Rules to be attended to in the management of Soups, Gravies, and Broths.
NEVER let them remain in the vessel in which they are cooked; as it is not only pernicious to the health, but the vessels impart a bad taste to whatever is kept a night in them.
In making portable and other soups, and gravies, which require roots or herbs, lay the meat on the bottom of the pan, with a good piece of butter; the roots and herbs being cut, lay them over the meat, cover the vessel close, and do it slowly, which will draw out the essence, and give a superior flavour to it; then add the water, and when it boils skim off the fat. In making these, observe a due proportion, that no ingredient be more powerful to the taste than another; and also in seasoning it properly to answer the use intended.
Soups, gravies, and broths, when prepared with vegetables, very soon ferment and turn sour. Broths sometimes in warm weather, if kept in a close vessel in a warm kitchen, will sour in two hours after they are made; therefore, when many vegetables are used, care should be taken in cooking them to hit the dinner hour as nearly as possible.
In order to separate the fat that remains on soups, mix a little flour and water smooth, then stir it into the soup and let it boil.
For Peas Soup.
Use soft water for old peas, and hard water to green peas, as it preserves their colour.
In large families, it will be found very useful to have a stock of clear jelly made from cow-heels, as it very much improves soups, gravies, &c.
Truffles and Morells,
Are used to thicken soups and sauces, being first washed clean and then simmered in water a few minutes. As they are very high priced, a little flour and butter mixed is often made use of for that purpose.
In preparing soups and gravies, long boiling is required to draw forth the full flavour of the ingredients; they will be better if made a day previous to using them.
Scotch Barley Broth.
For one Gallon. – Take half a pound best barley, (not pearl) put it into one and a half gallons cold water, watch when your pot boils to have it well skimmed; put in one or two carrots and turnips. Some like the roots sliced, but they are much better and sweeter when kept whole, and will suit all tastes, as they can either be taken out or allowed to remain in the broth, besides the advantage in this way of laying them round the meat on the dish. When the meat is a little salted, it should be put in with the cold water and barley, and taken out when sufficiently boiled. Fresh meat (which makes by far the richest broth) is put in after the pot boils, and likewise drawn when ready.
Four pounds of meat, either beef or mutton, will make a gallon of very good broth; but if wanted stronger you can add a chicken or some more meat. A few green peas, when in season, or cauliflowers, is a great improvement; half an hour before serving add a few small onions, or a handful of chopped parsley and chives, and salt to taste. Two hours and a half, or three hours, with a moderate fire, will be sufficient for making excellent smooth broth. Observe, That if allowed to boil too quick the broth will taste as if flour had been mixed, and if too slow will not thicken.
Let the meat boil an hour, skim the pot very clean, then put in the barley; after it has boiled an hour longer put in the vegetables, let them boil till tender, when the broth will be ready. Chicken broth is made in the same manner.
Chuse the head of a white faced wether, they being generally the largest and fattest; do not let the butcher cut the neck too close to the head, otherwise you lose the most delicate part. Have the head and trotters carefully singed, the colour of the broth depending upon this operation; then split the head neatly down the face, take out the brain, and rub both head and feet well with it; let them lie at least twelve hours in this state, and upon scraping with a knife the blackness will come off a with the greatest ease. Scrape and wash them thoroughly with lukewarm water, rinse well and lay them in cold water two or three hours. In cleaning the trotters, observe to cut carefully down betwixt the toes and take out a tough membrane, which, if left, hurts their appearance; crack an inch from the bone of each trotter to let out the marrow, which enriches the broth, and likewise tends to cleanliness, as that part is generally burnt black; then proceed as already directed for Scotch barley broth, with this difference, that the head and trotters are put in with the barley and cold water, and require much skimming; the carrots are boiled whole, slit in halfs or quarters, and laid round the head in the dish. A sheephead does not impart much richness of itself, therefore, a loin of mutton is generally boiled with it, which makes the broth very nice; the head eats best when cold. Those who are fond of brains do not open the head, but let out the liquid of the eye to rub over it, in which case very much care is required in cleaning.
