IN the year fifteen hundred and sixteen, Adam Earl of Sutherland, in anticipation of threatened dangers in the north, entered into bonds of friendship and alliance with the earl of Caithness for mutual protection and support. The better to secure the goodwill and assistance of the earl of Caithness, Earl Adam made a grant of some lands upon the east side of the water of Ully; but the earl of Caithness, although he kept possession of the lands, joined the foes of his ally and friend. The earl of Sutherland, however, would have found a more trust-worthy supporter in the person of Y-Roy-Mackay, who had come under a written obligation to serve him, the same year; but Mackay died, and a civil war immediately ensued in Strathnaver, between John and Donald Mackay his bastard sons, and Neill-Naverigh Mackay, brother of Y-Roy, to obtain possession of his lands. John took possession of all the lands belonging to his father in Strathnaver; but his uncle Neill laid claim to them, and applied to the earl of Caithness for assistance to recover them. The earl, after many entreaties, put a force under the command of Neill and his two sons, with which they entered Strathnaver, and obtaining an accession of strength in that country, they dispossessed John Mackay, who immediately went to the Clan Chattan, and Clan Kenzie, to crave their aid and support, leaving his brother Donald Mackay to defend himself in Strathnaver as he best could. Donald not having a sufficient force to meet his uncle and cousins in open combat, had recourse to a stratagem which succeeded entirely to his mind. With his little band he, under cloud of night, surprised his opponents at Delreavigh in Strathnaver, and slew both his cousins and the greater part of their men, and thus he utterly destroyed the issue of Neill. John Mackay, on hearing of this, immediately joined his brother, and drove out of Strathnaver all persons who had favoured the pretensions of his uncle Neill-Naverigh. This unfortunate old man, after being abandoned by the earl of Caithness, threw himself upon the generosity of his nephews, requesting that they would merely allow him a small maintenance to keep him from poverty during the remainder of his life; but these unnatural nephews, regardless of mercy and the ties of blood, ordered Neill to be beheaded in their presence by the hands of Claff-na-Gep, his own foster brother.1
In the year fifteen hundred and seventeen, advantage was taken by John Mackay, of the absence of the earl of Sutherland, who had gone to Edinburgh to transact some business connected with his estates, to invade the province of Sutherland, and to burn and spoil every thing which came in his way. He was assisted in this lawless enterprise by two races of people dwelling in Sutherland, called the Siol-Phaill, and the Siol-Thomais, and by Neil-Mac-lain-Mac-Angus of Assint, and his brother John Mor-Mac-Iain, with some of their countrymen. As soon as the countess of Sutherland, who had remained at home, heard of this invasion, she prevailed upon Alexander Sutherland, her bastard brother, to oppose Mackay. Assisted chiefly by John Murray of Aberscors, and Uilleam Mac-Sheumais-Mhic-Chruner, chief of the Clan Gun in Sutherland, Alexander convened hastily the inhabitants of the country and went in search of the enemy. He met John Mackay and his brother Donald, at a place called Torran-Dubh or Cnocan-Dubb, near Rogart in Strath fleet. Mackay’s force was prodigious, for he had assembled not only the whole strength of Strathnaver, Durines, Edderachilis and Assint, with the Siol-Phaill and Siol-Thomais; but also all the disorderly and idle men of the whole diocess of Caithness, with all such as he could entice to join him from the west and north-west isles, to accompany him in his expedition, buoyed up with the hopes of plunder. But the people of Sutherland were nowise dismayed at the appearance of this formidable host, and made preparations for an attack. A desperate struggle commenced, and after a long contest Mackay’s van-guard was driven back upon the position occupied by himself. Mackay having rallied the retreating party, selected a number of the best and ablest men he could find, and having placed the remainder of his army under the command of his brother, Donald, to act as a reserve in case of necessity, he made a furious attack upon the Sutherland men, who received the enemy with great coolness and intrepidity. The chiefs on both sides encouraged their men to fight for the honour of their clans, and in consequence the fight was severe and bloody; but in the end the Sutherland men, after great slaughter, and after prodigies of valour had been displayed by both parties, obtained the victory. Mackay’s party was almost entirely cut off, and Mackay himself escaped with difficulty. The victors next turned their attention to the reserve under the command of Donald Mackay; but Donald dreading the fate of his brother, fled along with his party, who immediately dispersed themselves. They were, however closely pursued by John Murray and Uilleam Mac-Sheumais, till the darkness of the night prevented the pursuit. In this battle, two hundred of the Strathnaver men, thirty-two of the Siol-Phaill, and fifteen of the Siol-Thomais, besides many of the Assint men, and their commander, Niall-Mac-Iain-Mac-Aonghais, a valiant chieftain, were slain. John Mor-Mac-lain, the brother of this chief, escaped with his life after receiving many wounds. Of the Sutherland men, thirty-eight only were slain. Sir Robert Gordon says that this “was the greatest conflict that hitherto hes been foughtin between the inhabitants of these cuntreyes, or within the diocy of Catteynes, to our knowlege.”2
Shortly after the battle of Torran-Dubh, Uilleam Mac-Sheumais, called Cattigh, chief of the Clan Gun, killed George Keith of Aikregell with his son and twelve of their followers, at Drummoy, in Sutherland, as they were travelling from Inverugie to Caithness. This act was committed by Mac-Sheumais to revenge the slaughter of his grandfather (the Cruner,) who had been slain by the Keiths, under the following circumstances. A long feud had existed between the Keiths and the Clan Gun, to reconcile which, a meeting was appointed at the chapel of St Tayr in Caithness, near Gernigs, of twelve horsemen on each side. The Cruner, then chief of the Clan Gun, with some of his sons and his principal kinsmen, to the number of twelve in whole, came to the chapel at the appointed time. As soon as they arrived, they entered the chapel and prostrated themselves in prayer before the altar. While employed in this devotional act, the laird of Inverugie and Aikregell arrived with twelve horses, and two men on each horse. After dismounting, the whole of this party rushed into the chapel armed, and attacked the Cruner and his party unawares. The Clan Gun, however, defended themselves with great intrepidity, and although the whole twelve were slain, many of the Keiths were also killed. For nearly two centuries the blood of the slain was to be seen on the walls of the chapel which it had stained. James Gun, one of the sons of the Cruner, being absent, immediately on hearing of his father’s death, retired with his family into Sutherland where he settled, and where his son William Mac-Sheumais or Mac-James, otherwise William Cattigh, was born.
