10th of September

Saints Nemesianus, Felix, Lucius, another Felix, Litteus, Polianus, Victor, Jader, and Dativus, bishops, and their companions, part martyrs, and part confessors, 3d century. St Pulcheria, virgin and empress, 453. St Finian or Winin, bishop and confessor, 6th century. St Salvius, bishop of Albi, 6th century. St Nicholas of Tolentino, confessor, 1306. 

 

Born. – Mungo Park, African traveller, 1771, Fowlshields, Selkirkshire
Died. – Louis d’Outremer, king of France, killed, 954; John, Duke of Burgundy, murdered at Montereau, 1419; Dr Thomas Sheridan, Irish scholar, translator of Persius, 1738; Ugo Foscolo, Italian republican and writer, 1827, London

 

THE CURFEW.

The lengthening evenings bring naturally to our minds their discomforts in the olden times, and the various customs and observations connected with them. Among these was the curfew-bell, which had been made well known to all ears by the frequent allusions to it in our poets, but which has been the subject of not a few ‘vulgar errors.’ In those old times, people in general, possessed nothing like clocks or watches; they learned, by the practice of observation, to judge roughly of the time of the day, but in cases where it was necessary to know the exact hour, they were entirely at a loss. Any implement for measuring time was rare, and belonged only to a pubic body, or institution, or to some very remarkable individual, and the only means of imparting to the public the knowledge gained from it, was by ringing a bell, or blowing a horn, at certain hours of the day. This practice was first introduced in the monastic establishments, where the inmates required to know the hours for celebrating the various services. It was probably adopted also in the great houses of the aristocracy, and in towns. There were, in fact, many customs to be observed at stated hours, besides the religious services, and some of these were required by public safety. 

In the middle ages there was a very much larger proportion of society which lived by cheating, plundering, and ill treating the rest, than in modern times. Owing to the want of any effective police, there was no safety out of doors at night; and even people who, by daylight, appeared to live honestly, sallied forth after dark to rob and assassinate. It was attempted, in towns especially, to meet this evil, by making it criminal to be found out of doors after a certain hour; and, as otherwise offenders might plead ignorance, it was ordered that the hour should be publicly sounded, generally by the town-bell, and when that was heard, all people were compelled to shut the doors of their houses, put out their fires, and retire to bed, those who were out of bed after the sounding of the bell being liable to severe punishment. It was an efficacious way of clearing the streets. The bell sounded for this purpose was, in France, called popularly the couvre-feu, or cover-fire, which, in the Latin documents in which it was alluded to, was translated by ignitegium. It was apparently, a municipal and not a state institution, and the utility of a general covering of fires at a reasonable hour is obvious. In those days, most houses were constructed wholly or mostly of wood, and were extremely liable to take fire when fire was used carelessly. To cover up the fire was an important regulation for safety, and a utensil was employed for the purpose – here represented. 

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The curfew-bell was used in the monastic establishments as well as in the towns. In Scotland, the hour of curfew was similarly retarded, until it was fixed, not at nine, but at ten o’clock, and that seems to have been, in later times, the usual hour of the Scottish curfew. 

It is quite a mistake to suppose that the curfew-bell was peculiar to this island – it was a natural expedient for serving a generally useful purpose, and was adopted in France, Italy, and Spain, and probably in all parts of continental Europe. Moreover, a corresponding bell was rung in the morning, to inform people of the hour at which it was customary to rise. In some instances, this is merely said to have taken place at daybreak, but a more usual hour appears to have been four o’clock in the morning.

 

On this Day in Other Sources.

 

The 10th of September, this same year [1508], a dreadful earthquake in Scotland and England, which lasted the 10th part of an hour, to the great terror and astonishment of all the inhabitants. 

– Historical Works, pp.214-238.

 

Considering the circumstances of the times, when every effort was made, by a too powerful neighbour, to obtain possession of the Queen’s person, either by force, or fraud: reflecting, also, that the whole power of Scotland had been worsted, on Pinkiefield, on the 10th of September 1547; it was deemed prudent, to remove the Queen, from Stirling castle, to an inaccessible isle, in the lake of Menteith, wherein were a castle, and a monastery. It was the dowager Queen, who inspired the Scotish councils, with persevering resolution, after so great a disaster, as a battle lost. 

– Life of Mary, pp.9-15.

 

The insurgents did not apply to England, in vain, whatever treaties might exist, between that country, and France. Secretary Cecil, in considering that application, in August 1559, said: “If the Queen, and Dauphin will not grant certain points: then may the Estates commit the government to the next heir of the crown: If the Queen (Mary) will not comply; then it is apparent, God Almighty is pleased, to transfer from her the rule of the kingdom, for the weal of all.” Beyond this jacobinical reasoning, which defied the established law, Goodwin, and Knox, could not have gone, in their wildest ebullitions of zeal. Cecil, following up this policy of superceding the legitimate government of Scotland, by the presumptive heir, sent Randolph to France, in order to bring the Earl of Arran into Britain; and he directed Sadler, to repair to Scotland, with such instructions, as were analogous to his reasoning. 

