POUND four ounces refined sugar, which put into a frying pan with one ounce butter; when it begins to get frothy and the sugar melted hold it higher above the fire; when it is of a deep brown, pour in by degrees a pint (mutchkin) of port wine, stirring well all the time, then add half an ounce Jamaica pepper, four shalots, peeled and sliced, a few cloves and mace, three spoonfuls of ketchup, a little salt, and the rhind of a lemon; boil the whole slowly ten minutes and pour it into a bason; when cold skim and bottle it, cork and put it aside for use.
Put a gill of water, four ounces lump sugar, and half a pound butter, into a small stewpan, over a slow fire; keep stirring until it is of a fine light brown, then pour in two gills more water, boil, skim, and let it cool, then bottle and cork it close; with this liquid soups and gravies are coloured.
Take thin slices of beef, broil some over a clear quick fire, so long only as will give a colour to the gravy; put them, along with the remaining raw slices, into a clean well tinned stewpan, with two onions, a few cloves, a little black and Jamaica pepper, and some sweet herbs; pour on boiling water to cover it, boil and skim it clean, then cover it close and let it stew till strong enough.
Cut in slices some lean beef, veal and mutton, cover the bottom of the saucepan with the veal, then a layer of beef, a few slices of bacon, a few of carrots and onions, a little mace and cloves, a few whole black and Jamaica pepper, and sweet herbs; above that the mutton. Cover the pan close, set it on a slow fire for six or eight minutes; when the gravy draws make the fire quicker, to brown it a little; mix a small quantity of flour with water, which pour in, and immediately pour over it as much boiling water as will cover the meat well; cover it close again, and let it stew till it is rich and good; season with salt and strain it. This will keep nearly eight days.
Take two gills small beer (but not bitter), one gill of water, an onion, and a little lemon peel cut small, three cloves, a blade or two of mace, some whole pepper, a spoonful of mushroom ketchup one of walnut pickle and an anchovy; put the size of a walnut of butter into a saucepan, when it is melted shake in a little flour, let it brown, then, by degrees, stir in the ingredients; let it boil fifteen minutes and strain it through a sieve.
Take about two pounds of a leg of veal cut in slices, one pound of lean bacon, or ham, put them into a saucepan with a piece of butter, three cloves, half a nutmeg, or a few blades of mace pounded, a few mushroom bottoms, some sweet herbs, two bay leaves, shalots and onions. Cover the pan close and let them stew gently till they are a nice brown, only take care they do not burn; fill up the pan with good beef broth and some fresh cream, let it boil half an hour, stirring it frequently, then strain it through a temmy cloth, or French soup strainer.
Wash and clean the feet and giblets, stew them with a little toasted bread, an onion, a little parsley, thyme, pepper and salt; thicken it with a little flour and butter and add a teaspoonful of ketchup.
Pick and clean a stale snipe, or woodcock, take out the bag, then cut the bird in pieces, put it to stew with as much unseasoned meat gravy as will be required, strain and serve it in the dish.
Make the gravy from a leg, knuckle, or shoulder of veal, or the scrag end of it or mutton. If the pye is made of fowl, or rabbits, the necks and heads, with a small piece of meat, will be sufficient, and if not strong enough, a cow-heel or mutton shank; put the meat into a stewpan, with a slice of lean ham, or bacon, a few sweet herbs, with mace, pepper, and onions to your taste, a small bit of lemon peel, and three pints (mutchkins) water; put the whole into a close stewpan, or digester, when it boils skim it clean, let it stew very slowly, when the stock is strong enough strain it, and when cold, carefully lift off all the fat that none may be left; lay over the top a sheet of blossom paper, which will absorb the grease. If the jelly is not clear, pour it off from the sediment and boil it a few minutes with the whites of three eggs beaten, then pass it through a jelly bag.
Clean and boil a fish in three-fourths of a gallon of water, with a calf’s foot, or cow-heel, some horseraddish, an onion, a few blades of mace, white pepper, lemon peel, and one or two slices of lean ham, or gammon. Stew it to a strong jelly, strain it, and when cold take off all the fat, separate it from the sediment, and boil it with a glass or two of sherry and the whites of six eggs beat up, and lemon peel; let it boil without stirring a few minutes, Let it stand to settle half an hour, then pass it through a jelly bag, or fine lawn sieve. It is used for covering fish with when cold.
Roll a piece of butter in flour, put it into a saucepan, stir it about till it is a fine yellow colour; put in some broth, gravy, a glass of wine, a little parsley, thyme, sweet basil, mace, cloves, mushrooms, pepper and salt according to taste; let it stew an hour over a slow fire, skim the fat clean off, and strain it through a sieve.
Meat sauces are generally made with sweet herbs, mushrooms, onions, garlic, spinage, shalots, vinegar, wine, crumbs of bread, or thickened with flour; boiled or stewed with broth or gravy, and mixed with butter and spiceries, according to the taste or fancy of the person who makes them. Sauces ought to stew slowly on the fire, and when ready should be strained through a temmy cloth or hair sieve. The following are a few of those in most general use.
Mix two spoonfuls of good sauce, or cullis, with veal gravy, a little white wine, shalot chopt, pepper and salt, boil it a little, then add some lemon juice and serve.
Fry two or three onions sliced, with oil or butter, until brown, add a little broth, or sauce, chopt mushrooms, a clove of garlic, two cloves, and a little vinegar; boil it half an hour to reduce it to the consistence of a sauce, and skim.
Take two spoonfuls of the mutton gravy and the like quantity of vinegar, two or three shalots chopt small, and a little salt; put the whole into a saucepan, with a little butter rolled in flour, stir it together and let it boil a few minutes. For those who like shalots it is the best sauce for mutton.
