22nd of August

St Symphorian, martyr, about 178. St Hippolytus, bishop and martyr, 3d century. St Timothy, martyr, 311. St Philibert, abbot of Jumièges, 684. St Andrew, deacon and confessor, about 880.

Born. – Philip Augustus II. of France, 1165; Aimé Bonpland, distinguished naturalist and friend of Humboldt, 1773, La Rochelle.
Died. – Pope Nicholas III., 1280; Philippe de Valois, king of France, 1350, Nogent-le-Roi, near Chartres; Guillaume Budé (Budæus), scholar and author, 1540; Dominic Baudius, jurist and philologist, 1613, Leyden; Pierre le Moine, Jesuit and poet, 1672, Paris; Louis Francois de Boufflers, duke and marshal of France, distinguished commander, 1711, Fountainbleau; John Henry Tischbein, eminent painter, 1789, Cassel; Dr Franz Joseph Gall, founder of phrenology, 1828, Paris.

On this Day in Other Sources.

As summus dux Lodonensium [high-chief of Lothian], this second Gospatric fell at the battle of the Standard, 22d Aug. 1138, at the head of the men of his earldom. Waldef, his younger brother, must be Waldeve of Allerdale, a great district in Cumbria till William Rufus drove him out in 1092, appears to have left no succession. The order in which these two brothers Gospatric and Waldef occur, immediately following the Countess Matilda and William fitz Duncan, is enough to attest their high rank, preceding even the Morvilles, Ridels, Corbets, &c. 

– Scots Lore, pp.111-114.

This same year [1216], King Alexander, with a great army, before King John’s eyes, invades England with fire and sword, and in his return beleaguers Carlisle, which was rendered to him [on the] 22nd of August this year; and thereafter with displayed banner, in spite [of] all that King John could do [to] the contrary, marches through England to Dover, where he meets Louis VIII, the Dauphin [King] of France, who had entered England this year with a great army, in aid of the barons of England against King John, where King Alexander, as a baron of England, did homage to Louis, as did the remnant barons of that kingdom, at London, where Louis and all the English barons solemnly swore, having taken the sacrament, that none of them should ever make peace with the King of England without the King of Scotland. 

– Historical Works, pp.38-57.

King James levies a strong army, and on [the] 22nd of August, this same year [1513], marches to the border, lays siege to Norham castle, and takes it; staying some 18 days in England, using all acts of hostility there, sparing none save the Lady [Heron], with whom it was rumoured he was too familiar; against the will of all his nobility, and most of the army, provokes the Earl of Surrey to battle, and appoints him a day, and sends a Herald to Surrey with a letter, wherein he purges himself from breach of faith in keeping the peace, and accuses his master King Henry. 

– Historical Works, pp.214-238.

As the only means of terminating the frightful anarchy that prevailed, it was resolved to invest James, now in his twelfth year, with full sovereign power; and thus, on the 22nd August, 1524, he made his solemn entry into the Tolbooth, preceded by the crown, sceptre, and sword of state. 

– Old and New Edinburgh, pp.32-47.

The Queen, and Darnley, who were, in this manner surrounded, by so many traitors, resolved, however, to follow the rebellious nobles, into the west, where they most harboured. On the 22d of August [1565], they required, by proclamation, all their subjects, to attend them, in arms. They commanded, on the same day, their people not to join the insurgents; and if they had joined, to quit their guilty ranks; giving them, by another proclamation, full assurances, as to their religious concernments. The Queen, and Darnley, wrote, specially, to several barons; desiring them to join the royal standard, with their followers, in warlike manner. At the same time, they removed Douglas, the provost of Edinburgh; and appointed a more sufficient person, to govern the metropolis, during their absence. 

– Life of Mary, pp.98-126.

Disappointed, thus, in Megotland, the King, and Queen [Mary], resolved, to look for better diversion, in Perthshire. On the 22d of August [1566], they went, from Edinburgh to Stirling; carrying with them the Prince, whom they left, in Stirling castle. From Stirling, the King, and Queen, went into the forest, of Perthshire, in pursuance of their purpose of hunting. 

– Life of Mary, pp.136-151.