Incited by the favourable sentiments of the English court, the principal reformers again assembled, at Stirling, on the 10th of September 1559. They, immediately, obtained a great accession to their party, by the junction of the Duke of Chattelherault, the heir presumptive of the crown. This feeble statesman was now gained, by his son, Arran, who had imbibed Huguenoterie, while acting as a colonel, in the French guards. After these accessions, the chief reformers took higher ground. The duke, with other lords, sent remonstrances to the Regent, against fortifying Leith. They affected astonishment, that she should deviate thus early, after the late agreement, by planting a colony of foreigners, so near the metropolis: Wide is the distance, between popular topicks, and solid sense: The French were not foreigners, in Scotland, any more than Scotsmen were foreigners, in France: Neither were the two kingdoms foreign to each other: So it had been settled, in the year before, by the Estates of Scotland, in consequence of the Queen’s marriage. As the reformers were acting against established law; so were they acting against the will of the Estates, on this occasion. They intreated the Regent to desist, from her purpose, of averawing the country, into a tyrannical subjection, lest they should be driven, to seek the concurrence of their fellow subjects, for resisting force, by violence. A war of writing now began, in which the Regent had as much the superiority, as the insurgent lords had the advantage, in a war of tumult. 

– Life of Mary, pp.15-41.

 

[In Moray’s mansion, Ternway], was there held a privy council, on the 10th of September [1562]; wherein was there a proceeding against Sir John Gordon, who, as he had not entered himself a prisoner in Stirling castle, was charged to surrender into the Queen’s hands, his houses of Finlater, and Auchendown, on pain of treason. In the same council appeared the Earl of Mar, and producing his privy patent, for the earldom of Moray, now assumed the title. 

– Life of Mary, pp.62-77.

 

On the 10th of September [1565], Randolph wrote to Cecil, she had imprisoned several gentlemen of Fife: But, she could not find Murray’s lady, whom, she knew, had retired to Berwick, for her accouchement: She is offended with Dundee, and Perth, because they have assisted the lords. 

– Life of Mary, pp.98-126.

 

Sep. 10 [1583]. – The king having now escaped from his Ruthven councillors, and fallen once more under the influence of the Earl of Arran, Sir Francis Walsingham came as Elizabeth’s ambassador to express her concern about these movements, and see what could be done towards opposite effects. Coming to a king with an unwelcome message has never been a pleasant duty; but it must have been particularly disagreeable on this occasion, if it be true, as is alleged by a Presbyterian historian, that Arran – who, says he, within a few days after his return to court, ‘began to look braid’ – hounded out a low woman, called Kate the witch, to assail the ambassador with vile speeches as he passed to and from the king’s presence. – Cal

– Domestic Annals, pp.81-98.

 

What the Bank of England has often in modern times been to the British government, Thomas Foulis, the Edinburgh goldsmith, was in those days to King James – a ready resource when money was urgently required for state purposes. On the 10th of September 1594, the royal debt to Thomas was no less than £14,598; and as a security so far for this sum the king consigned to him ‘twa drinking pieces of gold, weighing in the haill fifteen pund and five unce,’ which the consignee was to be at liberty to coin into ‘five-pund pieces,’ if the debt should not be otherwise paid before the 1st of November next, ‘the superplus, gif oney beis,’ to be forthcoming for his majesty’s use. The value of the gold of these drinking-cups at the present day would be about £950, which shows that the debt in question was expressed in Scottish money. It may be remarked, that on the same day the king consigned another gold drinking-cup, weighing twelve pounds five ounces, in favour of John Arnott, burgess of Edinburgh, who had lent him £6000. It further appears that Thomas Foulis very soon after lent the king £12,000 more ‘for out-redding of sundry his hieness’ affairs.’ 

– Domestic Annals, pp.124-176.

 

On the Leith Wynd Port, as on others, the quarters of criminals were displayed. In September, 1672, the Depute of Gilbert Earl of Errol (High Constable of Scotland) sentenced James Johnstone, violer, who had stabbed his wife, to be hanged, “and to have his right hand, which gave the stroak, cut off, and affixed upon Leith-wind Port, and ordained the magistrats of Edinburgh to cause put the sentence to execution upon the 9th of that month.” 

– Old and New Edinburgh, pp.300-309.

 

44. THOMAS PETER of Crossbasket.

Born about 1640; died, 1721.

Merchant in Glasgow Treasurer of the City, 1689; Bailie, 1701, 1712; Dean of Guild, 1707, 1708. “Mortified to this House 3000 merks. Died 10th September, 1721; 81 years of age. Ordered the interest of said sum for ye annual supply of a poor merchant.”

– Memorial Catalogue, Gallery 1.

 

“HINTS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF SCOTLAND,

AS A SEPARATE DIVISION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE,

BY THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR JOHN SINCLAIR, BART.

_____

   It is well known, that the power of a country principally depends on the revenue which it possesses, and consequently, that the real value of any portion of it ought to be estimated, according to the clear income which it produces to the national treasury. In that respect it is proposed to make a comparison between Scotland and Ireland, as separate divisions of the Empire, and then to prove the immense advantages which, in point of revenue, England has derived from its Union with Scotland.

