All the stubs should be carefully taken out, and when drawing poultry be careful of the gall, for should that break the bitterness would totally destroy whatever part it touches; neither can any means be used to remove it. Be careful also of the gut joining the gizzard, for should it happen to break, the inside will be gritty, and cannot be properly cleaned out.
Being first properly picked, break the leg bone close to the foot, draw the strings out from the thigh (it will assist you much to hang the fowl on a hook fixed in the wall); cut off the neck close to the back, leaving a sufficient portion of the crop skin to be turned over the back. Take out the crop, loosen the liver and gut at the throat end with your middle finger; cut off the vent and take out the gut; pull out the gizzard with a long hooked iron and the liver will follow. Wipe the inside clean with a wet cloth, then cut the breast bone through on each side, close to the back, and draw the legs close to the crop; lay a cloth over the breast, and, with a rolling pin, beat the bone flat.
If for boiling, cut the legs off, put your middle finger in the inside to assist you, raise the skin of the legs and put them under the apron of the Turkey. Put a skewer into the joint of the wing and the middle joint of the leg, then run it through the body and the other leg and wing. The liver and gizzard, after being properly cleaned, are put into the pinions, the small end of the pinion turned on the back, and the legs tied to keep them in their places.
If to be roasted, it is trussed thus. Leave the legs and head on, put a skewer in the joint of the wing and tuck the legs close up; turn over the head and neck, fasten them with a skewer through the middle of the legs and body, then fasten the head to make it stand erect.
Are drawn the same way as a turkey. Separate the neck from the head and body, but preserve the skin; put a skewer through the joint of the pinion, tuck the legs close up, then run the skewer through the middle of the leg and the body; do the same to the other side. Cut off the under part of the bill, twist the skin of the neck round, and put the head on the point of the skewer, with the bill pointing forwards; place the legs between the sidesmen and apron on each side, then run a skewer through to fix them, and cut off the toe nails. They are commonly larded on the breast.
Geese and Ducks.
After being picked and ready, cut the feet off, also the pinions, at the first joint; cut the neck off almost at the back, but leave the skin long enough to turn over. Loosen the liver, &c. at the breast end; cut it open between the vent and rump and take out the entrails. After cleaning it thoroughly and seasoning it, put the rump through the vent; flatten the breast, and place the skewers as directed for turkey poults.
Ducks are done in the same manner, only the feet are not taken off but turned close to the legs.
After being picked clean, cut the neck off close by the back, take out the crop, then loosen the liver, &c.; cut off the vent, draw and clean it, then flatten the breast bone and season it.
If the fowl is to be boiled, cut off the nails of the feet and tuck them down close to the legs; put your finger into the inside and raise the skin of the legs, then cut a hole in the top of the skin and put the legs under it. Put a skewer through the first joint of the pinion, bring the middle of the leg close up to it, run the skewer through the middle of the leg, then through the body; do the same with the other side. Open the gizzard and clean and separate the gall from the liver; put them within the pinions, turn the points on the back; you may tie a string over the legs to keep them in their place.
If for roasting, in addition to the above directions put another skewer into the small of the leg, then through the sidesmen; do the same on the other side; put another through the skin of the feet.
Chickens are done much in the same way. When in haste to have them ready, scald them to take off the feathers.
General Directions for all kinds.
Pick them clean, cut the neck off close to the back, then with your middle finger, loosen the liver and guts next to the breast; cụt off the pinions at the first joint, then cụt a slit between the vent and rump and draw them; clean them with the long feathers of the wing. Cut off the nails, and turn the feet close to the legs; put a skewer into the pinion, pull the legs close to the breast, and run the skewer through the legs, body, and the pinion on the other side; cut off the vent, then put the rump through it.
Pheasants, Partridges, &c.
Cut a slit at the back of the neck, take out the crop, loosen the liver and gut, cut off the vent and draw them; cut the pinion off at the first joint, clean out the inside properly and flatten the breast bone. Put a skewer into the pinion and bring the middle of the legs close to the body, then run the skewer through the legs, body, and pinion on the other side; twist the head round and put it on the end of a skewer, with the bill fronting the breast. Run another skewer into the sidesmen, put the legs close on each side the apron and run the skewer through all.
If a cock pheasant, it will add much to the appearance to leave the beautiful crest of feathers on the head, and cover them with paper to prevent them being injured by the fire; preserve also the long feathers of the tail, which stick into the rump after it is roasted.
N. B. In this manner all kinds of muir game are trussed.
Draw and clean them as directed in fowls, only the liver may remain, as they have no gall.
If for roasting, cut off the toes, then cut a slit in one of the legs and put the other through it; draw the leg close to the pinion, put a skewer through the pinions, legs, and body, and flatten the breast bone; clean the gizzard, put it in one of the pinions, and turn the points on the back.
If for a Pye. – Cut the feet off at the joint, turn the legs and stick them in the sides, close to the pinions. In stewing and boiling they are done in the same manner.
Woodcocks, Snipes, and Plovers.
These birds being very tender, require great care in handling. Having picked them, cut the pinions off at the first joint, and, with the handle of a knife, flatten the breast bone. Turn the legs close to the thighs, tie them together at the joints, and the pinions close to the thighs; run a skewer into the pinions, and through the thighs, body, and other pinion. Skin the head, turn it, take out the eyes, put the head on the point of a skewer, with the bill close to the breast.
N. B. These birds are never drawn.
Cut off the legs at the first joint, raise the skin of the back, draw it over the hind legs, leave the tail whole, draw the skin over the back and slip out the fore legs. Cut the skin from the neck and head, leave the ears on and skin them; take out the liver, lights, &c. and observe to draw the gut out of the vent; cut the sinews which are under the hind legs and bring them up to the fore legs; run a skewer through the hind leg, then through the fore leg under the joint, and lastly through the body; do the same on the other side. Run another skewer through the thick part of the hind legs and body; place the head between the shoulders, secure it in its place by a skewer; make the ears stand erect by running a skewer through each; tie a string round the middle of the body over the legs, to keep them in their proper place. A fawn is trussed in the same way, only the ears are cut off.
Are done much after the same manner as the hare. The ears are cut off close to the head, cut open the vent, slit the legs about an inch on each side of the rump, lay the hind legs flat and bring the ends up to the fore legs; put a skewer through the hind, then through the fore leg, and the body; turn the head round and fix it on a skewer in its proper situation. If two are to be roasted together, truss them at full length with six skewers run through them both, head to tail.
Observe in Trussing,
That the brightness and cleanness of the skewers is a most material consideration; any neglect of which, not only spoils the look of fowls and small meats, but likewise injures the taste.