The 6th of December this same year, [1214,] Alexander, King William’s son, was, by the nobility and others, conveyed to Scone, and there solemnly crowned; at whose coronation assisted William del Bois, the Lord Chancellor; Walter [Capellanus], Bishop of Glasgow, and Robert [Capellanus], [Bishop] elect of Ross; David, Earl of Huntingdon, the King’s uncle, almost broken with age; together with the Earls of Atholl, Angus, Menteith, Buchan, &c.
The 5th of October this same year, died John [de Leicester], Bishop of Dunkeld; in whose place succeeded Hugh [de Sigillo], Abbot of Newbattle.
In the year 1215, Donald Bane, the son of mac Uilleim, and Kenneth mac Heth, with the son of a petty King of Ireland, and a good army, invaded the highlands. Against whom [Ferquhard] Mac in Sagart [of Ross] levies an army, and with them fights a very bloody and cruel battle, whom he totally overthrows, the 17th of July, and solemnly presents the rebels heads to the King; for which [such] good service the King solemnly knights Mac in Sagart, and gives him a yearly pension during his life.
This same year, also, King Alexander, with a good army, besieges the castle of Norham; but shortly thereafter razes the same, and passes to Felton Castle, where [all] the barons of Northumberland meet him, swear to him an oath of fealty, and does him homage.
The 5th of November this same year, likewise, died Philip de Valognes, [Lord] Chamberlain to King William, and was interred at the abbey of Melrose.
This same year, also, there was a general council held at Rome; and the church of Scotland sent as commissioners thereto, William [de] Malveisin, Bishop of St. Andrews; Walter [Capellanus], [Arch]bishop of Glasgow; Bricius [de Douglas], Bishop of Moray; and Henry, Abbot of Kelso.
In the year 1216, in the month of January, the barons of Yorkshire, in England, having come under the protection of King Alexander, did their homage, and gave him their oath of fidelity at Melrose Abbey; which King John of England hearing, in great fury, with a flying army of Reiters [mounted Knights], or Alman horsemen, he destroyed their villages and farms with fire and sword; he burnt the towns of Warkworth, Alnwick, Mitford, Morpeth, and on the 17th of February, Berwick and Roxburgh, where he spared neither sex nor age, tormenting young and old with all the tortures tyranny could devise; and on the 21st of this same month, likewise, he burnt Haddington.
This same year, King Alexander, with a great army, before King John’s eyes, invades England with fire and sword, and in his return beleaguers Carlisle, which was rendered to him [on the] 22nd of August this year; and thereafter with displayed banner, in spite [of] all that King John could do [to] the contrary, marches through England to Dover, where he meets Louis VIII, the Dauphin* [King] of France, who had entered England this year with a great army, in aid of the barons of England against King John, where King Alexander, as a baron of England, did homage to Louis, as did the remnant barons of that kingdom, at London, where Louis and all the English barons solemnly swore, having taken the sacrament, that none of them should ever make peace with the King of England without the King of Scotland. In this journey of King Alexander’s, Eustace de Vesci, his brother in law, was killed at the siege of Barnard castle. In the king’s return home, King John thinks to entrap him at Newark upon Trent, where he cuts the bridge; but the day before the king’s approach, miserable King John dies, poisoned by a monk, leaving to King Alexander the spoil of his camp and town, wherewith his soldiers were gratefully enriched.
In this year, 1217, [Cardinal] Gualo, the Pope’s Legate, comes to Scotland, excommunicates King Alexander, with his whole nobility and gentry, and interdicts the kingdom from the use of any religious exercise, and solemnly, with book and bell, curses all of whatsoever degree or quality that had carried arms against King John of England, now the Pope’s vassals and feodary; which interdiction lasted from February 1217 to February 1218, a whole year: about which time the Prior of Durham [William] and Archdeacon of York [Walter de Wisbech] came to Scotland, (being sent by the English Legate,) making their progress from Berwick to Aberdeen, and absolved the kingdom from Gualo’s curse and interdiction; and in their return home to England, being lodged in the Abbey of Lindores, the Prior of Durham was burnt to death in his chamber, which took fire in the night by chance, (his chamberman being very drunk,) and he fast asleep.
This year, also, Richard de Marisco is consecrated Bishop of Dunblane.
This year, likewise, Malcolm, Earl of Fife, founded the abbey of Culross, to which, [on] the 6th of March, the abbot and convent of Kinloss [was] translated.