    I. From the recent accounts which have been laid before Parliament, it appears that the population of Ireland and of Scotland, and the gross income and net revenue of the two kingdoms, for one year, ending on the 5th of April, 1822, were as follows:-

  

  

Population.

Country – 1821.

Gross Revenue, for

year ending

5th April,

1822.

Net Revenue, for

year ending

5th April,

1822.

Ireland                 6,846,949 

£5,181,208

£4,059,373

Scotland               2,092,014 

 4,292,567

 3,456,642

Difference            4,754,935 

£888,641

£602,731

   Hence it is evident that, comparing the population with the gross revenue, every Scotchman pays per head 2l. 1s. 0¾d. and every Irishman 15s. 1d.; but if a comparison is made according to the net revenue, every Scotchman pays 1l. 12s. 10¼d. and every Irishman but 11s. 9¼d. or little more than one-third.

   From these facts, the following deductions are to be made:-

    1. If the population of Ireland (6,846,949) gives a net revenue of 4,059,373l. what should the population of Scotland (2,092,614) produce in the same proportion?

   Answer, 1,254,188l.; consequently Scotland pays 2,202,454l. per annum beyond its proportion, comparing the population of the two countries.

    2. If the population of Scotland (2,092,014) produces a net revenue of 3,456,642l. what should the population of Ireland (6,846,949) produce at the same rate?

   Answer, 11,295,500l. or Ireland pays 7,256,207l. less than its proportion, comparing its revenue and population with those of Scotland.

    3. If Ireland, producing a net revenue of 4,059,373l. has 52 Peers and 100 Commoners, what number of Peers and Commoners ought Scotland to have, producing a net revenue of 3,456,642l.?

   Answer, 27 Peers and 85 Commoners; consequently Scotland ought to have 11 Peers and 40 Commoners additional.

    4. If Scotland, producing a net revenue of 3,456,642l. has only 16 Peers and 45 Commoners, how many Peers and Commoners ought Ireland to have, producing a net revenue of 4,059,373l.?

   Answer, 19 Peers and 53 Commoners; consequently Ireland has 15 Peers and 47 Commoners beyond its proportion, according to the net revenue payable by the two countries.

   This shews what a much better bargain the Irish made at their Union than the Scots did, when they were united to England, and it ought to make the Irish less hostile to that Union than many of them are inclined to be at present.

    II. It is next proposed to give some idea of the immense advantages which, in point of revenue, the English have derived from the Union with Scotland.

   The revenue of Scotland at the Union was only 110,694l., but in order that both nations, in the words of the Act of Treaty of Union, “might be put on equal footing,” an additional land tax was imposed, by means of which, with other resources, it was intended that the revenue of Scotland should be raised to 160,000l. per annum, which was then estimated to be its full proportion. The revenue which England produced at that time was 5,691,803l. Hence the following results may be drawn, which are calculated according to the gross revenue, the net income at the Union not being exactly ascertained:-

    1. If Scotland at the Union produced 160,000l. of gross revenue per annum, when England produced 5,691,803l. now that England produces 54,564,910l., what should Scotland pay, according to the original proportion settled at the Union?

   Answer, 575,191l., or 3,717,373l. less than it does at present.

   2. If Scotland now produces 4,292,567l. of gross revenue, what should England now produce, if its revenue had increased since the Union, in the same proportion as Scotland?

   Answer, 152,702,285l., or 98,137,875l. per annum more than it does at present.

   There can hardly be a doubt, if Scotland had insisted that it should not be subjected in future to heavier payments than in proportion to those which it had agreed to pay at the Union, the stipulation, being a fair one, would have been acceded to, and it is evident that Scotland does now produce a revenue, in proportion, much larger than ever was contemplated at the Union.

   It is likewise to be observed, that Scotland pays a larger revenue than what appears from the accounts laid before Parliament; for all the teas, groceries, porter, drugs, and a number of other articles consumed in Scotland, pay the taxes to which they are liable, previous to their being landed here; thus augmenting the revenue of England, and proportionably reducing that of Scotland.

   No one wishes more than the person by whom this paper is drawn up, that the three kingdoms should be cordially united together on just and honourable principles; and he is anxious, therefore, that the claims of Scotland should be made known to the Ministers of the United Kingdom, and to the people of both England and Ireland, that these claims may be duly appreciated. He entertains indeed no doubt, that every candid and honourable man who peruses these statements, will be willing to acknowledge their justice, and will be ready to support any measures calculated for the honour or the advantage of Scotland, that may be submitted to the consideration of the Sovereign, or the Government, or the Legislature of the country.

   N.B. The author has not been able to procure “The Public Expences” incurred on account of Scotland and Ireland respectively. He has hitherto only ascertained, that the civil expences of Ireland, for one year, ending on the 5th of January last (1822), amounted to 617,216l.; and those of Scotland only to 133,077l.; making a difference of no less a sum than 484,138l., or nearly half a million. The military and ordnance expences of Ireland, for the same period, came to 1,628,433l. 6s.; whereas those of Scotland cannot amount to even 100,000l., for there were in May last only two regiments of cavalry of about 290 men each, one regiment of infantry containing 568 men, and about 100 artillery.”