As John Mackay imputed his defeat at Torran-Dubh mainly to John Murray of Aberscors, he resolved to take the first convenient opportunity of revenging himself, and wiping off the disgrace of his discomfiture. He, therefore, not being in a condition himself to undertake an expedition, employed two brothers, William and Donald, his kinsmen, chieftains of the Sliochd-Iain-Abaraich, with a company of men to attack Murray. The latter having mustered his forces, the parties met at a place called Loch-Salchie, not far from the Torran-Dubh, where a sharp skirmish took place, in which Murray proved victorious. The two Strathnaver chieftains and the greater part of their men were slain, and the remainder were put to flight. The principal person who fell on Murray’s side was his brother John-Roy, whose loss he deeply deplored.
Exasperated at this second disaster, John Mackay sent John Croy and Donald, two of his nephews, sons of Angus Mackay, who was killed at Morinsh in Ross, at the head of a number of chosen men to plunder and burn the town of Pitfour, in Strathfleet, which belonged to John Murray; but they were equally unsuccessful, for John Croy Mackay, and some of his men were slain by the Murrays, and Donald was taken prisoner. In consequence of these repeated reverses, John Mackay submitted himself to the earl of Sutherland, on his return from Edinburgh, and granted him his bond of service, in the year fifteen hundred and eighteen. But notwithstanding of this submission, Mackay afterwards tampered with Alexander Sutherland, the bastard, and having gained his favour by giving his sister to Sutherland in marriage, he prevailed upon him to raise the standard of insurrection against the earl of Sutherland. All these commotions in the north happened during the minority of King James V., when, as Sir R. Gordon says, “everie man thought to escape unpunished, and cheiflie these who were remotest from the seat of justice.”3
This Alexander Sutherland was son of John, the third of that name, Earl of Sutherland, and as he pretended that the Earl and his mother had entered into a contract of marriage, he laid claim, on the death of the earl, to the title and estates, as a legitimate descendant of Earl John, his father. By the entreaties of Adam Gordon, Lord of Aboyne, who had married Lady Elizabeth, the sister and sole heiress of Earl John, Alexander Sutherland judicially renounced his claim in presence of the Sheriff of Inverness, on the twenty-fifth day of July, fifteen hundred and nine. He now repented of what he had done, and being instigated by the earl of Caithness and John Mackay, mortal foes to the house of Sutherland, he renewed his pretensions. Earl Adam, perceiving that he might incur some danger in making an appeal to arms, particularly, as the clans and tribes of the country, with many of whom Alexander had become very popular, were broken into factions and much divided on the question betwixt him and Alexander Sutherland, endeavoured to win him over by offering him many favourable conditions, again to renounce his claims; but in vain. He maintained the legitimacy of his descent, and alleged that the renunciation he had granted at Inverness, had been obtained from him contrary to his inclination, and against the advice of his best friends.
Having collected a considerable force, he, in absence of the earl, who was in Strathbogy, attacked Dunrobin castle, the chief strength of the earl, which he took. In this siege he was chiefly supported by Alexander Terrell of the Doill, who in consequence of taking arms against the earl, his superior, lost all his lands, and was afterwards apprehended and executed. As soon as the earl heard of the insurrection, he despatched Alexander Lesley of Kinninuvy, with a body of men into Sutherland, to assist John Murray of Aberscors, who was already at the head of a force to support the earl. They immediately besieged Dunrobin, which surrendered. Alexander had retired to Strathnaver; but he again returned into Sutherland with a fresh body of men, and laid waste the country. After putting to death several of his own kinsmen who had joined the earl, he descended farther into the country, towards the parishes of Loth and Clyne. Meeting with little or no opposition, the bastard grew careless, and being observed wandering along the Sutherland coast, flushed with success and regardless of danger, the earl formed the design of cutting him entirely off. With this view he directed Alexander Lesley of Kinninuvy, John Murray, and John Scorrigh-Mac-Finlay, one of the Siol-Thomais, to hover on Sutherland’s outskirts, and to keep skirmishing with him till he, the earl, should collect a sufficient force, with which to attack him. Having collected a considerable body of resolute men, the earl attacked the bastard at a place called Ald-Quhillin, by East Clentredaill, near the sea side. A warm contest ensued, in which Alexander Sutherland was taken prisoner, and the most of his men were slain, including John Bane one of his principal supporters, who fell by the hands of John Scorrigh-Mac-Finlay. After the battle Sutherland was immediately beheaded by Alexander Lesley on the spot, and his head sent to Dunrobin on a spear, which was placed upon the top of the great tower, “which shews us (as Sir Robert Gordon, following the superstition of his times, curiously observes,) that whatsoever by fate is allotted, though sometymes forshewed, can never be avoyded. For the witches had told Alexander the bastard, that his head should be the highest that ever wes of the Southerlands; which he did foolishlye interpret that some day he should be earl of Southerland, and in honor above all his predicessors. Thus the divell and his ministers, the witches, deceaving still such as trust in them, will either find or frame predictions for everie action or event, which doeth ever fall out contrarie to ther expectations: a kynd of people to all men unfaithfull, to hopers deceatful, and in all cuntries allwise forbidden, allwise reteaned and manteaned.”4
The earl of Sutherland being now far advanced in life, retired for the most part to Strathbogy and Aboyne to spend the remainder of his days amongst his friends, and intrusted the charge of the country to Alexander Gordon, his eldest son, a young man of great intrepidity and talent. The restless chief, John Mackay, still smarting under his misfortunes, and thirsting for revenge, thought the present a favourable opportunity for retrieving his losses. With a considerable force, therefore, he invaded Sutherland, and entered the parish of Creigh, which he intended to ravage, but the Master of Sutherland hastened thither, attacked Mackay, and forced him to retreat into Strathnaver with some loss. Mackay then assembled a large body of his countrymen and invaded the Breachat. He was again defeated by Alexander Gordon at the Grinds after a keen skirmish. Hitherto Mackay had been allowed to hold the lands of Grinds, and some other possessions in the west part of Sutherland, but the Master of Sutherland now dispossessed him of all these as a punishment for his recent conduct. Still dreading a renewal of Mackay’s visits, the Master of Sutherland resolved to retaliate, by invading Strathnaver in return, and thereby showing Mackay what he might in future expect if he persevered in continuing his visits to Sutherland. Accordingly, he collected a body of stout and resolute men, and entered Strathnaver, which he pillaged and burnt, and, having collected a large quantity of booty, returned into Sutherland. In entering Strathnaver, the Master of Sutherland had taken the road to Strathully, passing through Mackay’s bounds in the hope of falling in with and apprehending him, but Mackay was absent on a Creach excursion into Sutherland. In returning, however, through the Diric Muir and the Breachat, Alexander Gordon received intelligence that Mackay with a company of men was in the town of Lairg, with a quantity of cattle he had collected in Sutherland, on his way home to Strathnaver. He lost no time in attacking Mackay, and such was the celerity of his motions, that his attack was as sudden as unexpected. Mackay made the best resistance he could, but was put to the rout, and many of his men were killed. He himself made his escape with great difficulty, and saved his life by swimming to the island of Eilean-Minric, near Lairg, where he lay concealed during the rest of the day. All the cattle which Mackay had carried away were rescued and carried back into Sutherland. The following day Mackay left the island, returned home to his country, and again submitted himself to the Master and his father, the earl, to whom he a second time gave his bond of service and manrent in the year fifteen hundred and twenty-two.5
As the earl of Caithness had always taken a side against the Sutherland family in these different quarrels, the earl of Sutherland brought an action before the Lords of Council and Session against the earl of Caithness to recover back from him the lands of Strathully, on the ground, that the earl of Caithness had not fulfilled the condition on which the lands were granted to him, viz. to assist the earl of Sutherland against his enemies. There were other minor points of dispute between the earls, to get all which determined they both repaired to Edinburgh. Instead, however, of abiding the issue of a trial at law before the judges, both parties, by the advice of mutual friends, referred the decision of all the points in dispute on either side to Gavin Dunbar,6 bishop of Aberdeen, who pronounced his award, at Edinburgh, on the eleventh day of March fifteen hundred and twenty-four, which put an end to all controversies, and made the earls live in peace with one another ever after.