The 5th of July this year, also, dies, Elena fitz Uchtred, Countess of Galloway, the wife of [Lochlann], and mother of Alan [fitz Roland], Earls of Galloway.
In the month of December this year, King Alexander has an interview with the new King of England at Northampton, where he does homage to the King of England for the earldom of Huntingdon and other lands he held of that crown.
This year died Gregory [Gervase] Avenel, and was interred at Melrose, near to his father, in the chancel of the church, 21st of June, 1219.
This year, Mr James, a canon of St. Victor of Pisa [Paris], Penitentiary of the Apostolic see, came as legate to Scotland in May, 1221, where he convened a general meeting of [all] the churchmen of the kingdom at Perth.
King Alexander, on St. John [the] Baptist’s day this year [19th of June], in the city of York, with great solemnity marries the Lady Joan, sister to Henry, King of England, and brought her home [on] the 4th of August, to Roxburgh.
After King Alexander and his Queen’s homecoming, he marries his sister, the Lady Margaret, with the especial advice and consent of Henry, King of England, to Hubert de Burgh, Great Justiciar of England.
This year, 1222, Peter de Valognes, by the advice of King Alexander, married Albreda, the widow of Sir Walter de Lindsay, and himself went to Rome and obtained a dispensation from the Pope, they being within degrees prohibited by the canon law.
In this year, likewise, Adam [of Melrose], Bishop of Caithness, is killed by Jon [Haraldsson], [Jarl of Orkney] Earl of Caithness, together with a monk that attended him, named Serlo [Dean of Newbattle]. This Earl Jon, is pardoned by King Alexander; (in respect the Bishop was killed by his men [for overtaxing ecclesiastical dues from the people], by his knowledge, while he was leading poor people’s corn too avariciously;) yet his pardon cost him, besides a great sum of money, the 3rd part of his earldom; and to the said Bishopric was elected Gilbert [de Moravia], Archdeacon of Moray.
In this year, 1223, died Philip, King of France, about the 43rd year of his age; and about this same time came the Lady Isabella, King Alexander’s sister, home to Scotland, from the English captivity, as yet unmarried.
This same year, King Alexander, with great solemnity, kept his birthday at Forfar; from whom, at that time, Jon, [Jarl] of Caithness, for a good sum of ready money, redeemed from the King the 3rd of the earldom of Caithness, which in the former year he had renounced his claim to the King for the death of Bishop Adam; but the said Earl in his return home, being beset by his enemies, was killed.
In this year, likewise, died Gille Brigte, Earl of Strathearn, that founded the abbey of Inchaffray.
This same year, also, King Alexander levies an army, and takes Gille Escoib and his three sons, with Roderick, the remaining firebrands of mac Uilliam’s rebellion in Strathnaver, and hangs them with diverse of their followers on gibbets.
In March this year, 1224, the estates of the kingdom gave to the King a supply of 10,000 pounds in money, to help to marry [off] his sisters.
In May 1225, died that gallant knight, Sir Arnold de Dalkeith, knight, and was interred in the body of the choir of the abbey church of Melrose; to whom succeeded his daughter Ada, thereafter married to Adam, the son of Earl Arnold.
In this year, 1226, died Louis [VIII.], the French King, and Richard [de] Marisco [Marsh], Bishop of Durham; and in April thereafter, William del Bois, [Lord] Chancellor of Scotland, being much weakened with sickness, sore against King Alexander’s will, resigned his office; to whom succeeded Thomas de Stirling, the former Chancellor’s clerk, a man much beloved of the King.
This same year, Richard, [Earl] of Cornwall, brother to the King of England, came to Scotland with a great train, and after he had saluted the King, went to visit the Queen his mother, and the Lady Margaret [Countess of Kent] his sister, (whom he suited in marriage) at Kinghorn Castle, but returned without her, in respect [of] his brother the King, for reasons of state, was against it.
In this year, 1227, died Thomas de Stirling, [Lord] Chancellor of Scotland; in whose place succeeded Mr Matthew [the] Scot, elected Bishop of Aberdeen this same year, who immediately after his election did resign the office of Lord Chancellor; and then the King did make Mr Gilbert de Stirling Lord Chancellor in his [place].
This same year, also, about Whitsuntide, at Roxburgh, King Alexander dubbed diverse knights, amongst whom was his cousin, John the Scot, Earl of Huntingdon, son to his uncle, David, Earl of Angus and Carrick.
