Take ten dozen bitter oranges, pick them high coloured, clean skinned, and heavy; cut the skins in quarters from top to bottom and strip them off; put the skins into a pan, cover them close up with a cloth, put it on the fire, and fill it up with water; have a kettle of water boiling to fill up the pan as it wastes. Boil them very tender, till a straw can pierce them, then throw them in a split wood sieve to drain; take them whilst hot (as they are much easier chipped than when allowed to cool) and lay three or four above each other, upon a clean flat board or table, then, with a sharp knife, cut them in very narrow slips. The beauty of the marmalade consists in the thinness and transparency of the strips. While you are doing this put on the sugar to clarify; it takes about thirty pounds weight to the above quantity, or the same weight of sugar as oranges. When the sugar is clarified, and the chips ready, set on the syrup to boil till it blows strong; while it is boiling, take the oranges as stripped of the skins, cut them in quarters, and have a very strong split sieve that will keep back any seeds, place it over a large pan, or earthen can; then, with your hands, work and rub through all the pulp until the skins, &c. are dry. When the sugar is ready and blows strong, slip in the pulp, break and mix it well, pick out any seeds that may have got through the sieve; when it boils a little put in the chips. Whenever it boils clear, and when there arises the appearance of a froth upon the top, it is ready; but the surest way is to take a little out upon the bottom of a jelly pot and cool it; when it is of a sufficient thickness, take it off and put it in pots. It requires to be constantly stirred from the bottom after the pulp is put in, as it is apt to burn.
The one half of the oranges are grated, and the skins, when boiled, beat smooth in a mortar; the other half of the skins are made into chips. Pick out the smoothest and best coloured for the chips.
Take twelve dozen oranges, grate six dozen, strip the skins from the whole, boil them as ordered above; beat the grated skins smooth, so that no particle of them may appear; chip all the ungrated skins, rub the pulp through a sieve, then weigh the pulp and skins. Take equal weight of lump sugar, clarify and boil it till it blows, slip in the pulp, and when it is well mixed with the syrup add the beaten skins; break and mix them well, then add the chips and the grate of the six dozen skins; but if it will make it too bitter keep out a part; let the whole boil till clear; try it frequently by cooling a little on the bottom of a jelly pot or plate; when you find it thick enough, take it off and put it in pots.
Take the oranges and break the skins upon the grater; but do not go too deep, as it would occasion you to have too great a quantity of grate. After going through the whole, cut them across in quarters. Strip of the skins, boil them as already directed, then beat them smooth in a mortar.
Note. – The skins should be shred with a sharp knife very small, it makes them much easier pounded.
May be made to use for tarts and puddings with raw sugar. Proceed as directed in making mixed marmalade, make the syrup pretty strong, and add the pulp, skins, &c. and when it has boiled enough pot it up.
Note. – After they have stood two or three days, cover the tops of the pots with thin paper cut to go within the top, and dipped in brandy, then tie double paper over them.
Marmalade, when long kept, grows very thick and hard; it may be renewed by putting it into a pan, adding as much thin syrup as reduce it to a proper consistence, and boiling it up.
The quinces must be fully ripe, pare and cut them in quarters; take out the cores, put the fruit into a pan with a broad bottom, and not too deep, cover them with the parings and cores. Fill the pan with spring water almost full, cover it close, and let them stew over a slow fire till they are soft and of a pink colour; lift out the quinces and beat them in a marble mortar; take the same weight of loaf sugar as of the mashed quinces, make it into a syrup, boil it smooth, put in the mashed quinces, boil them gently till of a proper consistence, stirring all the time. When near cold put them into pots, next day tie them up.
Take apricots when quite ripe, boil them in a thin syrup till they are soft, and will easily mash down, beat them smooth in a mortar; take half their weight of loaf sugar, make it into a syrup; boil it till it is almost the blown degree, then add the apricots; mix it well with the syrup, boil it till it is of a proper thickness, pot the marmalade, and when cold tie them up.