The year fifteen hundred and twenty-six was signalized by a great dissension among the Clan Chattan. The chief and head of that clan was Lauchlan Mackintosh of Dunnachtan, “a verrie honest and wyse gentleman (says Bishop Lesley), an barroun of gude rent, quha keipit hes hole ken, friendes and tennentis in honest and guid rewll;”7 and according to Sir Robert Gordon, “a man of great possessions, and of such excellencies of witt and judgement, that with great commendation he did conteyn all his followers within the limits of ther dueties.”8 The strictness with which this worthy chief curbed the lawless and turbulent dispositions of his clan raised up many enemies, who, as Bishop Lesley says, were “impacient of vertuous living.” At the head of this restless party was James Malcolmeson, a near kinsman of the chief, who instigated by his worthless companions, and the temptation of ruling the clan, murdered the good chief. Afraid to face the better part of the clan, to whom the chief was beloved, Malcolmeson, along with his followers, took refuge in the island in the loch of Rothiemurcus; but the enraged clan followed them to their hiding places and despatched them.
As the son of the deceased chief was of tender age, and unable to govern the clan, with common consent they made choice of Hector Mackintosh, a bastard brother of the late chief, to act as captain till his nephew should arrive at manhood. In the meantime, the earl of Moray, who was uncle to young Mackintosh, the former chief having been married to the earl’s sister, took away his nephew and placed him under the care of his friends for the benefit of his education, and to bring him up virtuously. Hector Mackintosh was greatly incensed at the removal of the child, and used every effort to get possession of him; but meeting with a refusal he became outrageous, and laid so many plans for accomplishing his object, that his intentions became suspected, as it was thought he could not wish so ardently for the custody of the child without some bad design. Baffled in every attempt, Hector, assisted by his brother William, collected a body of their followers and invaded the earl of Moray’s lands. They overthrew the fort of Dykes and besieged the castle of Tarnoway, the country surrounding which they plundered, burnt the houses of the inhabitants, and slew a number of men, women, and children. Raising the siege of Tarnoway, Hector and his men then entered the country of the Ogilvies and laid siege to the castle of Pettens, which belonged to the laird of Durnens, one of the families of the Ogilvies, and which, after some resistance, surrendered. No less than twenty-four gentlemen of the name of Ogilvie were massacred on this occasion. After this event, the Mackintoshes and the party of banditti they had collected, roamed over the whole of the adjoining country, carrying terror and dismay into every bosom, and plundering, burning, and destroying every thing within their reach. To repress disorders which called so loudly for redress, King James V., by the advice of his council, granted a commission to the earl of Moray to take measures accordingly. Having a considerable force put under his command, the earl went in pursuit of Mackintosh and his party, and having surprised them, he took upwards of three hundred9 of them and hanged them, along with William Mackintosh, the brother of Hector. William’s head was fixed upon a pole at Dykes, and his body was quartered, the four quarters of which were sent to Elgin, Forres, Aberdeen, and Inverness, for public exposure to deter others from following his example. A singular instance of the fidelity of the Highlanders to their chiefs is afforded in the present case, where out of such a vast number as suffered, not one would reveal the secret of Hector Mackintosh’s retreat, although promised their lives for the discovery “Ther faith wes so true to ther captane, that they culd not be persuaded, either by fair meanes, or by any terror of death, to break the same or to betray their master.”10
Seeing no hopes of escaping the royal vengeance but by a ready submission, Hector Mackintosh, by advice of Alexander Dunbar, Dean of Moray, tendered his obedience to the king, which was accepted of, and he was received into the royal favour. He did not, however, long survive, for he was assassinated in St Andrews by one James Spence, who was in consequence beheaded. After the death of Hector, the Clan Chattan remained tranquil during the remaining years of the minority of the young chief, who, according to Bishop Lesley, “wes sua well brocht up by the meenes of the erle of Murray and the laird of Phindlater in vertue, honestie, and civile policye, that after he had received the governement of his cuntrey, he was a mirrour of vertue to all the hieland captanis in Scotland.”11 But the young chieftain’s “honestie and civile policye” not suiting the ideas of those who had concurred in the murder of his father, a conspiracy was formed against him by some of his nearest kinsmen to deprive him of his life, which unfortunately took effect.