Morning Chronicle, 10th September, 1822.

– Newspaper Articles and Letter Relating to the Treaty of Union, Articles 1800-1850.

 

   “… As respects many other things names are of immense importance. Nations have gone to war about a name, and we believe the Scottish people are so proud of their name, that had the English Parliament previous to the Union stipulated that the United Kingdom was to be called England they would never have agreed to it on such a condition. To meet this feeling it was stipulated and agreed to that the two kingdoms of England and Scotland should be for ever united ‘into one realm, by the name of Great Britain and in the Treaty of Union the whole people are spoken of as ‘the subjects of Great Britain.’ Notwithstanding of all this care to prevent Scotland from being absorbed by England instead of being united to it upon equal terms and under a common name there has been a persistent determination exhibited by Englishmen to ignore both Scotland and Ireland, and to have everything national called English, and there are many weak renegade Scotsmen to aid them in this design. Small poets sing of the ‘Queen of merry England,’ great historians write of the victories achieved in the Peninsula at Waterloo, and in India by ‘the armies of England,’ and some of our representatives sometimes speak of ‘the English Parliament.’ When Scotsmen themselves exhibit so little respect for their own country it is less to be wondered at, that Englishmen should glorify their own nationality as they do, to the derogation of Scotland, but still it is annoying to find the leading newspapers in England and the leading public speakers keep with so much unanimity to the phraseology referred to that abroad even more than at home the style and title of ‘Great Britain’ is becoming, if it has not already become, quite obsolete. Thus, there, less than here, is anything else heard, and foreigners cannot be expected to think or call anything British which they see everlastingly termed English. As an instance of how far the wretched habit has grown at home we find not only that within these few days an English member of Parliament – Mr Roebuck – in addressing his constituency used ‘England’ and ‘English’ fifteen times, as ‘Government of England,’ ‘name of England,’ ‘influence of England,’ ‘people of England,’ ‘English colonies,’ ‘English House of Commons,’ ‘commerce of England,’ &c., instead of Britain and British, but at the recent review of the Rifle Volunteers belonging to the West of Scotland, Colonel McMurdo, himself a Scotsman, addressed them as ‘Volunteers of England.’ But whatever the English and the would-be English may do it is the unquestionable duty of every true Scotsman to maintain the national name. If we are not Britons we are Scotsmen, and we never can by any possibility become Englishmen. No doubt if we had been English, we would have been proud of the name, but being Scotsmen we are content with the honour which that confers, and want no other national character. Such is the power of names that when Scotland comes to be regarded at home and throughout the world as a province of England, Scotsmen will be no longer what they have hitherto been. It is impossible that Scotsmen in general could ever have the same aspirations in reference to anything merely English as in reference to something Scottish or British, for when the former word is used as applied to the whole of the United Kingdom it is an insult his own nationality. With a right to the name of Scotsmen or of Britons, but with none to that of Englishmen, they will be a people without a recognised name. Think of our Scottish soldiers and seamen being obliged to maintain amongst their English comrades that they are Englishmen as well as them! In every point of view there is evident degradation in this sinking of the name of Britain as well as that of Scotland, and unless the practice meets with uniform and determined opposition from every one who loves and honours his country, and who does not want the name of England and English imposed upon the United Kingdom and everything connected with it, the object, however slowly, will be surely and certainly accomplished.”

– Paisley Herald and Renfrewshire Advertiser, Saturday 10th September, 1864.

– Newspaper Articles and Letter Relating to the Treaty of Union, Articles 1850-1875.

9 thoughts on “10th of September

  1. Queen Elizabeth I and her Protestant Government and followers The Church of England guilty of murder.
    Researched by Frank Dougan May 2018.
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    The Oaten Hill Martyrs (also known as the “Canterbury martyrs”) were Catholic Martyrs who were executed by hanging, drawing and quartering at Oaten Hill, Canterbury, on 1 October 1588. These four were beatified by Pope Pius XI in 1929.[1]
    Robert Wilcox was born in Chester, England in 1558 and entered the seminary at Rheims when he was twenty-five years old and was ordained on 20 April 1585. He was sent to England with other priests seeking to expand the Catholic faith and deal with the country’s expanding Protestantism under Queen Elizabeth I. Wilcox arrived in England on 7 June 1586 but was arrested almost immediately at Lydd in Kent, near to where he entered the country. As a captive, he was sent to the Marshalsea prison where he was examined on 15 August 1588. Here he admitted he was a Catholic priest and was sent for trial with the others to Canterbury, England.[2]
    Wilcox was the first of the four to be executed. It is recorded that he told his companions to be of good heart. He was going to heaven before them, where he would carry the tidings of their coming after him.[3]
    Gerard Edwards, a Catholic priest, was born at Ludlow, Shropshire, and studied at Jesus College, Oxford, but left without obtaining a degree.[2] On 22 February 1586 he left England to study for the priesthood in Rheims. He changed his name to “Edward Campion” in honour of St Edmund Campion. Because of his education he was ordained after just a year and returned to England at Easter 1587.[3] He was captured in Sittingbourne, Kent, just a few weeks later, however, and was imprisoned at the Newgate and the Marshalsea prisons in London following questioning by order of the Privy Council on 22 April 1587. Upon a second examination on 14 August 1588, he admitted to being a priest.[2] He was thirty-six years of age at the time of his execution.
    Robert Widmerpool was arrested for giving aid to a Catholic priest.
    Christopher Buxton was a Catholic priest, born in Derbyshire. He studied for the priesthood at Reims and Rome, and was ordained in 1586. He left Rome the next year, and soon after his arrival in England was apprehended and condemned to death for his priesthood. While in the Marshalsea Prison he wrote a Rituale, the manuscript of which is now preserved as a relic at Olney, Buckinghamshire. He sent this manuscript to a priest, as a last token of his friendship, the day before he was taken from the prison.