Beef and Cabbage
Is made with a piece of well mixed beef, either fresh or a very little salted. Cut the cabbages in halves, quarters, or very thin slices, as if for pickling; rub the bottom of the pot well with butter, put a layer of the cabbage in, then the beef and the rest of the cabbage over it; betwixt the layers of the cabbage strew a sufficient quantity of salt and white pepper, finely ground; put in a quart (choppin) boiling water, cover it up close and let it stew; the time it takes must be regulated by the size of the meat; when ready, lay the cabbage under the meat and serve hot. Small red cabbage done in this manner are most delicate.
Take four pounds of well mixed beef, put it to boil in one and a half gallon water; cut a good quantity of cabbages very nice and small, and put them in boiling water with the beef; when these have boiled till the liquor appears smooth, draw the beef and put in more cabbages and a large spoonful of white pepper, tied in a thin cloth. If the meat is not sufficiently boiled put it in again; when the cabbages have fallen down and are perfectly soft and the liquor appears mellow, season it well with salt and add ground pepper if it requires it. Many families are partial to brose made of the broth; when you are for this dish, observe the directions given under Fish Brose, with this difference, that the fat on the top of the pot serves in place of butter; it likewise requires more pepper than any other dish of the kind.
Put three pounds beef and an old fowl in a gallon of water, on a moderate fire, and let them boil to rags; strain the liquor through a hair sieve, or French soup strainer; put it into the pot again, and when it boils throw in a good quantity of leeks shred in half inch lengths, with a good deal of the tender green parts, a large teaspoonful finely ground pepper, a little salt, and a nice young pullet. Ten minutes before it is ready throw in a handful of tender greens, or two cauliflowers, broken in bunches; do not let the pullet be overboiled; serve it with parsley and a little butter poured over; garnish with myrtle and stars of bacon ham. If not convenient, the old fowl may be omitted, it will be very savoury without it. Some add half a pound of prunes, and a penny loaf cut in thin slices and toasted brown without the crust.
Make first a stock with beef or mutton, about two pounds to a gallon of water, with two pints (mutchkins) green peas, fully ripe, turnips, and carrots, sliced down. When the meat is to rags take it out, season the soup with pepper and salt and put it through a cullender; then put it again to boil with a loin, or breast, of mutton, and more carrots and turnips, cut in very small pieces. About twenty minutes before it is ready, add a pint (mutchkin) of young peas. and two or three onions; ten minutes after, if they are not thick enough of peas add another pint; adding them in this manner preserves their green colour and sweetness; dish them in a tureen, with the mutton cut in neat pieces after it is boiled. Some add lettuce and the crust of a penny loaf toasted. In giving directions for this, or any dish, it is impossible to condescend upon the exact quantity of each article, or how long it may be in preparing; the cook will in all cases regulate the first by taste and the other by the fire.
This soup is much used by travellers, and in hunting excursions, being made ready upon the heath with very little trouble. Take of that part of beef marked in the cut p. 246, No. 5, 7, 9, or 17, called legs, about fifty or sixty pounds; take off all the skin and fat, put it into a large pot with nine gallons of spring water; after it boils, put in one ounce anchovies, half an ounce mace, a quarter of an ounce cloves, one ounce whole pepper, and eight onions, cut in two; a few sweet herbs may be added, if you incline, but they endanger its keeping, likewise the crust of a stale twopenny loaf. Stir all together, cover it close, lay a weight upon the cover to keep it so; let it boil moderately nine hours, then uncover and stir it; cover it close again, and let it boil till it is a very rich jelly, which you will know by cooling a little from time to time. When thick, take it off and strain it through a soup strainer, squeeze it hard, then put it through a hair sieve into a large earthen dish; when quite cold, take off all the fat carefully, then the clear jelly, free from the settlings at the bottom, and put it into a stewpan of sufficient size to hold it; set it upon a stove with a slow fire, stir it often, and be careful to prevent it sticking to the sides or bottom of the pan, as it is apt to burn. When it is very thick, and in lumps about the pan, pour it into broad dishes, or moulds, then fill a pan two-thirds with water, and when it boils set in the dishes, or moulds; do not let any of the water get into them. Straw or hay may be placed on the bottom to keep them steady; let the water boil until the soup is turned to a glue, take them out and let them cool, then turn the soup out upon new flannel. Next day it may be cut in shapes and exposed to the sun till it is quite hard and dry; the pieces are then packed into tin tubes, or boxes, with writing paper betwixt each piece to prevent moulding.