Note. – Observe, that marmalade, if not boiled to a proper consistence, very soon ferments and loses its rich flavour, and if too high boiled it candies and grows dry; therefore, it requires much attention as to the degree of boiling, and shews the necessity of trying it frequently by cooling a little on a flat plate. If boiled too hastily it in general grows candied after a few months keeping. The sugar and juice should be well incorporated together, boiled on an equal, clear fire, not too hot; endeavour, if boiling it on a coal fire, to prevent any flame rising round the pan, which is apt to scorch and burn what is in it.
Pare the apricots, take out the stones, break them and blanch the kernels. To every pound of apricots take one pound of sugar, make it into syrup, which boil till it blows strong; put in the apricots, boil them quick until they are all broken, stirring them all the time; take them off the fire, bruise them well and put in the kernels; put them again on the fire, keep stirring until it is of a proper thickness and jellies, then pot them.
Put a pound of loaf sugar into a pan with as much water as will dissolve it; boil and skim it clean; take a pound, or quart, of red gooseberries, clip off the tops and stalks, put them into the pan and let them boil a little; next day put them on the fire again, bail them till they are clear and jelly, when ready pot them. The more general way is to follow the directions given in making gooseberry jam, p. 66.
Let the currants be full ripe, and gathered in a dry day; pick out all the leaves, dry stalks, and unripe berries, put them in jars, tie them up with strong paper in four folds; put them into a baker’s oven to stove for an hour or two. If for a small quantity. Set the jars into a pan of water, let the water boil till the berries burst. Pour them into a hair strainer, set over a deep dish to receive the juice (if you wish it very fine use only this juice); then put the berries into a bag made of a fine temmy cloth, having a hoop fixed into the mouth to keep it open, and suspended over a large earthen can; squeeze the berries, and run the juice through it a second time to make it clear; then measure the juice, and to every pint (mutchkin) weigh one pound of good lump sugar, break it down into a pan of proper size, and pour over it the juice; let it melt gradually, stir and bruise the sugar. Set it on the fire, boil it gently, taking off the scum as it rises on the top, and stirring it constantly. When it has boiled a considerable time, and appears to flake and adhere to the skimmer, it is almost ready; take a little out frequently and cool it upon a plate, or jelly pot bottom; when it jellies take it off and pot it.
If you want it very fine, take the juice which runs from the berries without squeezing; clarify to each pint (mutchkin) one pound of fine loaf sugar, boil it till it blows very strong, then add the juice; very little more boiling is requisite. This kind is the most transparent. Care should be taken that the syrup is boiled in a clean pan, and that the juice and syrup be perfectly incorporated before it boils again; for if made to boil too soon after putting in the juice, it often turns candied in a few weeks after. If a pint (mutchkin) of raspberry juice is added for every two quarts (a pint) of currant juice, it adds much to its richness and flavour.
Black-currants are of that nature that unless some water is put amongst them very little juice can be obtained. Take a small clean pan, in about four quarts (two pints) of the berries, after being cleaned from the stalks and leaves, add about half a pint (half mutchkin) of water, for every four pints (or one pint Scotch) of currants, let them stew on the fire and burst; put them into the temmy cloth bag, squeeze out all the juice; run this juice through the bag a second time to clear; weigh for each pint (mutchkin) of the juice, one pound of good lump sugar; break it small into a pan, pour on the juice and stir it well; put it on the fire, be careful that the sugar is all dissolved before it boils; take off the scum as it rises on the top, boil it till it is a strong jelly, take it off and fill the pots.
Take the largest and ripest blackberries, clip off the tops and stalks; take equal weight of berries and Lisbon sugar, and proceed as directed for making gooseberry jam, p. 66.
Put the rasps into the jelly bag, or French soup strainer, squeeze out the juice, run it through again to clear; clarify a pound of sugar to every pint (or mutchkin) of juice, boil the sugar till it blows strong; add the juice, and when boiled to a proper jelly pot it up; stir it all the time of boiling. This is used for ice-creams, &c. it makes a stronger jelly if you take one third part of red currant juice.
Take a dozen of good apples, (russets) pare, cut them in quarters, and core them; put them into a pan with four pints (mutchkins) of water, let them boil till they are tasteless, or half of the water wasted; strain off the liquor through a hair sieve, to every pint (mutchkin) of the liquor add a pound of sugar and clarify it with eggs; when clear add lemon juice, if it is not sour enough, and a little of the rhind; boil it to a jelly, take out the lemon rhind and put it into it into pots.