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  2. Many Primary sources are quoted by William Forbes-Leith, S.J. throughout his volume especially his search through Vatican Archives, he describes Buchanan as godless, with detailed analysis of the persecution of Catholics, along with first-hand letters. The copy of ( Narrative of Scottish Catholics ) that I have used was borrowed from Strathclyde University Andersonian Library. This book is a wealth of information for anyone interested in the period of the Reformation. Forbes-Leith informs his reader; ‘ There is preserved among the Cecil Papers a full list of all the ” fortresses, abbeys, friar houses, market towns,….burnt, razed, and cast down by the Earl of Hertford, between the 8th of September and the 23rd of the same, 1545. It chronicles the destruction of 7 monasteries, 16 castles, 5 market towns, 243 villages, 13 mills, and 3 hospitals.” ( “R.O. Scotland,” Henry V111., vol. viii. No. 86 ) ‘As many as ” 192 towns, parish churches, castle-houses, and 243 villages were cast down or burnt, and the country was reduced to a desert.” ( Haynes State Papers, 43 and 52, July-November 1544. Cf. Tytler, vol. v. p 310, footnote. ) Forbes-Leith points to the Earl of Lennox who was in command of English forces and the atrocities perpetuated by them; ‘ Dundee was taken and the Church destroyed, Dryfe’s Dale was laid waste, above five hundred Scots were taken, slain, or drowned in the Nith; the prisoners, priests and friars, were dragged along with halters round their necks.’ ( The Warden of the Grey Friars was executed. MS. letter from Lennox and Wharton to the Earl of Somerset, 25th Feb. 1547-8. — ” R.O. Scotland,” Edward V1., vol. iii. No 53, 25th Feb. 1548, fol. 939. ) I spoke with Peter Kearny the director of the Scottish Catholic Media Office in Glasgow, he kindly furnished me with a report entitled; ” Response by the Bishops’ Conference of Scotland to ‘ Tackling Religious Hatred’. 10th. March 2003″. I will relate some of this Response such as; “The divisions and hatred which threaten to impoverish our society by distorting or suppressing the authentic spirit of religion must be overcome and we welcome the Scottish Executive’s willingness to face up to this issue.” The Catholic Bishops Response continues to highlight the discrimination in Scotland especially against the Roman Catholics by writing thus; “A historical understanding of religious intolerance however, is a fundamental pre-requisite to progress. Legislation which forms the constitution of the UK has traditionally discriminated against Catholics; e.g. the Act of Settlement. Once the State concedes that discrimination against a particular group (in this case Catholics) is acceptable, it is difficult to see how it can regain the moral authority needed to criticise religious hatred and intolerance wherever it is found”. They emphasise the currant sectarianism in Scotland. ” Education is a vital element in overcoming the resentment of those from different communities but on its own does not produce people free of resentment and hatred. The task of creating a harmonious society is always one requiring considerable effort. In responding to the friction’s which arise in society because of the different constituent ethnic or religious communities attempts to eradicate differences are counter-productive and often unjust; rather it is our view that religious tolerance should be pursued by fully promoting religious freedom. This right is an essential requirement of the dignity of every person and necessary for the personal fulfilment of each individual and as such is necessary for peaceful human co-existence. In recognising that religious intolerance is evident in Scotland (against Roman Catholics in particular) we propose the following principles as the foundation of understanding and practising religious tolerance”. The Bishops display a list of six proposals; ” 1. The right to religious freedom is grounded in respect for human dignity. 2. Individuals should not be forced to act in a manner contrary to their religious beliefs, nor should they be restrained from acting in accordance with their religious beliefs. 3. Religious bodies have a right to manifest and teach the social relevance of their religious beliefs. 4. Religious bodies have a right to establish and maintain corporate institutions and services and conduct them in accordance with their religious beliefs and values. 5. Because the right to religious freedom is exercised within society, it ought to be subject to the laws which ordinarily safeguard justice and civil order. 6. Civil authorities do not have the right to command or inhibit acts of religion which are outside their proper competence”. Concluding the Response by the Bishops’ Conference they note; “Promoting such principles contributes to the recognition of the dignity of each individual, which is a necessary condition for creating a free and just society”. These papers were written for the Scottish Executive in Edinburgh because of the present day sectarianism that still has a stranglehold over the nation. It’s a long and difficult process and as you have seen throughout this essay I have endeavoured to shed light on this evil. There are some more highlights from another book by the Open University, ( Modern Scottish History 1707 to the Present Volume 4) Readings 1850 to the present, edited by, Anthony Cooke, Ian Donnachie, Ann MacSween and Christopher A. Whatley. Published by Tuckwell Press 1998. Article thirty-five. Protestant Extremism in urban Scotland 1930-1939. Its growth and contraction. By Tom Gallagher 1985. ” The Scottish Historical Review 64, 143-67″. Throughout this chapter Tom Gallagher brings an in-depth view on the hatred