This year, also, died William [de Home], the son of Sir John Home, knight, to whom succeeded his grandchild, John de Landells.
In the year 1229, the foundation of the abbey of Balmerino, in Fife, being accomplished by King Alexander and his mother, Queen Ermengarde, they sent to it the convent of Melrose, with Alan [de Harkarres] their Abbot.
In this year, also, Alan [fitz Roland], Earl of Galloway, went to Ireland, and there married the daughter of Hugh de Lacy [Earl of Ulster], and on his return, having had many of his servants drowned, himself and his lady very narrowly escaping.
In July, this same year, died Máel Coluim, [Mormaer] of Fife, and was interred in the church of St. Serf, in Culross Abbey, founded by himself; to whom succeeded his brother’s son, named Máel Coluim, because he had no children of his own. This [Mormaer] Malcolm, his nephew, thereafter married [Elen ferch Llywelyn] the daughter of Llywelyn [the Great], King of Wales.
This year, also, died Hugh [de Sigillo], Bishop of Dunkeld; in whose place was elected Mr Matthew [the Scot], [Lord] Chancellor of Scotland, but before his consecration he died; and then Gilbert, chaplain to Bishop Hugh, was elected and consecrated Bishop of Dunkeld.
In the year 1230, first of all did the Jacobin [Dominican] friars [Black Friars], and monks called the Walle Olerum [Vallis-olerum**], enter Scotland.
This year, 1231, died Tomás Mac Uchtraigh, brother to Alan [fitz Roland], [Mormaer] of Galloway, who was Earl of Atholl, and was interred in the Abbey Church of Coupar in Angus.
This same did the Minor [grey] friars*** first enter Scotland.
This year, King Alexander gave the government of Moray to Alexander Comyn, [Mormaer] of Buchan. Justiciar of Scotland [from 1258].
This year, also, King Alexander founded the priory of Pluscarden, in Moray, John Bisset founded likewise Beaulieu, in Ross; and Duncan MacKoul founded the priory of Ardchattan, in Lorn.
This year, also, King Alexander did make Alan, the son of Walter [of Dundonald], Great Steward of Scotland, Justice General at St. Andrews; and William de [Bondington] was made [Lord] Chancellor of Scotland.
Osbert, Bishop [of] Dunblane, died this year, at Holyroodhouse Abbey; and William [del] Bois, sometime Lord Chancellor of Scotland, also.
In the beginning of this year, 1232, died Walter [Capellanus], Bishop of Glasgow, [in the] 27th year of his episcopacy; and after him was elected William [de] Bondington, [Lord] Chancellor of Scotland.
This year died Ranulf [de Blondeville], Earl of Chester; to him succeeded his grandchild John [of Scotland], Earl of Huntingdon, Angus, and Carrick, that founded Lindores Abbey. And in August following died likewise Patrick, Earl of Dunbar and March, who had rendered himself religious, and was interred in the church of Eccles; to whom succeeded, in the earldom, his son Patrick, King Alexander’s sister [Ada]‘s son, a gallant knight.
In January, 1233, died Queen Ermengarde, mother to King Alexander, 47 years after she was married with King William, and was interred at Balmarino Abbey.
This same year, Alan [fitz Roland], Earl of Galloway, gave his daughter [Dervorguilla] in marriage to John de Balliol, and his sister [Ada] to Sir Walter Bisset [Lord of Aboyne].
About this time Clement, one of the [Dominican] Friars, was elected Bishop of Dunblane, and consecrated by William [de Malveisin Arch]bishop of St. Andrews.
This year, also, died William Comyn, Earl of Buchan, that founded the abbey of Deer [Buchan], and was there interred.
In [February] the year 1234, dies Alan [fitz Roland], [Mormaer] of Galloway, Great Constable of Scotland, and was solemnly interred at Dundrennan, leaving his 3 daughters his heirs, and a bastard son called Thomas. Amongst his daughters was his whole land divided; whereat his bastard son stormed, and being assisted by the people of Galloway, rose in arms against the King, to the great disturbance of the commonweal. This Thomas, in his father’s lifetime, had married the 2nd daughter of the King of Mann [Reginald/Ragnald III Gudrødsson]. On this [Mormaer], Alan, Fordun has left us this monkish epitaph.
1000 and twice 100, four 1s. if going and 10 by three,
This year really felt the way of Alan,
Glorious Scots, rose clergy, flower laymen,
Giving a generous hand: here lies the venerable Alan.