Queen Mary was brought to bed, in Edinburgh castle, of a son, who was christened in the chapel royal of Stirling, the 22nd of August, this same year [1566], by the name of Charles James; his [godfathers] were Charles IX., the French King, and [Emmanuel Philibert], Duke of Savoy; his [godmother] was Elizabeth, Queen of England. Immediately after he was christened, the Lyon King of Arms proclaimed him, James, by the grace of God, Lord of Renfrew and the Isles, Earl of Carrick, Duke of Rothesay, and Prince of Scotland. 

– Historical Works, pp.275-340.

On the 22d of August 1567, Murray was proclaimed the Regent, for obtaining whereof he had committed so many crimes. He was now sole ruler of Scotland. One of his first measures was, to destroy the public seals, which bore the name, or title of the Queen. 

– Life of Mary, pp.184-206.

Likewise, on the 22nd day of August, this same year, 1567, James, Earl of Moray, was proclaimed Regent of the realm, until the infant King should attain the age of 17 years complete. 

– Historical Works, pp.340-416.

In 1571, during the struggle between Kirkaldy and the Regent Morton, this barrier gate played a prominent part. According to the “Diurnal of Occurrents,” upon the 22nd of August in that year, the Regent and the lords who adhered against the authority of the Queen, finding that they were totally excluded from the city, marched several bands of soldiers from Leith, their head-quarters, and concealed them under cloud of night in the closes and houses adjoining the Nether Bow Port. At five on the following morning, when it was supposed that the night watch would be withdrawn, six soldiers, disguised as millers, approached the gates, leading horses laden with sacks of meal, which were to be thrown down as they entered, so as to preclude the rapid closing of them, and while they attacked and cut down the warders, with those weapons which they wore under their disguise, the men in ambush were to rush out to storm the town, aided by a reserve, whom the sound of their trumpets was to summon from Holyrood. “But the eternal God,” says the quaint old journalist we quote, “knowing the cruell murther that wold have beene done and committit vponn innocent poor personis of the said burgh, wold not thole this interpryse to tak successe; but evin quhen the said meill was almaist at the port, and the said men of war, stationed in clois headis, in readinesse to enter at the back of the samyne;” it chanced that a burgher of the Canongate, named Thomas Barrie, passed out towards his house in the then separate burgh, and perceiving soldiers concealed on every hand, he returned and gave the alarm, on which the gate was at once barricaded, and the design of the Regent and his adherents baffled. 

– Old and New Edinburgh, pp.212-218.

Elizabeth never forgave, nor forgot, the punishment of Morton, for his crimes, in opposition to her influence, and her power. By her constant intrigues, she maintained an English faction among the Scotish Nobles, who were easily persuaded, that whatever conspiracy they might form against James, or his ministers, they would be protected, in England. They wanted not pretences, or inclination, to effect their own designs, and Elizabeth’s wishes. The Earl of Mar, Lord Lindsay, Lord Boyd, and other persons of that faction, with Earl Gowry, at their head, took advantage of the absence, from court, of Lennox, and Arran, to invite the King, who was now turned of sixteen, to Ruthven castle, in Perthshire, where they forcibly restrained his person, on the 22d of August 1582; and soon made him feel, that he no longer enjoyed the independence of a king. They not only changed his ministers, and his measures; but they obliged him, in all things, to submit to their dictates, and to hear, from the church assembly, and the convention of estates, that the acts of their treason were legal, and fit. Elizabeth, hearing of the success of her own suggestions, sent envoys to the king; advising him to take in good part, this godly enterprize, and to restore the Earl of Angus, who had been expatriated, in England, since the execution of Morton. The King did not free himself, from this treasonous domination, till the subsequent summer; when he obtained his liberty, by greater efforts of address, and vigour than he was supposed to possess. 

– Life of Mary, pp.274-281.

At length there was a reaction against the dominion of the two court favourites, Lennox and Stuart. A combination of nobles of the ultra-Protestant party – the Earl of Gowrie, the Earl of Mar, Lord Glammis, and others, laid a gentle compulsion on the young king while he was staying at Ruthven House near Perth ([22nd] August 1582), and his councillors Lennox and Arran were debarred from his presence. After this event, known in our history as the Raid of Ruthven, the king remained under the control of his new councillors for a year, during which a pure Presbyterianism was again encouraged, and the English alliance was cultivated. The Duke of Lennox was forced to withdraw to France, where, to the great grief of the king, he soon after contracted a sickness, and died. 