Fill a stone jar with ripe green, or white, gooseberries, tie it over with strong paper folded; set them in a baker’s oven, in a cool place, for an hour. Or place it in a vessel with water upon the fire, let it boil till the berries are tender; empty them into a hair sieve placed over a bason; bruise them, that all the juice may go through; put it through a bag to clear, and for every pint (mutchkin) of juice, weigh one pound lump sugar; make it into a syrup and boil till it blows strong; then add the juice, mix it well, let it boil to a good jelly, and fill the pots.
Is made in the same manner as directed in making raspberry jelly. The seeds may be made into jam by adding red currants. Strawberry jelly is also better adapted for making ice-creams than the preserved strawberries.
This jelly is very seldom made; follow the same directions as given in making red currant jelly; it should be made with refined sugar, and the juice should be put through a flannel bag to be very clear.
Is calf’s feet boiled to pieces in water till a little of the liquor taken out and cooled, grows stiff. Take four feet, scald them and scrape off the hair, clean, slit them up, and wash them well; boil them in a pot with two gallons water till the half is wasted; then pour it in a wide dish through a hair sieve. When quite cold take all the fat clean off; this is called the stock. Take to two quarts (one pint) of this stock, or jelly, one pint (mutchkin) sherry, or mountain wine, half a pound fine sugar, the juice of four or six lemons, some cinnamon and mace, the whites of eight or twelve eggs, beat up pretty light; mix all together, set it on the fire in a clean pan, keep stirring it all the time, when it boils pour it into the jelly bag. Have a bason placed under it to receive the jelly; after it has run a little pour it back into the bag until it runs very clear; let it run on parings of the lemons to give it a flavour.
Jelly may be made, equally good for deserts and entertainments, with bullock’s feet, prepared in the same manner as calf’s feet jelly. This jelly is very strong, and a fine colour.
If the stock is too strong reduce it with a little water, when you put it on the fire to clarify; but when used in filling shapes it ought to be very stiff to retain the shape.
Take half a pound hartshorn shavings, very white, free from any discoloured pieces, and one ounce picked isinglass; put them on the fire with four quarts (two pints) water, and boil till one half is wasted, or till it jelly; strain it through a hair sieve, let it stand all night to settle, then, with a small skimmer, or a spoon, take it up clear from the sediment; put it in a pan with the juice of two lemons, and the whites of seven eggs well beat up; add mountain, or sherry wine, to your taste, mix all well together until the eggs are well broke and incorporated with the jelly, sweeten it with lump sugar; set it on the fire and stir it constantly, let it boil a short time, then turn it into the jelly bag; put back what first runs through until it runs clear; let it run upon the paring of the lemons, which take out before filling the glasses. This quantity will fill two dozen. As this jelly has little taste, it must be seasoned accordingly with spiceries. The bag for running the jelly through ought to be kept always sweet and clean; before using, it should be dipped in warm water and wrung out. It is then put into a frame made about 16 inches square at the top, with four legs about four feet in length, and made to spread pretty much at the bottom, to permit of a large bason being easily placed under and taken out, and kept together with stretchers. In the upper part is fixed tenter hooks, which holds the bag stretched out. Upon this frame the bag for currant jellies, which is made of temmy cloth, may be fixed when used. Jelly bags are made of a square piece of flannel folded in two by the corners, and one side strongly sewed; a strong knitting may be sewed round the mouth.
Take a pound of hartshorn shavings, set them on the fire in a pan with two quarts (one pint) of water, boil it till reduced one half; pour it clear off through a sieve and let it cool. Take the rhind, or thin parings, of three oranges, and the juice of six; let them remain in a bason all night, adding about two gills of water, and straining it through a hair sieve; put the jelly (lift it free of any sediment) in a pan upon the fire, and add the orange liquor, season it with sugar and spiceries and the thin paring of a lemon; cast up light the whites of six eggs and mix all together; when boiled a few minutes run it through the jelly bag till pure, then fill the moulds, or glasses. Lemon jelly is made in like manner.