How many assets given, scarcely was, is or will be.
Oh you who read, or that you will see,
Learn to do good, the dead and dying.
He is the meter that contains this rock,
I pray that rock is set in bright.
In the year 1235, King Alexander levies a great army against the rebellious Galwegians, whom he totally killed and overthrew. Their leader, Thomas the Bastard, fleeing to Ireland, returns the next year with an army of Irish, commanded by a prince’s son in Ireland, Gille Ruadh; but seeing himself unable to resist the king’s forces, commanded by Patrick, [5th] Earl of Dunbar, and moved by the said Earl and Gilbert [of Glenluce], Bishop of Galloway, prostrates himself at the King’s feet for mercy; who is by the King forthwith sent bound to Edinburgh Castle. The Irish that he had brought from Ireland, in their march towards the city of Glasgow, had the most of their throats cut, few or none escaping to Ireland; 2 of their chief commanders were apprehended and [their bodies] drawn [apart] at Edinburgh between four horses.
This year, with great solemnity, the Lady Marjorie, King Alexander’s sister, was married at Brechin, to Gilbert [Marshall], [4th] Earl of Pembroke, Lord Marshal of England; at which wedding the Queen, with many of the Lords and Ladies of England were present.
This year, King Alexander II gave 4 granges of his forest of Ettrick to the monastery of Melrose, by the mediation of [Walter of Whithorn], Bishop of Galloway, who departed this life immediately thereafter; to whose Bishopric was elected one Gilbert [of Glenluce], Master of the Canons of Melrose.
In the year 1236, died that learned Bishop, Gilbert, Bishop of Dunkeld, and was interred in St. Columba’s Isle [Inchcolm]; to whom succeeded Geoffrey, the King’s clerk, surnamed [de Liberatione].
This year, in May, there was an interview between King Alexander and Henry, King of England, at Newcastle, concerning diverse great affairs of state, where they did royally feast [with each] other, and departed in great love and amity.
In this year, 1237, there was another interview between the Kings of Scotland and England, and 24 of their counsellors, for the space of 15 days, at York; at their departure the Queen of England came to Scotland to visit Queen Margaret, her husband’s sister.
This year, 1238, died Joan, Queen of Scotland, at London, in England, 4th of March, [childless]. Henry, King of England, and Richard, [Earl] of Cornwall, her brothers, closed her eyes; she was interred in the [Cistercian] Nunnery Church, in Tarrant [Dorset].
This same year died William [de] Malveicin, [Arch]bishop of St Andrews; and in [whose] place was elected David [de] Bernham.
This same year, also, died Gilbert [de Stirling], Bishop of Aberdeen; in whose place was elected Radulf de Lamley, Abbot of Arbroath.
In this year, 1239, King Alexander II married his second wife the Lady Marie [de Coucy], the daughter of Enguerrand de Coucy, Earl of Dreux, in France, at Roxburgh; who bore to him a son, christened Alexander, the 5th of September in the following year, 1240 [also included in 1241’s events?].
This year, likewise, died Alan [fitz Walter], Justiciar General of Scotland, the son of Walter [fitz Alan] the Great Steward, and Llywelyn, King of Wales; to whom succeeded his son David, and Sir John de Normanville, that gallant and courageous knight.
This same year, Gillelinus, 2nd son to Patrick, [5th] Earl of Dunbar, the King’s sister’s son, was sent [as] ambassador to England, a wise and prudent knight, who gave diverse lands to the abbey and convent of Melrose.
This year, 1241, died Walter [Stewart], the son of Alan [fitz Walter], Great Steward of Scotland.
In September, 1241, the Queen [Marie de Coucy] is brought to bed of a son at Roxburgh, and christened Alexander, in the King’s entry of the 44th year of his age and 27 of his reign.
This year died Sir John [de Maccuswell, 1st Lord] Maxwell [of Caerlaverock], and was interred at Melrose; and William, Bishop of Argyll, perished by sea.
In the month of May, 1242, Patrick, [Mormaer] of Atholl, a brave young gallant, the son of Thomas de Galloway, [Mormaer] of Atholl, being at a tournament in Haddington, and in his bed asleep in the dead of the night, was cruelly murdered by his enemies, and then his lodging set afire, that it might appear that his death happened by chance and casually. William Byset, Lord of Aboyne, by all was judged to be the committer of this villainy. Earl Patrick being dead, David Hastings did succeed him in the earldom of Atholl, in right of his wife, who was Earl Patrick’s mother’s sister [his aunt].