[Auchinleck] took a part in the affair of the Raid of Ruthven in August 1582. When the Earl of Arran on that occasion, hearing of the king’s being secluded in Ruthven House, came to try if he could gain access to him, ‘the Earl of Gowrie met him at the gate, and had straightaway killed him, if George Auchinleck had not held his hand as he was about to have pulled out his dagger to have stabbed him.’ – H. of G. 

– Domestic Annals, pp.81-98.

The King calls a parliament to be [held] at Edinburgh, the 22nd day of August [1584], this same year, likewise, wherein is [forfeited]:

Archibald [Douglas], Earl of Angus; 
John [Erskine], Earl of Mar; 
Agnes Drummond, Countess of Mar, younger; 
Thomas Lyon [of Baldukie], Master of Glamis; 
David [Erskine], Commendator of Dryburgh; 
Adam [Erskine], Commendator of Cambuskenneth; 
William [Erskine], Commendator of Paisley; 
John Carmichael, younger of the same; 
Hugh Carmichael, his son; 
Patrick Drummond, younger of Carnock; 
John Lesley of Balquhain; 
Mr James Erskine, brother to [Robert of] Little Sauchie; 
George Douglas of Parkhead; 
James Douglas, his eldest son; 
George Douglas, his 2nd son; 
James Douglas of Todhills; 
William Carmichael of Renton Cross; 
John Douglas of Glaspen; 
John Lyon, younger of Cossins; 
James Lyon of Easter Ogle; 
William Lyon of Batgyllie; 
Hugh Nisbet, son to Patrick of Rasthill; 
Patrick Home of Argaty; 
John Lesley of Largie; 
William Douglas of [Bonkle]
Robert Hamilton of [Kerse]
Arthur Hamilton of Miretown; 
James [MacRae] of [Pardowis]
Mr John Colville, Chanter of Glasgow; 
Mr Patrick Whitelaw of Newgrange; 
John Arbuthnot, son to Lyntusk; 
James Ross of Pitheavlis; 
Dame Dorothy Stewart, Countesse of Gowrie; 
Dame [Margaret] Lyon, Countess of Cassilis. 

– Historical Works, pp.340-416.

Master William Bowie, the inditer of the Black Book, figures in one of these letters as the instructor of John and Duncan, the sons of Robert Campbell, afterwards Sir Robert of Glenurchy.1

– Sketches, pp.341-394.

1  Some extracts from Master Bowie’s account may be allowed:-
Jhone Campbell his compt since the first of November 1618.
of the quhilkis Duncan gat ane pair.
For schone to Duncan the xxij of August,
xij s.     

Colin was succeeded in the tutory by his brother George. Both seemed to have looked to Isla, or their possessions in the far west, as their securest place of dwelling during the troubles of the civil war; and it was probably on this account that the family of John “the fiar” were educated at Glasgow, while Lady Elizabeth’s children, both before and after her death, were brought up among her relations in Edinburgh. While the children were at Glasgow, Colin, the heir of the Thanedom, attending the University, was taken ill, removed to Irvine, and, notwithstanding the care of the famous medicinar, Dr. Donald Ochonochar, brought from Argyll to attend him, died there.1

– Sketches, pp.395-436.

1  The children of John the fiar were Colin, who died at Irvine before him, and two daughters, Jane, married to the Master of Forbes, and Christian, upon whom some anonymous chronicler (perhaps a chamberlain, peevish at being compelled to pay her tocher) has affixed the stigma which I have copied in the table of pedigree. I find no foundation for the disparaging note. On the contrary, when her tocher was claimed in 1653, the parties moving were William Master of Forbes, John Dunbar sometime of Hempriggs, and two other Dunbars of penick and Hillhead, who, as assignees for Nicholas Dunbar and his wife Christian Campbell, obtained decree before the Commissioners for Administration of Justice for 8000 merks, provided to her under her mother’s marriage-contract, of date 22d August 1622.