The Highlands now enjoyed repose for some years. John Mackay died in fifteen hundred and twenty-nine, and was succeeded by his brother, Donald, who remained quiet during the life of Adam, Earl of Sutherland, to whom his brother had twice granted his bond of service. But, upon the death of that nobleman, he began to molest the inhabitants of Sutherland. In fifteen hundred and forty-two, he attacked the village of Knockartol, which he burnt; and at the same time he plundered Strathbroray. To oppose his farther progress, Sir Hugh Kennedy collected as many of the inhabitants of Sutherland as the shortness of the time would permit; and, being accompanied by Gilbert Gordon of Gartay, John Murray of Aberscors, his son Hutcheon Murray, and Mac-Mhic-Sheumais of Killiernan, he attacked Mackay, quite unawares, near Alt-Na-Beth. Notwithstanding this unexpected attack, Mackay’s men met their assailants with great firmness, but the Strathnaver men were ultimately obliged to retreat with the loss of their booty, and a great number of slain, amongst whom was John Mackean-Mac-Angus, chief of Sliochd-Mhic-Iain-Mhic-Hutcheon, in Edderachilis. Donald Mackay was closely pursued, but he retreated with great skill, and, in the course of his retreat, killed William Macwilliam, who pressed hard upon him, with his own hands. Though closely pressed by Gilbert Gordon and Hutcheon Murray, he made good his retreat into Strathnaver.
By no means disheartened at his defeat, and anxious to blot out the stain which it had thrown upon him, he soon returned into Sutherland with a fresh force, and encamped near Skibo. Hutcheon Murray collected some Sutherland men, and with them he attacked Mackay, and kept him in check till an additional force, which he expected, should arrive. As soon as Mackay saw this new body of men approaching, with which he was quite unable to contend, he retreated suddenly into his own country, leaving several of his men dead on the field. This affair was called the skirmish Loch-Buy. This mode of annoyance, which continued for some time, was put an end to by the apprehension of Donald Mackay, who being brought before the earls of Huntly and Sutherland, was, by their command, committed a close prisoner to the castle of Foulis, where he remained a considerable time in captivity. At last, by means of Donald Mac-Iain-Mhoir, a Strathnaver man, he effected his escape, and, returning home, reconciled himself with the earl of Sutherland, to whom he gave his bond of service and manrent, on the eighth day of April, fifteen hundred and forty-nine.
During the reign of James V., some respect was paid in the Highlands to the laws; but the divisions which fell out amongst the nobility, the unquiet state of the nation during the minority of the infant queen, and the wars with England, relaxed the springs of government, and the consequence was, that the usual scenes of turbulence and oppression soon displayed themselves in the Highlands, accompanied with all those circumstances of ferocity, which rendered them so revolting to humanity. The Clanranald was particularly active in these lawless proceedings. This clan bore great enmity to Hugh, Lord Lovat; and because Ranald, son of Donald Glass of Moidart, was sister’s son of Lovat, they conceived a prejudice against him, dispossessed him of his lands, and put John Macranald, his cousin, in possession of the estate. Lovat took up the cause of his nephew, and restored him to the possession of his property; but the restless clan dispossessed Ranald again, and laid waste a part of Lovat’s lands in Glenelg. These disorders did not escape the notice of the earl of Arran, the governor of the kingdom, who, by advice of his council, granted an especial commission to the earl of Huntly, making him lieutenant-general of all the Highlands, and of Orkney and Zetland. He also appointed the earl of Argyle, lieutenant of Argyle and the Isles. The earl of Huntly lost no time in raising a large army in the north, with which he marched, in May fifteen hundred and forty-four, attended by the Mackintoshes, Grants, and Frasers, against the clan Cameron and the clan Ranald, and the people of Moydart and Knoydart, whose principal captains were Ewen Allenson, Ronald McConeilglas, and John Moydart. These had wasted and plundered the whole country of Urquhart and Glenmorriston, belonging to the laird of Grant, and the country of Abertarf, Strathglas, and others, the property of Lord Lovat. They had also taken absolute possession of these different territories, as their own properties, which they intended to possess and enjoy in all time coming. But, by the mediation of the earl of Argyle, they immediately dislodged themselves upon the earl of Huntly’s appearance, and retired to their own territories in the west. On restoring Ranald to his possession, and clearing the lands of Lord Lovat and the laird of Grant, of the intruders, the earl returned to the low country with his army.
In returning to his own country, Lovat was accompanied by the Grants and Mackintoshes as far as Gloy, afterwards called the Nine-Mile-Water, and they even offered to escort him home in case of danger; but, having no apprehensions, he declined, and they returned home by Badenoch. This was a fatal error on the part of Lovat, for as soon as he arrived at Letterfinlay, he was informed that the Clanranald were at hand, in full march, to intercept him. To secure an important pass, he despatched Iain-Cleireach, one of his principal officers, with fifty men; but, from some cause or other, Iain-Cleireach did not accomplish his object; and as soon as Lovat came to the north end of Loch Lochy, he perceived the Clanranald descending the hill from the west, to the number of about five hundred, divided into seven companies. Lovat was thus placed in a position in which he could neither refuse nor avoid battle. The day, (3d July,) being extremely hot, Lovat’s men, who amounted to about three hundred, stript to the shirts, from which circumstance, the battle was called Blar-Nan-Leine, i.e. the Field of Shirts. A sort of skirmishing warfare at first took place, first with bows and arrows, which lasted a considerable time, until both sides had expended their shafts. The combatants then drew their swords, and rushed on each other with fierce and deadly intent. The slaughter was tremendous, and few escaped on either side. Lord Lovat with three hundred of the surname of Fraser, and other followers, were left dead on the field. Lovat’s eldest son, a youth of great accomplishments, who had received his education in France, from whence he had lately arrived, was mortally wounded, and taken prisoner. He died within three days. Great as was the loss on the side of the Frasers, that on the opposite side was comparatively still greater. According to a tradition handed down, only four of the Frasers, and ten of the Clanranald, remained alive. The darkness of the night alone put an end to the combat. This was an unfortunate blow to the Clanfraser, which would have been almost entirely annihilated; but, for the happy circumstance, as reported, that the wives of eighty of the Frasers, who were slain, were pregnant at the time, and were each of them afterwards delivered of a male child.12
As soon as intelligence of this disaster was brought to the earl of Huntly, he again returned with an army, entered Lochaber, which he laid waste, and apprehended many of the leading men of the hostile tribes, whom he put to death. The two principal ringleaders, Ewen Allensone, or Ewin-Mac-Allan, and Ronald McConeilglase, or Reynald-Mac-Donald-Glas, as they are respectively named by Bishop Lesley and Sir Robert Gordon, having concealed themselves, the earl compelled their people to give up these chieftains, and other leading men of the tribes to him. These he carried with him to Perth, where, after being detained as prisoners a considerable time, they were brought to trial in presence of the principal nobles and barons of the north of Scotland, condemned and executed. The two chiefs were beheaded, and, as a terror to others, their heads were placed on the gates of the town. John Moidart, on hearing the fate of his lawless companions, fled into the isles, where he remained for some time.