This year died John Comyn, Earl of Angus, in France; and to him, in the earldom, succeeded [by] his son Bartrald,**** son of his countess, Sponda.
This year, also, died Sir William Somerville [baron of Carnwath and Linton], and was interred at Melrose; and Andrew [de Moravia], Bishop of Moray, and was interred at Elgin, in October; and in the month of November, likewise, Sir Walter de Olifard [the younger], Justiciar of Lothian, and was honorably interred at Melrose.
This year was William Byset, Lord [of] Aboyne, with his uncles, john and Walter, with their wives and children, by the King and estates of Parliament: forfeited; their lands confiscated for ever to the crown, and themselves forever exiled [from] the kingdoms of Scotland and England; so that their posterity remained in Ireland until the reign of King James II., about which time they began to be extinct there likewise. Their relegation was in February 1243, a little before the death of Bertrald, the young Earl of Angus [see ****], who departed this life [childless]; after whose death Sir Gilbert de Umfraville married the Countess of Angus, the mother of Earl Bertrald, and widow of John Comyn, [Matilda/Maud], Earl of Angus, that died in France; this Sir Gilbert, in right of his wife, became Earl of Angus, by title, which he assumed to himself.
This year died Sir Roger Avenel, and was interred by his father [William de Avenel] at Melrose.
This year, also, a great many of the burghs of Scotland were burnt; some by chance, others by invasions of the rebels, Alexander Buchan and John Read, [such] as Haddington, Roxburgh, Lanark, Stirling, Perth, Forfar, Montrose, Aberdeen, Inverness. To remedy their evils, and suppress the friends and followers of William Byset, the King did make Sir Alan [Hostarius] Durward Great Justiciar of Scotland; he was a brave, resolute, and wise man, one of the best commanders in his time.
In the year 1244, Alan, the bastard son of Thomas, Earl of Atholl, and the brother of Earl Patrick, which was killed in revenge of his brother’s death, passed over to Ireland, and there with fire and sword neither sparing man nor child, but destroyed all that belonged to John Byset; for which John complained to the King of England [Henry III.], and he by his ambassador to King Alexander, from whom he received no other answer, but that Alan was out of his protection, a declared rebel, and a vagabond not subject to his laws.
This year, Henry [III.], King of England, at the instigation of William Byset, raises an army to invade Scotland, and comes to Newcastle, where he was [met] by King Alexander, newly recovered of his sickness; but by the mediation of the Archbishop of York [Walter de Gray] and some noblemen, a peace was concluded between the two kings, [without] any effusion of blood.
In March, 1245, died Radulf [de Lamley], Bishop of Aberdeen; and in that see succeeded Mr Peter [de] Ramsay, a man nobly born.
This year, likewise, died the King’s chief counsellor and confessor, Adam [of] Harcarse, Abbot of Melrose, a very learned and wise man.
The body of Sir Henry de Baliol, (by the book of Melrose, called Balolfor) this year, 1246, was brought from St. James in Spain, and interred at Melrose.
In September, 1247, died Sir Thomas de Cant, at the Abbey of Melrose, and was there interred.
This year, King Alexander, with advice of his 3 estates, altered the standard of his coin, in a parliament held at St. Andrews.
In the year 1248, Louis [IX.], that noble and holy King of France, with a great many nobles of diverse nations, and a mighty army, marched towards the Holy Land; in which journey died Patrick, [5th] Earl of Dunbar, to whom succeeded his son Patrick, and Sir David Lindsay of Glenesk. This year, also, died that valiant knight, Sir John Crawford, and was interred in the cloister of Melrose Abbey.
In July, 1249, about 9 o’clock in the morning, the 28th day, died King Alexander, at [the Isle of] Kerrera, in the Western Isles [Inner Hebrides], the 51st year of his age, and 35th of his reign, and was interred at the Abbey of Melrose, with great funeral solemnity; after whose death immediately died Geoffrey [de Liberatione], Bishop of Dunkeld, at Tibbermore, and was interred in the Cathedral Church of Dunkeld, under a fair marble, with this inscription:-
Geoffrey expanded the tomb of his father Columba.
17 thoughts on “Alexander II. (1214-1249), King of Scotland, Updated, pp. 38-57.”