displayed and performed by Presbyterian leaders especially during the period dated above. He notes the victimisation against Irish and Scottish Catholics by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and the report they produced entitled; The Menace of the Irish Race on Our Scottish Nationality. He writes; “George Malcolm Thomson (later a notable journalist and long-standing aide to Lord Beaverbrook) and Andrew Dewar Gibb, (Founder of the SNP) professor of Scots law at Glasgow University were two nationalists who by the end of the 1920s, were writing about the menace from within posed by the ‘Irish’ in Scotland”. He names Annie S. Swan and R. W. Campbell as amongst the worst by writing; “The arch-imperialist R. W. Campbell, of whom it has been said that he seemed to despise anyone who was not a white, Scottish, Boys Brigade member”. Tom Gallagher writes about Alexander Ratcliffe and the sectarian newspaper he produced The Vanguard and his viscous political party The Scottish Protestant League (SPL). Gallagher writes about Catholic schools and notes; The ‘religious’ matter which chiefly preoccupied the SPL was the fact that Catholic schools were now maintained by the state under Section 18 of the 1918 Education (Scotland) Act. Previously largely financed from the meagre resources of the 650,000 strong (and mainly working class) Catholic community”. Ratcliffe and his followers in the SPL were demanding the abolition of Catholic schools and crying that it was ” Rome on the rates”. Gallagher writes; “This slogan conveniently over looked the fact that up to 1918, Catholic ratepayers had been obliged to subsidise non-Catholic schools while having to make other provisions for their own”. These facts that Gallagher brings were these same scenario with Catholic Churches and properties robbed from the Scottish Catholics from 1560. Ratcliffe was also a contributor to the labour party weekly ‘The Forward’ which Gallagher claims was the premier paper of the Scottish left from 1906 to the 1950s. Tom Gallagher continues; “Ratcliffe belonged to the Scottish Fascists whose leader Weir Gilmour, maintained his anti-Catholicism well into the post-war years. Gallagher writes that Ratcliffe had close ties with militant Protestants in Northern Ireland and referrers to an incident at the newly opened ‘parliament’ at Stormont. “On 2nd of May 1933 when a picture depicting King William of Orange being blessed by an ecclesiastical figure resting on a cloud was attacked by an SPL contingent, The painting was daubed by in paint by Mrs. Mary Ratcliffe and then slashed by councillor Forrester”. Actually this has always been part and parcel of Presbyterian philosophy as we have seen in recent years the same crimes being committed by their followers, who carried out the slashing of Salvador Dali’s masterpiece St. John of the Cross in a Glasgow museum, not to forget the hundred of churches, monasteries and works of art that they have destroyed throughout the past four hundred and forty years, in Scotland, England, Ireland and Wales. Gallagher informs his reader that Lord Scone, Tory MP for Perth had been honorary president of the Scottish Protestant League. Tom Gallagher goes on about Ratcliffe’s visit to nazi-Germany in August 1939 and his support for the Hitler regime he wrote; “By 1940, the Jews had replaced Roman Catholics as his main bugbear and he contemptuously referred to the Gorbals district of Glasgow as ‘Jew-land’. Articles entitled in The Vanguard ‘Our Jewish Usurers’, ‘the Jews and crime’ and ‘Why Germany put out the Jews’ and a piece entitled ‘Britain’s Pro-Jew Menace’. He wrote in Vanguard ‘we are very kind to Roman Catholics in Scotland, of course the reason being that we have no Hitler in our midst to eject Popery. Ratcliffe, a Protestant iconoclast to the last, wanted to see the triumph of Hitler”. Gallagher introduces John Cormack a Protestant extremist who had been accused of stealing mail from the General Post Office where he worked in Edinburgh in 1932, details are listed by Gallagher of the sectarian violence and hatred by Cormack and his followers known as Protestant Action. The Hope Trust is pointed out by Gallagher as having given out anti-Catholic literature to Bible classes and the Boys’ Brigade for many years. During this period Cormack no doubt spurred on by John White the sectarian moderator of the Church of Scotland, the Protestant Action group were standing for elections and Tom Gallagher notes a bold black headline from the Edinburgh and Leith Observer stating; “Sectarianism Dominating Municipal Election, Wild Ward Meetings, Protestant Storm Troops Adopt Un-Christian Tactics.” Cormack represented South Leith without interruption from 1938 till 1962. Gallagher wrote that Cormack formed ‘Kormack’s Kaledonian Klan’ he notes; “A paramilitary body derived from the Ku Klux Klan.” He continues to inform his reader; “At the 1935 general election William Fullerton, the leader of the Protestant ‘Billy Boy’ gang came from this part of Glasgow and was a section leader in the British Union of Fascists.” Gallagher points out the evil in these organisations; “On two separate occasions at the Mound (Edinburgh) in June 1940 he (Cormack) was reported as saying that ‘ when Protestants went “over the top”(as in the war) with Roman Catholics, the Protestants should shoot them’, but no action was taken (by the authorities). Cormack was elected as a baillie 1955 by his fellow councillors”. I would like to know the statistics about any Roman Catholics who had the mis-fortune to be tried in a court with Cormack as the magistrate, though this only lends ammunition to my argument that these types of religious maniacs should not be empowered to decide the fate of the