In consequence of a charge made against Andrew Stuart, Bishop of Caithness, of having instigated the clan Gun to the murder of the laird of Duffus in Thurso, the bishop retired from his charge, and afterwards went into banishment in England. During the vacancy in the diocese, the earl of Caithness and Donald Mackay, taking advantage of the civil dissentions of the state, took possession of the bishop’s lands, and levied the rents for the behoof, as they pretended, of the expatriated bishop. Mackay took possession of the castle of Skibo, one of the bishop’s palaces, which he fortified, and placed under the charge of Neill-Mac-William. The earl of Caithness, at the same time, possessed himself of the castle of Strabister, another residence of the bishop. But, upon the restoration of the bishop, both the earl and Mackay absolutely refused to surrender to him these, or any other parts of his possessions, or to account to him for the rents they had received in his name. The earls of Huntly and Sutherland, who were in Edinburgh at the time, hearing of this refusal, appointed captain James Cullen, an experienced naval and military officer, to go before them into Sutherland, and ascertain the exact state of matters. The people of the country, who were favourable to the bishop’s claims, immediately assembled on the arrival of Cullen at Dornoch, with a resolution to besiege the castle of Skibo. But the Strathnaver men, who kept possession, hearing of their approach, were afraid to stand a siege, and withdrew privately from the castle, and went home to Strathnaver; but, being closely pursued, some of them were cut off. On the return of the earls of Huntly and Suther land to the north, they summoned the earl of Caithness and Mackay to appear before them at Helmsdale, to answer for their intromissions with the bishop’s rents, and for the wrongs they had done. The earl of Caithness immediately obeyed the call, and although the river of Helmsdale was greatly swollen by recent heavy rains, he, in order to show his ready submission, crossed it on foot, to the great danger of his life, as the water was as high as his breast. Having made a final and satisfactory arrangement, the earl returned into Caithness. Mackay was forced to appear with great unwillingness; and, although he was pardoned, the earls committed him a prisoner to the castle of Foulis.13
The great power conferred on the earl of Huntly, as Lieutenant General in the north of Scotland, and the promptitude and severity with which he put down the insurrections of some of the chiefs alluded to, raised up many enemies against him. As he in company with the earl of Sutherland was about to proceed to France for the purpose of conveying the queen regent to that country, in the year fifteen hundred and fifty, a conspiracy was formed against him, at the head of which was Mackintosh, chief of the Clan Chattan. This conspiracy being discovered to the earl, he ordered Mackintosh to be immediately apprehended and brought to Strathbogie, where he was beheaded in the month of August of that year. His lands were also forfeited at the same time. This summary proceeding excited the sympathy and roused the indignation of the friends of the deceased chief, particularly of the earl of Cassillis. A commotion was about to ensue, but matters were adjusted, for a time, by the prudence of the queen regent, who recalled the act of forfeiture and restored Mackintosh’s heir to all his father’s lands. But the Clan Chattan was determined to avail themselves of the first favourable opportunity of being revenged upon the earl, which they, therefore, anxiously looked for. As Lauchlan Mackintosh, a near kins man of the chief, was suspected of having betrayed his chief to the earl, the clan entered his castle of Pettie by stealth, slew him and banished all his dependants from the country of the clan.
About the same time the province of Sutherland again became the scene of some commotions. The earl having occasion to leave home, intrusted the government of the country to Alexander Gordon, his brother, who ruled it with great justice and severity; but the people, disliking the restraints put upon them by Alexander, created a tumult, and placed John Sutherland, son of Alexander Sutherland, the bastard, at their head. Seizing the favourable opportunity, as it appeared to them, when Alexander Gordon was attending divine service in the church at Golspikirktoun, they proceeded to attack him, but receiving notice of their intentions, he collected the little company he had about him, and went out of church resolutely to meet them. Alarmed at seeing him and his party approach, the people immediately dispersed and returned every man to his own house. But William Murray, son of Caen Murray, one of the family of Pulrossie, indignant at the affront offered to Alexander Gordon, shortly afterwards killed John Sutherland upon the Nether Green of Dunrobin at the west corner of the garden, in revenge for which murder William Murray was himself thereafter slain by the Laird of Clyne.
The Mackays also took advantage of the earl of Sutherland’s absence, to plunder and lay waste the country. Y-Mackay, son of Donald, assembled the Strathnaver men and entered Sutherland, but Alexander Gordon forced him back into Strathnaver, and not content with acting on the defensive, he entered Mackay’s country, which he wasted, and carried off a large booty in goods and cattle, in the year fifteen hundred and fifty-one. Mackay, in his turn, retaliated, and this system of mutual aggression and spoliation continued for several years.14
During the absence of the earl of Huntly in France, John of Moydart, chief of the Clanranald, returned from the isles and recommenced his usual course of rapine. The queen regent, on her return from France, being invested with full authority, sent the earl of Huntly on an expedition to the north, for the purpose of apprehending Clanranald and putting an end to his outrages. The Earl having mustered a considerable force, chiefly Highlanders and of the Clan Chattan, passed into Moydart and Knoydart, but his operations were paralyzed by disputes in his camp. The chief and his men having abandoned their own country, the earl proposed to pursue them in their retreats among the fastnesses of the Highlands; but his principal officers, who were chiefly from the Lowlands, unaccustomed to such a mode of warfare in such a country, demurred; and as the earl was afraid to entrust himself with the Clan Chattan, who owed him a deep grudge on account of the execution of their last chief, he abandoned the enterprize and returned to the low country. Sir Robert Gordon says that the failure of the expedition was owing to a tumult raised in the earl’s camp by the Clan Chattan, who returned home; but we are rather disposed to consider Bishop Lesley’s account, which we have followed, as the most correct.15
The failure of this expedition gave great offence to the queen, who, instigated it is supposed by Huntly’s enemies, attributed it to negligence on his part. The consequence was, that the earl was committed a prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh in the month of October, where he remained till the month of March following. He was compelled to renounce the earldom of Moray and the lordship of Abernethy, with his tacks and possessions in Orkney and Zetland, and the tacks of the lands of the earldom of Mar and of the lordship of Strathdie, of which he was bailie and steward, and he was moreover condemned to a banishment of five years in France. But as he was about to leave the kingdom, the Queen, taking a more favourable view of his conduct, recalled the sentence of banishment, and restored him to the office of Chancellor, of which he had been deprived; and to make this act of leniency somewhat palatable to the earl’s enemies, the queen exacted a heavy pecuniary fine from the earl.
