UNDER this head, it will be necessary to point out the method of making vinegar, also the different kinds of vinegar used in sauces. Vinegar, by being exposed to the air in a flat vessel, in time of frost, is rendered much stronger, in proportion to the degree of freezing, or thickness of the ice upon it, as the watery particles only, freeze, and are collected on the top. In this manner the inhabitants of Wallachia and Moldavia expose their wine, to increase the strength of it; they make a hole through the ice on the top with a red hot iron rod, and pour out the wine, which is then found to be stronger, and keeps better.
To every gallon (two pints) of spring water, add one pound coarse Lisbon sugar; let it boil while any scum arises, which carefully take off; pour it into tubs to cool, as you do beer. When cool for working, toast one or more pieces of bread, according to the quantity of liquor, dip the pieces, or rub them over with yeast, put them into the liquor; let it ferment two days, then stir it well and pour it into a cask, which should be iron hooped and painted. Place it where the sun may shine longest upon it, as it should not be moved; pour in the liquor, place a slate, or tile, over the bunghole; in very fine weather the bunghole may be left open part of the day. It should be made in the month of March, or beginning of April, and will be ready for use in August; but if not sour enough at that time, let it stand a few weeks longer; it is then bottled, or drawn off into another cask and cleared with isinglass. This vinegar is very strong, and fit for making every kind of pickle, for exportation or sea-stock; but for home consumption, if a third part water is added, it will be found still strong enough. For most pickles this vinegar requires no previous boiling; in green pickles, pour it over them hot two or three times.
Wash them clean and dry them; scald a nutmeg, and while hot, cut it in thin slices, add a little mace, put them in bottles, and fill them up with this vinegar. They are not so white, but will be found much better flavoured than pursuing the other method.
May be made with molasses. To four pounds add 4½ gallons (9 pints) water, boil and skim it, pour it into a flat vessel, over a quantity of cowslips; when cool add a pint (mutchkin) of yeast, ferment and proceed as above directed.
To every gallon of white gooseberries take 2½ gallons water; break the berries by bruising, or squeezing them with your hands. Boil the water, pour it on them after it is cold; mix them well together, let them stand three days, occasionally stirring them; then put the liquor through a sieve, and add to each gallon, one pound raw sugar, one gill of yeast; let it work a week, rack it off into another cask, bung it up, and at the end of twelve months it will be a very strong, richly flavoured vinegar.
Slice two ounces garlic into two quarts (choppins) white wine vinegar, also a nutmeg sliced down, or mace. This vinegar is much esteemed by many. Shalot vinegar is made the same way.
Fill a cask three parts with good vinegar, gather the flowers while in blossom, pick them off the stalks, spread them on a sheet to dry a little in the sun, put one pound of the flowers to every two gallons of vinegar; or the flowers may be sewed into a bag of thin muslin, or linen. Stop the cask close, let it remain in a warm place four or five days, and at the end of fourteen days, it may be bottled off.
Is made with a strong infusion of the pepper, mixed with vinegar to the strength you wish it.
Slice one ounce garlic, put it into a bottle with half an ounce Cayenne pepper, or four tea spoonfuls, three ditto walnut ketchup, half a dozen anchovies, cut small, two pints (mutchkins) vinegar; add as much cochineal as will give it a high colour; let it stand two months, shaking it well two or three times, and when pure strain it off, or filter it through blossom paper; put it in small bottles and seal the corks.
When making raisin wine, after the fruit is strained put it into a cask, and to each hundred weight prepare fourteen gallons water, as directed in making vinegar, and proceed in the same manner.
The mushrooms being fresh gathered, lay a row in the bottom of a tub, throw a little salt over them, then mushrooms, alternately, only do not give them too much; let them lie twenty-four hours, then break and work them small with your hands; let them lie a few hours more, then squeeze them out in handfuls from the liquor; put the juice through a hair sieve, put it on the fire to boil with plenty of pepper and ginger bruised, until one third is wasted; strain through a fine hair sieve, and when cold bottle it. Or,
Pound the mushrooms with salt, in a mortar, and after standing a night put it through a bag. Some put on the mushrooms and salt to boil a few minutes, and then squeeze them. To each gallon (two pints) take two ounces black pepper, one ounce pimento, one ounce ginger bruised, half a teaspoonful Cayenne pepper, half an ounce cloves; set it on the fire and boil it to a proper richness. When this is used, if you add a little wine, it tastes equal to any foreign ketchup.