proletariat. Gallagher wrote; “The Rev. D. M. McGregor spoke out against the linking of Protestantism with mob violence: “If Protestantism can only be vindicated in such crude ways, its day is nearly done.” From volume 5 of the Open University book ( University of Dundee ) entitled “Major Documents”, published by Tuckwell Press Ltd. 1998. Edited by Anthony Cooke, Ian Donnachie, Ann MacSween and Christopher A. Whatley. I will highlight some of their findings on Document 24 ‘Lord Kames’ Statute Law abridged’. “All seminary priests found in the realm, all receptors of these if found a third time in fault, all sayers of mass, and all wilful hearers of mass and concealers of the same, are subjected to the pains of death, and the confiscation of their moveables. A Protestant servant, if he became a Papist, is to be punished, and must be dismissed his service. If a Papist purchase land, the deed of sale is declared null, and the seller is entitled to retain both the land and the price. No professed Papist shall be capable of succeeding to an estate; and if a Protestant becomes a Papist he forfeits his estate. Neither shall it be allowed to any professed, or even suspected Papist, to teach any art, science, or exercise of any sort, under pain of 500 merks; and the above penalties may be sued for by any Protestant subject for his own behoof as his reward. That no adjudication or real diligence shall be competent at the instance of a Papist; neither shall a Papist be capable of becoming tutor, curator, or factor; and if any person or persons presume to employ a Papist, or such as are suspected of Popery, in any of the above trusts, they must purge themselves of Popery, under the penalty of a year’s valued rent, or a fine of 1000 merks. No Papist past the age of 15 shall be capable to succeed as heir, nor bruik, nor enjoy any estate by disposition or conveyance from any person to whom the said Papist is apparent heir, until he purge himself of Popery. The heir under 15 must purge himself of Popery before succeeding as heir, and if he refuse to do so his right shall go to the next Protestant heir. Presbyterians are appointed to summon before them all Papists, and those suspected of Papistry, in order to satisfy the Kirk; and if Papists do not produce sufficient certificates of their having given due satisfaction to the Kirk, they shall be declared rebels, put to the horn, and both their single and life-rent escheated. Further, that whoever receipts, supplies or entertains, such persons after denunciation aforesaid, shall incur the penalty of single and life-rent escheat.” Source: Lord Kames, Statute Law Abridged, quoted in Senex (psued) 1884 Glasgow Past and Present Vol. 11, Glasgow, 163-4. On the same page of this document listed as Notes 2, ( Scots Magazine 1756, 100 ) it states; “On the 1st of March, 1756, Hugh M’Donald, brother of M’Donald of Morra, was tried at Edinburgh before the High Court of Judiciary, at the instance of the Lord Advocate, for refusing to purge himself of Popery. Being asked ‘whether he was willing to take the formula prescribed by Act 1700-3’ he declared, ‘that he was not at freedom of conscience to do it.’ He was then found guilty in terms of libel, and sentenced to be banished from the kingdom, never to return under pain of death.’ From the same book Document 25, Religion, entitled (The Encrease of Popery in the Highlands) the writer examines the Church of Scotland documents from ministers; “This is one of a number of reports written by groups of Highland ministers of the Church of Scotland concerning the growth of Roman Catholicism in the Highlands. In much of the area, Presbyterianism had never been fully established, but during the first half of the eighteenth century the attempt to Presbyterianise the people was seen as the key to the ‘hearts and minds’ element of suppressing Jacobitism. These accounts show how Catholicism was relatively flourishing and how the work of the Presbyterian clergy was difficult. Dated 19 May, 1714. I will show some of the findings of this document such as; “Priest Frazer is entertained in The Duke of Gordon’s family.” “There are above six hundred Papists in the paroch of Bellie, & in Kinnore & Dumbennan the Papists are equal in numbers to the Protestants.” “The Papists in the said bounds have of late set up private schools which are taught bt Popish women.” ” There are in the paroch of Inveraven two hundred and seventy Papists.” “In the paroch of Lochaber the priests swarm like Locusts.” “There are four large tracts of ground in the presbytery of Lorne upon the continent vizt: Muirdart, Arasaig, Morhirr & Knoidart contiguous to one another, which are altogether Popish.” “The Isles of Rum, Egg & Canna are all Popish. The Isle of South Uist is all Popish.” “These Countreys and Islands were never Reformed from Popery. And generally all the relations followers & tennants of Clanronald, through all his Lands both in the Continent & Isles are all Papists.” “In these countreys there are to the number of two thousand Papists.” One must take into account how many Scottish historians have claimed that the Reformation was an overnight success yet we see from this document that there were thousands of Catholics and many priests, this was over 150 years after the Reformation. Today in the 21st-century Scotland still has desperate problems, especially when a man such as Pope John Paul II accused the nation of being non-Christian. I cannot recall recent Pope’s describing Scotland in a manner that the present Pope has made, however this declaration is of no great surprise considering the atrocities and abuses that have been performed by Protestant/Presbyterian’s over the past centuries. Written and researched by; Frank J Dougan