To use it, a piece about one ounce weight will make a pint (mutchkin) of water very rich; pour it on boiling hot, and stir till it melts. If you want a dish of soup, a quantity of it may be boiled a few minutes with green peas, cauliflower, parsley, and chives, &c. then seasoned with salt to your taste. This also makes an excellent gravy, adding what ingredients you chuse, and is ready at all times.
Make it as ordered below for brown soup, add the whites of eight eggs cast light and half a gill mushroom ketchup; boil it a few minutes longer, then run it through a jelly bag to clear. Serve it with toasted bread, or vermicelli.
Take eight pounds beef and a pound lean bacon ham, cut the meat in small pieces to make it part with the juice; take three onions, a large carrot, two yellow turnips, and sweet herbs to your taste; put the whole into a pot with two gallons of water, let it boil till the soup is strong and well tasted. Then cut a pound of beef into slices, or steaks, and season them with nutmeg, cloves, pimento, black pepper, and salt, pounded together; dredge with flour, and fry them crisp a nice brown; drain them from the butter and put them amongst the soup with more spiceries and salt; boil the whole about thirty minutes and strain it through a sieve, then skim off all the fat.
Green Meagre Soup.
Take one pound green split peas, with a head of celery, two carrots, one large or two small turnips, a little winter savory, and four ounces butter. When the water boils put in the ingredients, and let it boil an hour and a half; shred some parsley, spinage, young onions and chervil, and boil them also in the stock; thicken it with crumbs of bread fried, season the whole with spices and salt to your taste.
To two gallons of water, put a knuckle of veal, a fowl, and a pound of lean bacon; when the pot boils skim it clean and add eight ounces rice, a little whole pepper, sweet herbs, three onions, and three heads of celery, not too large. Stew them till the soup is of the strength you wish it, then strain it through a hair sieve into an earthen dish and let it be quite cold; take off any scum and pour it gently into a saucepan, keeping back the sediment; put it on the fire with half a pound of sweet almonds blanched and pounded, let it boil fifteen minutes and strain it again, then add four gills cream and the yolk of two eggs well beaten; stir all together, keep it over the fire a few minutes scalding hot, but do not let it boil again, then pour it into a tureen and serve.
This is a Scotch dish, and made thus. Take twelve pounds of that part of the beef No. 17, in the cut p. 246, after sawing the bone across in several places put it on the fire with two gallons of water, a dozen of onions, whole pepper and salt to your taste; let it boil, skim it well, and when the gravy is rich and the meat very tender, serve it with the meat in a tureen. By omitting the onions, and adding a quantity of shred leeks and a handful of greens half an hour before serving, you have a cheaper leek soup than in page 292.
To two pounds peas take half a gallon of water, put it on the fire with some bones of beef or bacon, and a bunch of thyme, add also carrots, turnips, salt and pepper to your taste; when the peas are quite tender, put the whole through a French soup strainer, forcing through the peas with the back of a spoon; put it on the fire again, add coss lettuce, cut in small bits, and a few young onions, chopt fine; when the lettuce is tender the soup is ready. In making green peas soup, use a knuckle of veal, and if not green enough add spinage juice. Some add slices of bread browned in butter.
Observe, In making soups of all kinds, that if a digester is used there is less water required to boil them than with a common pot, which allows much of the steam to escape.
Put into a stew pan the red part only, of ten carrots, three turnips, celery, leeks, and onions to your taste, cut small eight ounces split peas, a quart (choppin) of water, and some beef stock; let them stew till tender, then rub the whole through a temmy cloth and add to it five or six pints (mutchkins) good veal stock, a handful of water cresses, or half a pound blanched almonds; boil and skim it clean, season it to your taste, with salt and pepper, or spiceries and sweet herbs; boil it twenty minutes, or till it is like peas soup. Some chuse it thickened with four ounces rice, or two ounces vermicelli.