As the Highlands still continued in a state of misrule, principally owing to the conduct of John of Moidart, the queen sent the earl of Athole to the Highlands, the following year, with a special commission to apprehend this turbulent chief; and he succeeded so well by negotiation as to prevail upon John, two of his sons, and some of his kinsmen, to submit themselves to the queen, who pardoned them, but ordered them to be detained prisoners in the castle of Methven where they were well treated. Disliking such restraint, they effected their escape into their own country privately, where they again began their usual restless course of life.
The great disorders which prevailed in the Highlands at this time, induced the queen-regent to undertake a journey thither in order to punish these breaches of the law, and to repress existing tumults. She accordingly arrived at Inverness in the month of July, fifteen hundred and fifty-five, where she was met by John, Earl of Sutherland, and George, Earl of Caithness. Although the latter nobleman was requested to bring his countrymen along with him to the court, he neglected or declined to do so, and he was therefore committed to prison at Inverness, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh, successively, and he was not restored to liberty till he paid a considerable sum of money. Y-Mackay of Far, was also summoned to appear before the queen at Inverness, to answer for his spoliations committed in the country of Sutherland during the absence of Earl John in France; but he refused to appear. Whereupon the queen granted a commission to the earl of Sutherland, to bring Mackay to justice. The earl accordingly entered Strathnaver with a great force, sacking and spoiling every thing in his way, and possessing himself of all the principal positions to prevent Mackay’s escape. Mackay, however, avoided the earl, and as he declined to fight, the earl laid siege to the castle of Borwe, the principal strength in Strathnaver, scarcely two miles distant from Far, which he took after a short siege, and hanged Ruaridh-Mac-lain-Mhoir, the commander. This fort the earl completely demolished.
While the earl of Sutherland was engaged in the siege, Mackay entered Sutherland secretly, and burnt the church of Loth. He thereafter went to the village of Knockartoll, where he met Mackenzie and his countrymen in Strathbroray. A slight skirmish took place between them; but Mackay and his men fled after he had lost Angus-Mackeanvoir one of his commanders, and several of his followers. Mackenzie was thereupon appointed by the earl to protect Sutherland from the incursions of Mackay during his stay in Strathnaver. Having been defeated again by Mackenzie, and seeing no chance of escape, Mackay surrendered himself, and was carried south, and committed a prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh, in which he remained a considerable time. During the queen’s stay in the north, many notorious delinquents were brought to trial, condemned and executed.
During Mackay’s detention in Edinburgh, John Mor-Mackay, who took charge of his kinsman’s estate, seizing the opportunity of the earl of Sutherland’s absence in the south of Scotland, entered Sutherland at the head of a determined body of Strathnaver men, and spoiled and wasted the east corner of that province, and burnt the chapel of St Ninian. Mac-Mhic-Sheumais, chief of the Clan-Gun, the laird of Clyne, the Terrell of the Doill, and James Mac-William having collected a body of Sutherland men, pursued the Strathnaver men, whom they overtook the foot of the hill called Ben-Moir in Berridell. Here they laid an ambush for them, and having, by favour of a fog, passed their sentinels, they unexpectedly surprised Mackay’s men, and attacked them with great fury. The Strathnaver men made an obstinate resistance, but were at length overpowered. Many of them were killed, and others drowned in the water of Garwary. Mackay himself escaped with great difficulty. This was one of the severest defeats the Strathnaver men ever experienced, except at the battle of Knoken-dow-Reywird.
On the release of Mackay from his confinement in the castle of Edinburgh, he was employed in the wars upon the borders, against the English, in which he acquitted himself courageously; and on his return to Strathnaver he submitted himself to the earl of Sutherland, with whom he lived in peace during the remainder of the earl’s life. But Mackay incurred the just displeasure of the tribe of Slaight-ean-Voir by the committal of two crimes of the deepest dye. Having imbibed a violent affection for the wife of Tormaid-Mac-lain-Mhoir, the chieftair of that tribe, he, in order to accomplish his object, slew the chief, after which he violated his wife, by whom he had a son called Donald Balloch Mackay. The insulted clan flew to arms; but they were defeated at Durines, by the murderer and adulterer, after a sharp skirmish. Three of the principal men of the tribe who had given themselves up, trusting to Mackay’s clemency, were beheaded.16
In the year fifteen hundred and sixty-one, several petty feuds occurred in Sutherland and Caithness. Hugh Murray, of Aberscors, killed Imhear-Mac-lain-Mhic-Thomais, a gentleman of the Siol-Thomais, for which act he incurred the displeasure of the earl of Sutherland. Murray thereupon fled into Caithness, and sought the protection of the earl of Caithness. Houcheon Murray, the father of Hugh, being suspected by the earl of Sutherland as having been privy to the murder, was apprehended and imprisoned in Dunrobin castle; but after a slight confinement he was released as innocent, and by his mediation his son Hugh was restored to the favour of the earl. No reconciliation, however, took place between the Murrays and the Siol-Thomais, who continued for a long period at variance. About the same time, William and Angus Sutherland, and the other Sutherlands of Berridale, killed several of the earl of Caithness’ people, and wasted the lands of the Clynes in that country. For these acts they were banished by the earl from Caithness; but they again returned, and being assisted by Hugh Murray of Aberscors, they took the castle of Berridale, laid waste the country, and molested the people of Caithness with their incursions. By the mediation of the earl of Sutherland, William and Angus Sutherland, and their accomplices obtained a pardon from Queen Mary, which so exasperated the earl of Caithness, that he imbibed a mortal hatred not only against the earl of Sutherland, but also against the Murrays, and all the inhabitants of Sutherland.17