“In the early morning she was busy milking the hinds; they were standing all about the door of the hut, till one of them ate a hank of blue worsted hanging from a nail in it.” So says the “fiction,” which it is considered a sin to relate. Let me place some facts from my own journal beside it.  

“Wednesday, August 22, 1850. Quickjok, Swedish Lapland. – In the evening the effect of the sunlight through the mist and showers was most beautiful. I was sketching, when a small man made his appearance on the opposite side of the river and began to shout for a boat. The priest exclaimed that the Lapps had come down, and accordingly the diminutive human specimen was fetched, and proved to be a Lapp who had established his camp about seven miles off, near Vallespik. He was about twenty-five years old, and with his high blue cap on could stand upright under my arm.” 

– Popular Tales, Vol. 1, pp.xcii-civ.

Animal Longevity.

THE papers have been amusing themselves with giving the ages of various animals. There are in the account, however, several omissions, which we beg to supply. The age of the British Lion is not given. This is an unpardonable oversight towards one, who has made so much noise in the world, and, more especially, as he has lived longer than all the other animals put together. The longest-lived animal, according to BUFFON, (we should like to know how he verified the age?) is the Elephant, who is said to live to the age of 100 years. Now, the British Lion is considerably older than that, and is now as young and as sprightly as ever. The way in which he is continually wagging his tail is a proof of this. He will doubtlessly live as long as BRITANNIA herself. 

The British Lion’s precise age may be ascertained at the Herald’s College, where, on the payment of a small fee, you will doubtlessly be able to procure a certificate of his birth and baptism. The reader is recommended to make the trial. 

There is the British Unicorn, too, who stands nearly in the same position as the Lion, and, perhaps, in the main, is quite as old. 

There are other omissions, which we deplore. There is the Russian Bear, scarred and disfigured as he has been lately, and the French Eagle, and all sorts of Eagles, belonging to Prussia, Austria, and America, either with single or double, or as many heads as a bundle of asparagus. We ought to have been informed of their respective ages… August 22, 1857., p.74.


N.B. Scotland’s Unicorn dates from the era of William I. (1165-1214), England’s Lion from that of Richard I. (1189-99).


   Rev. Mr Macrae, Dundee, having been invited to London to take part in to-day’s Hyde Park Demonstration, says in his reply that had it been possible for him to attend he would have urged in connection with proposed legislation that the attention of the English people should be called to the unfavourable position in which they allow the working people and the poor to stand in relation to the help of the law, as compared with what we have in Scotland. He points out that here the public prosecutor is always at hand to deal with crimes in the public interest and without expense to the parties who have suffered. In England, on the contrary, where these private parties have themselves to institute proceedings, the expense and risk are so serious that multitudes of people, especially if poor, are terrified to appeal to the law, and so the scoundrels who have perpetrated their crimes escape. He points out further that under a Scottish system, as soon as the public prosecutor takes action, the case is out of private hands; no private compromises to withdraw it or hush it up are permissible. The law proceeds on the sound principle that a crime is not only an injury to the individual, but an injury to society. It, therefore, in the public interest, proceeds with the case, and, in spite of any backdoor attempts to hush it up, brings the criminal to justice. Mr Macrae thinks England might take a valuable lesson from Scotland at this point. 

   Referring in a postscript to the proposed ‘appeal to the people of England’ in connection with this movement, Mr Macrae says:- If it is meant to include Scotland and Ireland, it should be remembered that the use of the terms ‘England’ and ‘English,’ instead of ‘Britain’ and ‘British,’ is a violation of the Treaty of Union, and he thinks it would be a sad blot upon a movement which solemnly appeals to law, and seeks to protect the innocent from outrage, if it proceeded itself, by the language it used, to violate the feelings and the rights of a sister nation, in face of a solemn international compact and pledge of honour. He suggests that the appeal should be an appeal to the British people, and says that the great principles it sets forth need to be urged on the attention of the people in Scotland and Ireland quite as much as in England.” 

– Dundee Courier, Saturday 22nd August, 1885.

– Treaty of Union Articles, Collection of the Rev. David Macrae.

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