scene of the bloodshed during the riot.

Old and New Edinburgh, pp.227-234.

   XV. And be it further enacted, That this Act shall commence and take effect on the Twenty-second Day of April One thousand eight hundred and thirty-two.

– Acts Relating to Scotland, William IV., Chapter XXIX.

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