Amongst the many acts which disgrace the memory of James, Earl of Moray, the bastard brother of queen Mary, the murder of Alexander Gun, son of John Robson, chief of the Clan-Gun, in the year fifteen hundred and sixty-five, must not be overlooked. The cause of the earl’s antipathy was this:- On one occasion, the earls of Sutherland and Huntly happened to meet the earl of Moray directly in the face on the high street of Aberdeen. Alexander Gun was then in the service of the earl of Sutherland, and as he was walking in front of his master, he declined to give the earl of Moray any part of the height of the street, and forced him and his company to give way. As he considered this to be a deadly affront put upon him, he resolved upon revenge, and seizing the opportunity of the earl of Sutherland’s absence in Flanders, he, by means of Andrew Monroe of Miltoun, entrapped Gun, and made him a prisoner at the Delvines, near the town of Nairn, from whence he was taken to Inverness, and after a mock-trial, was executed. Alexander Gun is reported to have been a very able and strong man, endowed with many good qualities.18
George, earl of Caithness, who had long borne a mortal hatred to John, earl of Sutherland, now projected a scheme for cutting him off, as well as his countess, who was big with child, and their only son, Alexander Gordon; the earl and countess were accordingly both poisoned at Helmsdale while at supper by Isobel Sinclair, wife of Gilbert Gordon of Gartay, and sister of William Sinclair of Dumbaith, instigated, it is said, by the earl; but their son, Alexander, made a very narrow escape, not having returned in time from a hunting excursion, to join his father and mother at supper. On Alexander’s return the earl had become fully aware of the danger of his situation, and he was thus prevented by his father from participating in any part of the supper which remained, and after taking an affectionate and parting farewell, and recommending him to the protection of God and of his dearest friends, he sent him to Dunrobin the same night without his supper. The earl and his lady were carried next morning to Dunrobin, where they died within five days thereafter, in the month of July, fifteen hundred and sixty-seven, and were buried in the cathedral church at Dornoch. Pretending to cover himself from the imputation of being concerned in this murder, the earl of Caithness punished some of the earl’s most faithful servants under the colour of avenging his death; but the deceased earl’s friends being determined to obtain justice, apprehended Isobel Sinclair, and sent her to Edinburgh to stand her trial, where, after being tried and condemned, she died on the day appointed for her execution. During all the time of her illness she vented the most dreadful imprecations upon her cousin, the earl, who had seduced her to commit the horrid act. Had this woman succeeded in cutting off the earl’s son, her own eldest son, John Gordon, but for the extraordinary circumstances of his death to be noticed, would have succeeded to the earldom, as he was the next male heir. This youth happening to be in the house when his mother had prepared the poison, became extremely thirsty, and called for a drink. One of his mother’s servants, not aware of the preparation, presented to the youth a portion of the liquid into which the poison had been infused, which he drank. This occasioned his death within two days, a circumstance which, together with the appearances of the body after death, gave a clue to the discovery of his mother’s guilt.19
Taking advantage of the calamity which had befallen the house of Sutherland, and the minority of the young earl, now only fifteen years of age, Y-Mackay of Far, who had formed an alliance with the earl of Caithness, invaded the country of Sutherland, wasted the barony of Skibo, entered the town of Dornoch, and, upon the pretence of a quarrel with the Murrays, by whom it was chiefly inhabited, set fire to it, in which outrage he was assisted by the laird of Duffus. This happened in the year fifteen hundred and sixty-seven. These measures were only preliminary to a design which the earl of Caithness had formed to get the earl of Sutherland into his hands, but he had the cunning to conceal his intentions in the meantime, and to instigate Mackay to act as he wished without appearing to be in any way concerned.
In pursuance of his design upon Alexander, the young earl of Sutherland, the earl of Caithness prevailed upon Robert Stuart, bishop of Caithness, to write a letter to the governor of the castle of Skibo, in which the earl of Sutherland resided, to deliver up the castle to him; a request with which the governor complied. Having taken possession of the castle, the earl carried off the young man into Caithness, and although only fifteen years of age, he got him married to Lady Barbara Sinclair, his daughter, then aged thirty-two years. Y-Mackay was the paramour of this lady, and for continuing the connexion with him she was afterwards divorced by her husband.
After Y-Mackay had burned Dornoch, he made an attack upon Hugh Murray, son of Houcheon Murray of Aberscors, in the village of Pitfur in Strathfleet, took him prisoner, and killed his brother, Donald Roy-Murray, and a kinsman named Thomas Murray. A few of the inhabitants of Sutherland went in pursuit of Mackay, whom they over took in the Breachat; but Houcheon Murray prevented them from attacking him, as he was afraid that his son, then a prisoner in Mackay’s hands, would be killed by the Strathnaver men to prevent a rescue. With a few words of defiance, and some arrows discharged on either side, according to the ordinary custom of commencing skirmishes, the matter ended, and the Sutherland men returned to their homes. The interference of Houcheon Murray was certainly judicious, for Mackay delivered up his son after a short captivity. As the tribe of the Siol-Phaill had been the cause of the dissension between Mackay and the Murrays, a feud occurred on the release of Hugh between the Murrays and the Siol-Phaill, in which lives were sacrificed on both sides, and which continued till a reconciliation was effected by the earl of Sutherland on coming of age.20
The earl of Caithness having succeeded in his wishes in obtaining possession of the earl of Sutherland, entered the earl’s country, and took possession of Dunrobin castle, in which he fixed his residence. He also brought the earl of Sutherland along with him, but he treated him meanly, and he burnt all the papers belonging to the house of Sutherland he could lay his hands on. Cruel and avaricious, he, under the pretence of vindicating the law for imaginary crimes, expelled many of the ancient families in Sutherland from that country, put many of the inhabitants to death, disabled those he banished, in their persons, by new and unheard of modes of torture, and stripped them of all their wealth. To be suspected of favouring the house of Sutherland, and to be wealthy, were deemed capital crimes by this oppressor.