After scalding and cleaning four or more sets of goose or duck giblets, set them on the fire with two pounds lean beef, the scrag part of mutton, a knuckle of veal, or a beef rump; also four onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, a teaspoonful of pepper and one of salt, to which add six pints (mutchkins) water; skim the pot clean after it boils, and let it stew till the gizzards are quite tender, then strain the soup, pick out the giblets, put them again to boil in it, add a gill of cream, or wine, an ounce and a half of butter, and nearly two spoonfuls mushroom powder, or ketchup; after boiling a few minutes it is ready to serve. Some add the juice of a Seville orange and a little sugar.
Boil a pound of best maccaroni into a quart (choppin) of good beef or veal stock, till quite tender; then put the one half into another stewpan, pour on some more stock, and boil it about an hour longer, or till the maccaroni is quite tender; rub it through a hair sieve, then add the other half to it, also a pint of cream boiling hot, and six ounces grated parmasan cheese; make it all hot, but not to boil, serve it in a tureen, with a French roll toasted in slices and cut in pieces the size of a sixpence.
To one gallon of water put in what vegetables you chuse, according to the season. If in summer use peas, spinage, lettuce, onions, &c. and in winter carrots, turnips, celery, onions, &c. also about three pounds of a neck of mutton, or a fowl, and three quarters of a pound pickled pork. When the pot boils skim it well, and let it stew till the meat is quite tender, a small quantity of rice may also be added; half an hour before serving put in the meat of a lobster, or crab, cleaned from the shells; season with Cayenne pepper and salt and carefully take off any fat.
A pepper pot may be made of a variety of things, observing a due proportion of fish, fowl, flesh, pulse, and vegetables.
Skin and cut in pieces four or more full grown partridges, fry them in butter with a few slices of ham and some onions, till they are well browned; put them into a stewpan with two gallons of water, cloves, Jamaica and black pepper, and salt to your taste; let it boil till one-third is wasted, strain it through a hair sieve, and add some fried bread and stewed celery; when it is near boiling skim it clean and serve.
Is generally made with a loin of mutton, or part of a loin of beef. The meat should boil with a pretty large carrot, and a turnip, till nearly ready, then put in as many pared potatoes as will thicken the soup; season with onion, salt and pepper, to your taste. When in season, a few green peas makes this dish an excellent substitute for hotch potch. The soup is ready when the roots are tender and the potatoes quite boiled down. It may be made of any strength you please, by adding more meat; but a very small bit of good mutton makes a tureen of fine soup for a summer dish, if you are not sparing of vegetables. When the roots and peas are young, an excellent dish may be made entirely without butcher meat, by putting a piece of good butter into the pot when the water is cold, and watching carefully that it does not boil over. Observe, that roots boiled without butcher meat require longer time to soften.
To make a good Irish stew, take a piece of nice fat mutton, cut it in thin slices, pare a quantity of potatoes, which also cut in slices, shred some onions very small, put a layer of mutton at the bottom of a stew pan, with pepper, salt, and onions, over it; then potatoes, with mutton, pepper, salt, and onions, alternately, till you have the quantity wanted; add a pint (mutchkin) of boiling water, shut the pan very close, and stew it gently an hour over a slow fire, when the dish will be very good.
Mock Turtle Soup.
Scald and clean thoroughly a calf’s head, put it on to boil with a knuckle of veal, some turnips, carrots, and sweet herbs, and as much water as covers it well; skim it clean, when the head is parboiled take it out, and cut the cheeks in small square pieces, the ears in very narrow strips, and the forehead in broader strips; skin the tongue, take out the eyes, cut out the ball, and slice the case into rings; when the stock is rich strain it, put in the head as above prepared, and let it boil till the meat is tender. The following seasoning is usually added about ten minutes before serving, but it may be varied according to taste; viz. some salt, white and Cayenne pepper, two spoonfuls mushroom ketchup, one of soy, a pint (mutchkin) white wine, a slice of lean bacon, some parsley, chives, tarrogan, and the juice of a lemon. The rim of the dish may be ornamented with paste and baked, the soup then poured in and garnished with forced meat balls and boiled eggs. This dish, poured into shapes and turned out when cold, makes a beautiful supper dish.