Take half a pint of cream and four ounces of butter, stir them together till thick, and add either a spoonful of mushroom pickle, pickled mushrooms, or a few fresh small ones, with salt, or a little lemon juice.
Slice two onions and fry them with oil or butter, when it begins to brown add a little wine vinegar, and good broth, or gravy, two slices of a lemon without the peel, two cloves of garlic, a little thyme, basil, and two cloves; boil it ten or fifteen minutes, then strain it, add a spoonful of mustard, or horseraddish, grated and reduced to pass with pepper, salt, a few capers, and an anchovy chopt small; warm it and serve hot. It may be made equally good cold with the above ingredients and butter, oil, vinegar, and salt.
Boil a sufficient quantity of horseraddish in the best white wine vinegar, add to it half as much mountain or raisin wine, and a little loaf sugar. Make it into a proper consistence with the best superfine Durham flour of mustard; when cold stop it close, and it will keep good three years.
Take a slice of boiled ham, as much of the breast of a roasted fowl, a pickled cucumber, the yolk of a hard boiled egg, an anchovy, a little parsley, a head of shalot, chopped fine; boil all together for some time with a proper quantity of gravy, thick cullis, or sauce, strain and serve it.
Pare the rhind of a lemon and cut it in slices, take out the seeds, cut the slices in square bits, blanch the liver of the fowl and chop it small; put them into a sauce boat, or tureen, pour over melted butter and stir it well together.
Is sugar, vinegar, and mint chopped small, and mixed together according to taste.
Take one gill sorrel juice, half a gill white wine, some scalded gooseberries, a little sugar, ginger, and a bit of butter; mix and boil them up.
Is thick melted butter, made mustard, sugar and vinegar, all mixed together.
Note. – For Sicilian Sauce for Roast Fowls, see p. 222.
Sauce for Roast Meat, ibid.
Sauce for most kinds of Fish, ib.
Queen Sauce for Fish, 223.
Is made with a little strong broth, or gravy, an anchovy, shalot, pepper, mace, salt, a slice of lemon, and a glass of wine, stewed a short time, then poured into the belly of the turkey.
After the apples are pared and cored, cut them in slices, add a little lemon peel, and stew them with a little water till quite tender; take out the peel, and mash the apples with some butter and sugar to your taste.
Put in some water, or milk, according as you want the sauce thick or thin, and a little flour; shake them together, that they may be mixed; put in the butter in slices, and as it melts, by a motion of your hand, keep it running round in the saucepan, it will grow thick, smooth, and white, like cream.
Take some strong beef or veal gravy, a little butter and flour, or some melted butter alone, add pepper and salt, then chop some capers, let them boil up and put them in a sauce boat, for boiled mutton, &c.
Boil a few onions tender, add them to beat or melted butter, give it a boil, or stew the onions with veal gravy, season and strain it; pour it into a sauce tureen. This sauce is used for rabbits, roasted mutton, veal, or partridges.
Wash all the sand off by plunging in water, taking care not to break or squeeze it; let it hang by the stalks to dry, and then dip it in boiling lard, lay it on the wires in a Dutch oven and crisp it well.
Pare and wash a quantity of celery, cut it in thin bits, boil it gently in water till tender, then add a little grated nutmeg or ground mace, pepper and salt; thicken it with flour and butter, give it a boil and pour it into a sauce tureen; if you add two gills cream, it will make it very rich.
Take the yolks of two hard boiled eggs, and the livers of the chickens, chop them very fine, put them in a saucepan, add gravy and the juice of lemon, boil it up and pour it into the sauce boat. Some chuse to the above two spoonfuls of oil and three of vinegar, a shalot, Cayenne pepper, and a teaspoonful of mustard.
Melt four ounces butter; chop two hard boiled eggs and stir them in, then serve; or, to the above add a little lemon juice and vinegar.
Clean the oysters, run the liquor through a cloth, or sieve, put them in a stewpan with some of the liquor and a sufficient quantity of butter, boil them a little.
To the oysters and their liquor add a spoonful of anchovy liquor, lemon juice and mace to your taste; then add a proper quantity of butter and flour to thicken it, boil and before serving pick out the mace.
Pick and clean the mushrooms, scrape out the black part and cut off the roots; put them into a broad saucepan over a slow fire, with mixed spices finely pounded, viz. cloves, mace, white and Cayenne pepper, and, if you chuse, onions sliced; let them simmer, shaking them frequently to prevent burning, till the liquor is all dried up, then spread them upon pewter plates and dry them in an oven; pound them and fill small bottles with the powder, cork them and dip the necks into wax.
Pound the spawn very smooth with a piece of butter and four anchovies; cut the meat of the lobster into small bits, put it into a stewpan with two gills of good gravy stock, let it boil a little, stirring all the time; if not thick enough add more butter rolled in flour, then stir in the spawn; it must not boil again, but be made very hot, and a little lemon juice added. It may be made without the anchovies and gravy, with salt and pepper only, it preserves the rich flavour of the lobsters, and is generally preferred this way. Crab sauce is made in like manner.
Wash them, and after melting the butter put in the shrimps, give them a boil, add some lemon juice and serve.
Cut two onions, a carrot, a turnip, and a parsnip, in slices, a little thyme, parsley, sorrel, basil, two cloves, two shalots, and a clove of garlic; put a piece butter into a stewpan, brown it a little, put in the ingredients, keep turning them till well coloured, shake in some flour, add a spoonful of vinegar and some stock; let it boil a few minutes, strain the liquor and season it with pepper and salt.
☛ For other Sauces and Vinegars vide page 216.