    Scottish Catholic Bishops condemn the persecution and intolerance in Scotland against Scottish Catholics. The founders of the Scottish Nationalist Party helped to create this hatred present to this day 2019
    In “BBC”

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Written and researched by Francesco Josepa Dougan
    I would like to draw your attention to The Lindisfarne Gospels that have been displayed at Durham Cathedral until 30 September, 2013 and have now been returned to the British Library in London.
    The Lindisfarne Gospels were stolen by the thugs of Satan, King Henry VIII and sold to a book dealer around c1613.
    They were translated and written by Saint Eadfrith, Prior of Lindisfarne circa 690ad.
    Source Eadfrith; Reverend Canon Kate Tristram
    “Eadfrith is of special importance to us here, as he was the artist and calligrapher of the Lindisfarne Gospels. We know nothing about his place of birth or his family, or where he got his early training as a scribe. Nor do we know of any other work or writing from his pen. But is that surprising? We admire the art of this period, but what has survived is only a tiny fraction of all that was made. Perhaps Eadfrith wrote other texts equally beautiful, but an immense amount has perished and we shall never know.
    The Lindisfarne gospels were written during the years between 687, when St. Cuthbert died, and 721, when Eadfrith died. They were made in honour of St. Cuthbert. Perhaps they were used for the first time at the ceremony of ‘elevation’ when his body was found to be undecayed, or else during the following years when his cult was growing. Modern scholars have worked out that the whole book was the work of one man, and that it might have taken him as much as ten years to produce it.
    It was in many ways an adventurous piece of work. Eadfrith introduced features, such as the human portraits of the evangelists, which had not previously been in the artistic tradition of these islands.
    But Eadfrith himself probably did not think his artistic work was the most important thing he did. For his last 23 years he was Bishop of Lindisfarne, and actively promoted the cult of St. Cuthbert. At this time the monastery here was very friendly with the monastery of Wearmouth/Jarrow, where Bede was just making his reputation as a great scholar. A Life of Cuthbert had already been written here on the Island by an anonymous monk, but Eadfrith asked Bede to write the ‘official’ life of Cuthbert, and it is through Bede’s writings that we know most about him. Eadfrith also restored the hermitage on the Inner Farne which had been Cuthbert’s, so that another hermit, Felgild, could take up residence there.
    When Eadfrith died his body was buried near St.Cuthbert’s tomb and when the monks of Lindisfarne finally left the Island in 875 his relics travelled with those of others in St. Cuthbert’s coffin, to find a permanent home in Durham.”
    Approximately 100,000 people visited The Gospels, however many people such as myself who are pensioners and others on a low budget could not afford to pay £7-£9 to view these Holy Gospels that were written by the Apostles of Our Lord Jesus Christ and translated by Eadfrith for everyone to read free of charge.
    I wrote to the British Library in London and asked where did the £900,000 go they replied they did not know?
    Saint Bede-Venerable Bede who’s sarcophagus is in the Cathedral was present at the period Eadfrith wrote these translations from Latin into Anglo-Saxon or Old English, in fact St. Bede wrote ‘The Ecclesiastical History of the English People’ and as his death approached he was translating The Gospel of St. John from Latin into English.
    Previously St. Bede had written about the life of St. Cuthbert the great saint of Lindisfarne who was born in the Lothian Hills.
    St. Bede was regarded as one of the greatest scholars of his age and generations of monks and teachers were trained by the use of his writings he is a Doctor of the Catholic Church.
    He wrote on the reasons for the Leap Year the equinox and dating events such as BC and AD and worked out how Easter should be dated each year and even calculated that the world was round he was born in Sunderland he wrote over 74 books relating to Jesus.
    Today BC and AD have been forced to change in schools to BCE and CE the people that changed this are bonkers.
    In my opinion and that of many others The Lindisfarne Gospels to be returned to the Catholic Church in North East England permanently and for everyone to see them free of charge forever and may I suggest they could be taken to every Cathedral in England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales of all Christian faiths to be shown as this would revitalize our faith as is badly needed.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Good morning, that’s very interesting information you have there. A little outside of our remit, being English history in the main. I’d have to disagree with your feelings regarding the “bonkers” use of BCE and CE. We’ve had a multi-faith society for a few centuries at least now, yet the authorities were set on having everyone use the christian “Before Christ” and “Anno Domini” denominations for era. I’d say this probably has irked those non-christians for the longest time. In the compromise of “Before Common Era” and “Common Era,” this suits everyone no matter their belief and I, for one, was relieved when I began my uni course and was advised these were what was to be used from now on. It made sense to me.
      Thank you very much for your extremely informative comment to the site. We appreciate your input.

      Liked by 1 person

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