The head, after being cut in small square pieces, is put on with one gallon of water and boiled half an hour, it is then seasoned with Cayenne pepper, and the wine and lemon juice mixed, which makes a very excellent dish.
Take a knuckle of veal and a young cock, or fowl, put them on the fire to stew, with a gallon of water, till they are quite tender; strain the liquor through a temmy cloth, beat the yolks of six eggs very light and mix it in, stirring well all the time; season it with mace, or nutmeg, salt and pepper, to your taste; put it on the fire, let it be near boiling, then serve. The common way is to make it with the yolks of two eggs and boiling water, with a piece of butter, pouring the water from a tea kettle, stirring it well all the time; then pour it out of one vessel into another, backwards and forwards, to raise the froth.
Take four nice plump chickens, scald and pick them well, cut them in quarters and put them in three quarts boiling water; let them boil gently near half an hour; have a large handful of parsley, well picked and chopped fine, with a bunch of chives, or delicate young onions, add them and let it boil till the greens are just ready; season with a little pepper and salt; take the yolks of four, and the whites of two eggs, whip them light, take off the pot, stir in the eggs, and serve it immediately in a tureen. It is a delicate dish, and easily and quickly prepared.
Make a strong soup, or gravy, from any left meat, or bones; add a few carrots, onions, turnips, and celery, cut down very fine; season with pepper and salt, let it boil till the roots are tender and then serve it.
Is made in the same manner, using carrots only, which, when tender, are rubbed through a strainer; the soup should be as thick as pease soup. Carrots, being exceeding hard of digestion, disagree with most stomachs unless dressed with a good piece of meat and highly seasoned.
Rice Soup, or Rice and Milk.
Wash four ounces best Carolina rice, rub the bottom and sides of a small Dutch pot with fresh butter, put in the rice with a pint (mutchkin) of water; let it simmer very slowly till the water is all soaked into the rice; carefully watch the water being dried up, and immediately stir in half a gallon new milk; let it boil a little and serve with sugar in a bason; a few bits of cinnamon may be boiled amongst it. This is a most excellent dish for the nursery, being both light and nourishing.
Rich Fish Soup, or Fish and Sauce.
Take a piece of good lean beef, or veal, a teaspoonful Jamaica, and one of white pepper, a few shalots, or small onions; boil with water till the liquor is rich and good, then strain it through a hair sieve, put it into a stewpan, and when it boils add salt to taste. Cut the fish in pieces that will lift easily and lay them neatly into the pan among the sauce; let them stew ten or fifteen minutes; a spoonful of anchovy sauce, some Cayenne pepper and a spoonful of mushroom ketchup, may be added or not, as you please.
Simple Fish Sauce.
After cleaning the fish perfectly lay them in salt water an hour, take the heads, with the gills and stomachs (which must be made perfectly clean by turning them and washers in salt and water), melt a piece of butter in a stewpan, then place the heads so as to take little room; if you want the sauce very rich, but have too few heads, cut down one or more of the fishes; boil the whole quite down, add a teaspoonful white pepper, salt, and a few onions, ten minutes before the heads are ready; having boiled the sauce as rich as you want it, strain it through a fine hair sieve, put the liquor on to boil and lay the fish, in pieces, very neatly into it, with the roes above them, also the stomach, which pick out from the heads, and a good handful of shred parsley; season it to your taste and shut it up close for fifteen minutes to stew, on a slow fire. This is a most excellent dish.
In like manner are all the varieties of soups from fish made; they are thickened with rice, toasted bread, vermicelli, eggs, cream, &c. and seasoned with spiceries and sweet herbs according to taste.
Is a dish very much esteemed in many parts of Scotland. When the sauce of the fish prepared as above is ready, have a handful of oat meal nicely toasted before the fire, put it into a china bowl, or bason, with a few small pieces of butter, salt, and a good deal of pepper. Be sure the sauce is boiling; pour on a little at first and stir about till the meal is all wet, then pour in more to reduce it to the thinness you want. Observe, in stirring, to do it across the bason, and not in a circular manner. When you make this dish, take care to have plenty of sauce, not to spoil the other dish for want of it.
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