As the earl of Sutherland did not live on friendly terms with his wife on account of her licentious connexion with Mackay, and as there appeared no chance of any issue, the earl of Caithness formed the base design of cutting off the earl of Sutherland, and marrying William Sinclair, his second son, to Lady Margaret Gordon, the eldest sister of the earl of Sutherland, whom he had also gotten into his hands, with the view of making William earl of Sutherland. The better to conceal his intentions the earl of Caithness made a journey south to Edinburgh, and gave the necessary instructions to those in his confidence to despatch the earl of Sutherland; but some of his trusty friends having received private intelligence of the designs of the earl of Caithness from some persons who were privy thereto, they instantly set about measures for defeating them by getting possession of the earl of Sutherland’s person. Accordingly, under cloud of night, they came quietly to the burn of Golspie, in the vicinity of Dunrobin, where, concealing themselves to prevent discovery, they sent Alexander Gordon of Sidderay to the castle, disguised as a pedler, for the purpose of warning the earl of Sutherland of the danger of his situation, and devising means of escape. Being made acquainted with the design upon his life, and the plans of his friends for rescuing him, the earl, early the following morning, proposed to the residents in the castle, under whose charge he was, to accompany him on a small excursion in the neighbourhood. This proposal seemed so reasonable in itself, that, although he was perpetually watched by the earl of Caithness’ servants, and his liberty greatly restrained, they at once agreed; and, going out, the earl being aware of the ambush laid by his friends, led his keepers directly into the snare before they were aware of danger. The earl’s friends thereupon rushed from their hiding-place, and seizing him, conveyed him safely out of the country of Sutherland to Strathbogie in the year fifteen hundred and sixty-nine. As soon as the earl of Caithness’ retainers heard of the escape of earl Alexander, they collected a party of men favourable to their interests, and went in hot pursuit of him as far as Port-ne-Coulter: but they found that the earl and his friends had just crossed the ferry. In the act of crossing they were overtaken by a great tempest which suddenly arose, and made a very narrow escape from drowning.21
Shortly after this affair a quarrel ensued between the Monroes and the Clan Kenzie, two very powerful Rosshire clans which happened thus: Lesley, the celebrated Bishop of Ross, had made over to his cousin, the Laird of Balquhain, the right and title of the castle of the Canonry of Ross, together with the castle lands. Notwithstanding of this grant, the Regent Murray, had given the custody of this castle to Andrew Monroe of Milntown; and to make Lesley bear with the loss, the Regent promised him some of the lands of the Barony of Fintry in Buchan, but on condition that he should cede to Monroe the castle and castle lands of the Canonry; but the untimely and unexpected death of the Regent interrupted this arrangement, and Andrew Monroe did not, of course, obtain the title to the castle and castle lands as he expected. Yet Monroe had the address to obtain permission from the earl of Lennox during his regency, and afterwards from the earl of Mar, his successor in that office, to get possession of the castle. The Clan Kenzie grudging to see Monroe in possession, and being desirous to get hold of the castle themselves, they purchased Lesley’s right, and, by virtue thereof, demanded delivery of the castle. Monroe refused to accede to this demand, on which the clan laid siege to the castle; but Monroe defended it for three years at the expense of many lives on both sides. It was then delivered up to the Clan Kenzie under the act of pacification.22
No attempt was made by the earl of Sutherland, during his minority, to recover his possessions from the earl of Caithness. In the meantime the latter, disappointed and enraged at the escape of his destined prey vexed and annoyed still farther the partisans of the Sutherland family. In particular, he directed his vengeance against the Murrays, and made William Sutherland of Evelick, brother to the Laird of Duffus, apprehend John Croy-Murray, under the pretence of bringing him to justice. This proceeding roused the indignation of Hugh Murray of Aberscors, who assembled his friends, and made several incursions upon the lands of Evelick, Pronsies, and Riercher. They also laid waste several villages belonging to the Laird of Duffus, from which they carried off some booty, and apprehending a gentleman of the Sutherlands, they detained him as an hostage for the safety of John Croy-Murray. Upon this the Laird of Duffus collected all his kinsmen and friends, together with the Siol-Phaill at Skibo, and proceeded to the town of Dornoch, with the intention of burning it. But the inhabitants, aided by the Murrays, went out to meet the enemy, whom they courageously attacked and over threw, and pursued to the gates of Skibo. Besides killing several of Duffus’ men they made some prisoners, whom they exchanged for John Croy-Murray. This affair was called the skirmish of Torran-Roy.
The Laird of Duffus, who was father-in-law to the earl of Caithness, and supported him in all his plans, immediately sent notice of this disaster to the earl, who without delay sent his eldest son, John, Master of Caithness, with a large party of countrymen and friends, including Y-Mackay and his countrymen, to attack the Murrays in Dornoch. They besieged the town and castle, which were both manfully defended by the Murrays and their friends; but the Master of Caithness, favoured by the darkness of the night, set fire to the cathedral, the steeple of which, however, was preserved. After the town had been reduced, the Master of Caithness attacked the castle and the steeple of the church, into which a body of men had thrown themselves, both of which held out for the space of a week, and would probably have resisted much longer, but for the interference of mutual friends of the parties, by whose mediation the Murrays surrendered the castle and the steeple of the church; and as hostages for the due performance of other conditions, they delivered up Thomas Murray, son of Houcheon Murray of Aberscors, Houcheon Murray, son of Alexander Mac-Sir-Angus, and John Murray, son of Thomas Murray, the brother of John Murray of Aberscors. But the earl of Caithness refused to ratify the treaty which his son had entered into with the Murrays, and afterwards basely beheaded the three hostages. These occurrences took place in the year fifteen hundred and seventy.23
1 Sir Robert Gordon, p. 90.
2 Sir R. Gordon, p. 92.
3 Sir R. Gordon, p. 93.
4 Sir R. Gordon, pp.96, 97.
5 Sir R. Gordon, p. 97.
6 It was this excellent Bishop, who built, at his own expense, the beautiful bridge of seven arches on the Dee, near Aberdeen. The Episcopal arms cut on some of the stones are almost as entire as when chiselled by the hands of the sculptor.
7 Hist. of Scotland, p. 137.
8 P. 99.
9 This is the number given by Bishop Lesley, whose account must be preferred to that of Sir R. Gordon, who states it at upwards of two hundred, as the bishop lived about a century before Sir Robert.
10 Sir R. Gordon, p. 100.
11 Hist. p. 128.
12 Lesley, p. 184. – Sir R. Gordon, p. 109, 110. – Shaw’s Moray, p. 265, 266.
13 Sir R. Gordon, p. 112, 113.
14 Sir R. Gordon, p. 133.
15 Lesley, p. 251.
16 Sir R. Gordon, p. 136.
17 Sir R. Gordon, p. 139.
18 Ibid, p. 144.
19 Sir R. Gordon, p. 147.
20 Sir R. Gordon, p. 151.
21 Sir R. Gordon, p. 154.
22 Sir R. Gordon, p. 155.
23 Sir R. Gordon, p. 156.