The ketchup juice is clarified in the same manner as sugar, to each gallon add the whites of six eggs beat light; let it boil a few minutes, and then run it through a bag; put it on the fire again with the spiceries.
Take walnuts that have been pickled twelve months, bruise them in a mortar with their liquor; pour off the thin liquor, add more vinegar, mix it well and pour it from the sediment; put it through a bag to clear, and boil it with spiceries. To each gallon of liquor take one pound shalots, one ounce garlic, two pounds anchovies, a bottle of port wine, mace and cloves, one ounce each; boil till the shalots sink down. Bottle it when cold, in small bottles, and seal the corks, dividing the spiceries among the bottles. It is not quite so good the first year, but improves in keeping, and will, if set in a cool dry place, remain good a great many years.
To a gallon of very strong stale beer take one pound anchovies, washed from the pickle, one pound shalots peeled, half an ounce mace, one ounce whole pepper, half an ounce ginger, two quarts (choppins) mushroom flaps, rubbed small; cover all close up in a pot, let it simmer till one half is wasted, strain it through a flannel bag, and when cold bottle it up. It will keep in any climate. One spoonful to half a pound of melted butter, makes a fine fish sauce.
Take half an ounce cloves, half an ounce mace, two ounces ginger, half an ounce black pepper, an onion, a few shalots, a bunch of thyme, or winter savory. To these ingredients add a quart (choppin) of port wine, two gills vinegar; put them into a saucepan with one pound of anchovies; let them stew gently over a slow fire for an hour, strain it through a sieve, pick out all the spiceries, and put them in the bottles with the ketchup. This sauce will keep many years if put in small bottles. This is the most approved sauce for all kinds of fresh fish, by adding of it to your taste in melted butter.
Take six shalots and split them, one head of garlic, two laurel leaves; of thyme, basil, tarrogan, and truffles, a little each; half an ounce mustard seed bruised, the rhind of a small sweet orange, of cloves and mace a quarter of an ounce each, half an ounce long pepper, two ounces salt, the juice of a lemon, six glasses of vinegar, and a pint (mutchkin) of white wine. Put all these ingredients in an earthen pot, set it on hot ashes twenty-four hours, to infuse; pour the liquor clear off and bottle it. It will keep a long time, and serve for all sorts of meat and fish sauces which require sharpness.
Take half a spoonful of coriander seeds and four cloves, bruise them in a mortar; put three gills good gravy, and one gill essence of ham, in a stew pan; peel half a lemon and cut it in very thin slices, put it in with the seeds and cloves; let them boil, then add three whole cloves garlic, a head of celery sliced, two bay leaves, and a little basil. Let the whole boil till one half is wasted, then put in a glass of wine and strain it off. If too thin, add a piece of butter rolled in flour.
Take an anchovy and wash it, put to it a glass of port wine, some gravy, a shalot cut small, and a little lemon juice; stir these together, strain it off, and mix it with the gravy which runs from the meat.
Take mutton or veal gravy, and put to it some of the liquor that runs from the fish; put it into a saucepan, with an onion, an anchovy, a spoonful of ketchup, and a glass of white wine; thicken it with a lump of butter rolled in flour, and a spoonful of cream. If you have oysters, cockles, or shrimps, put them in after you take it off the fire.
Put a quart (half a pint) of the liquor of pickled walnuts into a pan, with eight anchovies, a few bay leaves and shalots, with cloves, mace, and whole pepper; boil it till the anchovies are dissolved. When cold add two gills port wine, then put it in small bottles. A spoonful of this in melted butter makes a very rich sauce.
Put into a bottle two gills mushroom ketchup, one gill walnut pickle, three anchovies, two cloves garlic, bruised, and a little Cayenne pepper, shake it well and keep it for use.
Pound a quantity of green walnuts, express the juice, let it remain to clear for a night; then, to each pint of this liquor take one pound anchovies, half a pound shalots, two cloves garlic, two gills strong vinegar, mace, Jamaica pepper, and horse raddish scraped, a quarter of an ounce each. Boil it some time and skim it well, pour it into a bason, and when cold strain and bottle it.
☛ For other Sauces see Cookery.